The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition (STEP) program

Brief Introduction: Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition Program

Number of Datasets: 307

  • Reasonable livestock carrying capacity estimation product of grassland in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2000-2019)

    Reasonable livestock carrying capacity estimation product of grassland in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2000-2019)

    Reasonable carrying capacity, also known as theoretical carrying capacity, refers to the maximum number of domestic animals that can be carried by a certain grassland area in a certain period of time under the premise of moderate grazing (or mowing) and maintaining sustainable production of grassland to meet the needs of normal growth, reproduction and production of livestock. Based on the MODIS inversion data of forage yield (fresh weight, kg / hm2), the reasonable carrying capacity of grassland (sheep unit, mu / km2) was evaluated according to the code for calculation of grassland carrying capacity and grass livestock balance (DB 51 / t1480-2012) and calculation of reasonable carrying capacity of natural grassland (NY / T 635-2015), The time series is 2000-2019, and the spatial resolution is 250m. This data set can analyze the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of the theoretical carrying capacity under the condition of rational utilization of grassland in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, evaluate the carrying capacity characteristics of grassland in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and extract the overgrazing areas, which has important application value for ecological protection, monitoring and early warning of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.

    2021-06-17 347 0

  • Grassland yield estimation product in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2000-2019)

    Grassland yield estimation product in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2000-2019)

    Grassland yield is an important ecological parameter of grassland, which is an important basis for monitoring grassland productivity, Estimating Grassland reasonable carrying capacity and evaluating grassland carrying status. Based on the grassland data collected in July and August, MODIS NDVI, precipitation and terrain parameters, multivariate statistical equations were established to invert the total grass yield (kg / hm2) and edible grass yield (kg / hm2). The time series is 2000-2019, and the spatial resolution is 250 meters. Based on the data of 50 quadrats distributed in Sichuan, Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu and other regions, the results show that the average absolute error of total grass yield is 734.75kg/hm2, and the average relative error is 24.85%. The average absolute error of edible grass yield is 715.81kg/hm2, and the average relative error is 30.52%. Due to the complexity of grassland types, high spatial heterogeneity and scale mismatch between the measured grassland quadrats and MODIS image pixels, this accuracy can meet the requirements of remote sensing monitoring of grassland in large areas. This data set can analyze the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of grassland productivity in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, evaluate the carrying capacity characteristics of grassland in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and extract the overgrazing areas, which has important application value for ecological protection, monitoring and early warning of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.

    2021-06-17 356 0

  • Actual livestock carrying capacity estimation product in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2000-2019)

    Actual livestock carrying capacity estimation product in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2000-2019)

    The actual carrying capacity refers to the number of livestock in a certain area of grassland in a certain period of time. The actual carrying capacity is obtained from the statistical yearbooks of the provinces (autonomous regions) and cities (prefectures) of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and the statistical data provided by the animal husbandry management departments. In the statistical data, there are a variety of statistical dimensions, such as the number of stocks on hand, the number of stocks on hand, the ratio of stocks on hand, and the number of livestock at the end of the year, etc. Based on the multivariate linear regression between the actual livestock carrying capacity and population density, NPP and topographic relief in the statistical yearbook, the spatial model of actual livestock carrying capacity was established, and the grid data of actual livestock carrying capacity (sheep unit, mu / km2) was obtained. The time series was from 2000 to 2019, and the spatial resolution was 250 meters. Using the statistical data of Guoluo, Yushu, Changdu, Naqu, ABA, Ganzi and Gannan in the core pastoral areas of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, the results show that the average absolute error of spatialization is 27.48 mu / km2, and the average relative error is 13.79%. This data set can analyze the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of the actual livestock carrying capacity of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, evaluate the grassland carrying capacity characteristics of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and extract the overgrazing areas, which has important application value for ecological protection, monitoring and early warning of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.

    2021-06-17 1518 0

  • Data set of soil non-point source pollution in urbanization area of Heihe River Basin, Qinghai Tibet Plateau (2020)

    Data set of soil non-point source pollution in urbanization area of Heihe River Basin, Qinghai Tibet Plateau (2020)

    The dataset contains the distribution of soil heavy metal in the upper and middle areas of Heihe River Basin. In August 2020, 49 soil samples were obtained from a field investigation in the Heihe River Basin. The soil samples were brought back to the laboratory for preliminary classification and removal of impurities. Then the soil samples were naturally air-dried, mixed evenly, ground with a ball mill, and screened to obtain the test samples. Next, the samples were heated and digested in the ST-60 automatic digestion instrument. Finally, the content of heavy metals in the soil, including Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, As, and Pb were determined (mg/kg as unit) by ICP-AES spectrometer after making up to volume. The detection limit of Cd was 0.0002, Zn and Cu were 0.001, Ni and Cr were 0.001, As and Pb were 0.003. Our dataset is reliable and can be used to analyze the distribution patterns of heavy metal elements in the soil in the urbanized area of Tibetan plateau.

    2021-06-17 391 0

  • Livestock carrying state estimation product in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2000-2019)

    Livestock carrying state estimation product in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2000-2019)

    Carrying capacity refers to the carrying capacity of grassland calculated by actual carrying capacity and reasonable carrying capacity, that is, all overloading, balanced and non overloading. This data set includes two products: Grassland carrying capacity pressure index and grassland livestock balance index. Grassland carrying capacity pressure index = actual carrying capacity / reasonable carrying capacity, and grassland livestock balance index = (actual carrying capacity - reasonable carrying capacity) × 100% / reasonable carrying capacity, the actual carrying capacity data comes from the Qinghai Tibet Plateau actual carrying capacity data set (2000-2019), and the reasonable carrying capacity data comes from the Qinghai Tibet Plateau reasonable carrying capacity data set (2000-2019). This data set can analyze the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of livestock carrying status in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, extract overgrazing areas, and evaluate the overload intensity of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, which has important application value for ecological protection, monitoring and early warning of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.

    2021-06-17 339 0

  • Statistics of rural hydropower stations in Tibet in 2018

    Statistics of rural hydropower stations in Tibet in 2018

    This data set is the summary of the survey results of rural small hydropower in Tibet in 2018. The main contents include the name, installed capacity, start-up time and completion time of small hydropower stations in different districts and counties of each prefecture and city in Tibet Autonomous Region, as well as the operation status of each hydropower station. The hydropower development in Tibet Autonomous Region has an early history. There are not many large and medium-sized hydropower stations, mainly in rural areas. With the development of social economy, most of the small hydropower stations in Tibet Autonomous Region have been shut down. At present, the development of large and medium-sized hydropower projects is the main one. In plateau areas where Hydropower Survey data are scarce, this data set reflects the history and current situation of small hydropower in Tibet Autonomous Region, and can provide a certain data basis for hydropower development survey and evaluation in Tibet Autonomous Region.

    2021-06-17 524 0

  • Typical land use types and typical slope soil data in Hongyuan County, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2019)

    Typical land use types and typical slope soil data in Hongyuan County, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2019)

    From July to August 2019, take Hongyuan County on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as the scientific research site, select typical land use types of grassland and typical slopes to set up transects. After plant sample surveys, the soil profiles of grassland, shrubs, and wetland ecosystems (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-40 cm, 40-60 cm and 60-100 cm) soil samples were collected, 3 replicates for each soil layer, 104 soil samples were collected, and the soil was measured The bulk density and water content.Through the sampling of various lines to form the surface sampling points and spatial data sets of the Baihe River Basin, it simulates the spatiotemporal pattern of typical water and soil ecosystem services such as ecosystem production, carbon fixation, hydrological regulation and soil conservation, and reveals the spatiotemporal changes of water and soil ecosystem services at the basin scale Pattern, combined with factors such as climate change, socio-economic data, implementation of ecological and environmental protection policies, and land use change.

    2021-06-17 378 0

  • The 1km annual humidity index data set of Zoige Plateau (1980-2018)

    The 1km annual humidity index data set of Zoige Plateau (1980-2018)

    Collect daily meteorological data from 1980 to 2018 from the Meteorological Data Sharing Center of China Meteorological Administration. Humidity Index (HI) is calculated by the ratio of annual precipitation to potential evapotranspiration. Anusplin interpolation software is used to obtain a spatial dataset of HI 1km resolution.Through spatial data collection, model simulation of the spatiotemporal pattern of typical water and soil ecosystem services such as ecosystem production, carbon fixation, hydrological regulation, and soil conservation, revealing the spatiotemporal change pattern of water and soil ecosystem services in the watershed, combining climate change, socioeconomic data and ecological environmental protection policies Implementation, land use conversion and other factors, combined with trade-off analysis and structural equation modeling to quantify the trade-offs and synergies of these water and soil ecosystem services and their main driving forces, to provide more effective and scientific ecological protection and multi-purpose land use for Ruoergai Wetland Optimal management provides theoretical support.

    2021-06-17 379 0

  • Featured livestock survey data set of typical counties in Qinghai Tibet Plateau (2019-2020)

    Featured livestock survey data set of typical counties in Qinghai Tibet Plateau (2019-2020)

    The data set mainly includes the species, quantity, distribution characteristics, production performance data, photos and sample collection information of livestock breeds in typical counties of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The data set provides basic data for livestock related research in Qinghai Tibet Plateau.The data mainly came from field survey and literature collection, and Excel was used for collation and analysis.To check the data, to eliminate differences, and complement the lack of data, make a good representative data.After the completion of data collection, the genetic diversity of livestock was analyzed and evaluated to provide effective basic research data for animal husbandry research in Qinghai Tibet Plateau.

    2021-06-16 208 0

  • Survey data set of characteristic forage grass in typical counties of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2019-2020)

    Survey data set of characteristic forage grass in typical counties of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2019-2020)

    The data set mainly includes the species, quantity, distribution characteristics and related characteristics of cultivated herbage, wild herbage and poisonous herbage in typical counties on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, as well as the survey data, photos and plant specimen collection information of natural grassland sample plots. The data set can be used to establish the relevant database of herbage in this region, which can be used to analyze the distribution and development of herbage resources in this region, and put forward the utilization and protection countermeasures. Data came from field investigation and literature collection, and Excel was used for sorting and analysis. The obtained data were checked, the data with large differences were eliminated, and the missing data were supplemented to make the data have better representativeness. The data set can be used to study the rational allocation of natural grassland and artificial grassland in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and to plan the rational distribution of artificial grassland.

    2021-06-16 195 0

  • Geochemical and U-Pb geochronological data set of heavy minerals in Yarlung Tsangpo River

    Geochemical and U-Pb geochronological data set of heavy minerals in Yarlung Tsangpo River

    The samples of this data set are from the modern river sand in Lhasa River and Nianchu River in Yarlung Tsangpo River Basin and Pumchu collected by Hu Xiumian research group of Nanjing University in 2016; By extracting detrital zircon, monazite, titanite and rutile from the river sand, LA-MC-ICP-MS was performed to determine the trace elements and U-Th-Pb geochronology. The above tests were conducted by professionals at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing University and Trinity College, Ireland with high quality; The above data have been published in earth science review. Relative geochronological data from bedrock in these river basins were also collected for comparison.

    2021-06-16 444 46

  • Dataset of alpine wetland water body physical and chemical properties background survey (2019-2020)

    Dataset of alpine wetland water body physical and chemical properties background survey (2019-2020)

    This dataset contains the physicochemical properties and water environment indicators of typical alpine wetlands in the Selincuo and Lhasa River basins of the Tibetan Plateau. Wetland water samples were obtained through field sampling, and data on the physicochemical indicators of the water bodies were obtained through chemical analysis in the laboratory. Some indicators were measured in the field using instruments. The data analysis method meets the requirements of relevant national standards and the results are reliable. The data can be used as background data for the water environment of wetlands on the Tibetan Plateau, to assess the ecological and environmental quality of wetlands, and to study the impact of climate change on alpine wetlands.

    2021-06-16 368 0

  • Ground penetrating radar observation dataset of typical wetland in Namucuo (2019-2020)

    Ground penetrating radar observation dataset of typical wetland in Namucuo (2019-2020)

    Ground-penetrating radar method is a narrow pulse broadband high-frequency electromagnetic wave signal detection of underground media distribution technology method, with fast, non-destructive, continuous detection and real-time display characteristics. The use of detection instrument is GR-IV type geological radar, and set up different power antenna, in August 2019 and August 2020 to carry out 2 years of coverage of Namucuo Niyaqu typical wetland area within the range of ground-penetrating radar observation, obtained the 2019-2020 Namucuo typical wetland ground-penetrating radar data set, and data format is raw.

    2021-06-16 302 0

  • Genesis of late Miocene laminar dolostones in Lunpola Basin, Qinghai Tibet Plateau

    Genesis of late Miocene laminar dolostones in Lunpola Basin, Qinghai Tibet Plateau

    The problem of dolomite has always been concerned by sedimentology. However, it is still impossible to form low-temperature primary dolomite without catalyst in the laboratory, so the kinetic mechanism of dolomite formation has been in doubt. Microbial induction can effectively promote the formation of primary dolomite, but its control mechanism is still unclear. At the same time, a large number of examples of microbial induction of primary dolomite are concentrated in the modern environment and laboratory conditions, and the relevant reports on deep strata are very limited. In this study, the stratiform dolostones in the late Miocene Niubao formation obtained from well Wang 1 in Lunpola Basin, central Qinghai Tibet Plateau, are taken as the research objects. The petrographic characteristics of stratiform dolostones are derived from thin section observation, the characteristics of ancient water body are derived from stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis, and the micro scale morphology of dolostones, The spatial distribution of the minerals was observed by SEM and TEM. Mineralogical, diagenetic and isotopic analyses indicate that dolomite is a primary deposit, thus retaining a large number of original sedimentary features. The oxygen isotope values of dolomite ranged from - 3.2 to - 1.76 ‰ and the carbon isotope values ranged from - 2.62 to - 3.78 ‰. The average oxygen isotope values of reconstructed paleowaters were - 3.87 ‰, indicating that dolomite was formed in a strong evaporation environment. Laminar dolomite is composed of organic rich layer and silicate clastic layer. The dolomite is characterized by nanospheres with a diameter of about 80-100nm. In space, it can be seen that it is specifically adsorbed on the surface of organic matter film and flaky clay minerals, and has obvious characteristics of aggregation and morphological growth. This may indicate that organic matter film and flaky clay mineral surface can promote the formation of low-temperature dolomite, which is basically consistent with the results observed in the laboratory. It provides a detailed research case for revealing the formation process of primary dolomite at deep time.

    2021-06-16 371 45

  • A dataset of soil types in the central and western regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2019)

    A dataset of soil types in the central and western regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2019)

    Soil profiles in this dataset were surveyed in the western and central Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in July 2019, including Ali, Xigaze and Naqu of the Tibet and Kashgar and Hotan of the Xinjiang. Information on the profile ID, longitude, latitude, soil types was provided. Soil types were referenced according to the Chinese Soil Taxonomy. The Chinese Soil Taxonomy is a hierarchical system, in which 6 categories were defined: Order, Suborder, Group, Subgroup, Family and Series. The sampling location was recorded by a handheld GPS receiver. Especially, these soil types were initially determined based on the diagnostic horizons and diagnostic properties identified in field. Due to the effect of epidemic, physicochemical properties of some soil samples have not been achieved and thus some soil types need to be updated in the following months.

    2021-06-16 801 0

  • Data set of soil biological characteristics in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2019-2021)

    Data set of soil biological characteristics in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2019-2021)

    This data set contains the biological property data of soil samples from several scientific research routes in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau from 2019 to 2021, including the information of the collector, collection time, collection location, longitude and latitude, altitude, vegetation type, sampling depth, phosphatase activity, microbial respiration, nitrogen transformation characteristics, functional gene abundance, fungi, bacteria, protobiotic diversity, etc. The analysis of various soil properties refers to the requirements of "technical specification for soil environmental quality monitoring", and the first-hand data obtained through laboratory analysis. The data quality is controlled by determining blank samples, duplicate samples and standard samples. The data set can be used to evaluate soil quality and function under the influence of climate change and human activities.

    2021-06-16 372 0

  • Data of desert plant community survey in Gansu province (2018)

    Data of desert plant community survey in Gansu province (2018)

    The composition, lamellate structure, diversity and biomass of main desert plant communities in Gansu were investigated, and the density, frequency, dominance and element content of the building plants in the desert plant communities were determined, which provided basic data for the stable maintenance and protection of desert ecosystem in Gansu.This data includes species name, quantity, life form, coverage, density, height and biomass of main desert plant communities in Gansu Province.Community characteristics of 124 sites were investigated, which were divided into herb and shrub parts.At the same time, with latitude and longitude and habitat information.All data were obtained from field surveys by ecological professionals and were original data.The data quality is reliable and can be reused.

    2021-06-16 146 0

  • Major turnover of biotas across the Oligocene/Miocene boundary on the Tibetan Plateau

    Major turnover of biotas across the Oligocene/Miocene boundary on the Tibetan Plateau

    In this paper, we review evidence for a major biotic turnover across the Oligocene/Miocene in the Tibetan Plateau region. Based on the recent study of six well-preserved fossil sites from the Cenozoic Lunpola and Nima basins in the central Tibetan Plateau, we report a regional changeover from tropical/subtropical ecosystems in the Late Oligocene ecosystem (26–24 Ma) to a cooler, alpine biota of the Early Miocene (23–18 Ma). The Late Oligocene fossil biota, comprising of fish (climbing perch), insects and plants (palms), shows that the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau was a warm lowland influenced by tropical humidity from the Indian Ocean. In the Early Miocene, the regional biota became transformed, with the evolution and diversification of the endemic primitive snow carp. Early Miocene vegetation was dominated by temperate broad-leaved forest with abundant conifers and herbs under a cool climate, and mammals included the hornless rhinoceros, Plesiaceratherium, a warm temperate taxon. This dramatic ecosystem change is due to a cooling linked to the uplift of Tibetan region, from a Late Oligocene paleo-elevation of no greater than 2300 m a.s.l. in the sedimentary basin to a paleo-elevation of about 3000 m a.s.l. Another factor was the Cenozoic global climatic deterioration toward to an ice-house world.

    2021-06-15 451 61

  • The most primitive Elasmotherium (Perissodactyla, Rhinocerotidae) from the Late Miocene of northern China

    The most primitive Elasmotherium (Perissodactyla, Rhinocerotidae) from the Late Miocene of northern China

    The most primitive Elasmotherium (Perissodactyla, Rhinocerotidae) from the Late Miocene of northern China, The origin of Elasmotherium has been a puzzle for many years. Herein, we report the earliest representative of Elasmotherium, based on a Late Miocene skull from Dingbian County in Shaanxi, northwestern China. The skull bears a unique mosaic of primitive and derived features different from all hitherto known elasmotheres, hence forth demarcated as holotype of Elasmotherium primigenium sp. nov. Dental characters of E. primigenium are more primitive than any other known species of lasmotherium, e.g. relatively incipient enamel folding, fairly weak lingual groove on the base of the protocone, relatively weaker crista, small and closed posterior valley and straight ectoloph. E. primigenium is evidently more primitive than all the known species of Elasmotherium, yet appreciably more derived than Sinotherium, thereby marking an important transitional species between Sinotherium and further species of the genus Elasmotherium.

    2021-06-15 406 39

  • A dataset of soil microbial diversity in the arid desert area of the Qilian Mountains-Hexi Corridor (2019-2020)

    A dataset of soil microbial diversity in the arid desert area of the Qilian Mountains-Hexi Corridor (2019-2020)

    The soil microbial diversity data set (2019-2020) of the arid desert area on the northern slope of the Qilian Mountains-Hexi Corridor 90 soil samples at 90 sampling points. The soil samples in this data set come from the comprehensive soil survey in the arid desert area of the northern slope of the Qilian Mountains-Hexi Corridor in 2019. The original data has been strictly checked to ensure the reliability of the data. This data set is of great significance for improving soil productivity in desert areas and realizing the sustainable use of soil resources.

    2021-06-15 358 0