The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition (STEP) program

Brief Introduction: Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition Program

Number of Datasets: 682

  • Driving data of surface meteorological elements in the eastern Qinghai Tibet Plateau with a horizontal resolution of 3km * 3km and an hour (2010)

    Driving data of surface meteorological elements in the eastern Qinghai Tibet Plateau with a horizontal resolution of 3km * 3km and an hour (2010)

    Based on the regional environment integrated system model developed by the Key Laboratory of regional climate and environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, a regional climate model for convective analysis of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is established. The grid center of the model simulation area is located at (34n, 100e), the horizontal resolution is 3km, and the number of simulation grid points of the model is 465 (longitude) x 375 (latitude). The vertical direction is 27 floors. The air pressure at the top of the model layer is 50 HPA. The buffer zone consists of 15 grids, the integration time is one year in 2010, and the horizontal resolution of the European medium range weather forecast center is 0.25x0 25. The reanalysis data of era5 with a time interval of 6 hours is used as the driving field to generate the driving data of surface meteorological elements on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau in 2010 with a horizontal resolution of 3 km * 3 km and a time interval of 1 hour After dynamic downscaling by using the convection analysis regional climate model of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, the bottleneck problem of the lack of meteorological data sets with long-time series and high spatial-temporal resolution in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and other regions is solved, so as to provide a solid and reliable scientific data foundation for the future change of climate and environment and the construction of ecological security barrier in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.

    2022-05-31 263 0

  • Data set of atmospheric pollutant concentration in Lhasa and Nyingchi, Tibet (May-June, September-October, 2021)

    Data set of atmospheric pollutant concentration in Lhasa and Nyingchi, Tibet (May-June, September-October, 2021)

    The data set contains the on-line monitoring data of air pollutants in Lhasa and Nyingchi, Tibet Autonomous Region. The sample collection time is from May to June and from September to October 2021. The data sampling points were located in Nagin campus of Tibet University in Lhasa, Tibet and Tibet agriculture and Animal Husbandry College in Nyingchi, Tibet. We set up a temporary environmental pollution monitoring station. Thermo Gas Analyzer, GRIMM Portable Aerosol Spectrometer, FMPS, AE-33 were used to monitor the concentration of air pollutants such as ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM), ultra-fine particulate matter (UFP) and black carbon (BC) online, Vantage Vue weather station was used to monitor temperature, humidity, air pressure and other meteorological data online. The abnormal values during the operation of the instrument have been deleted, and the time resolution of the data after calibration and cleaning is 1 hour. This data provides basic data for the comprehensive evaluation of the effects of air pollution on population health in Tibet.

    2022-05-30 210 0

  • Observation dataset of soil carbon and nitrogen concentarion in western Tibetan Plateau (2019-2020)

    Observation dataset of soil carbon and nitrogen concentarion in western Tibetan Plateau (2019-2020)

    This data includes the soil carbon and nitrogen content at 0-10cm, 10-20cm and 20-30cm soil depths of 52 sample points in the west of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The soil samples were obtained by the research team through soil drilling from 2019 to 2020. After the soil was screened with 2mm aperture, it was air dried and fine roots were removed, and then measured by carbon and nitrogen analyzer in the laboratory. This data can provide a theoretical basis for the study of soil carbon and nitrogen processes at different depths in the western Qinghai Tibet Plateau under the scenario of global climate change in the future, and provide data support for the model to simulate the process of soil carbon and nitrogen cycle, which is conducive to a deeper understanding of the process of soil carbon and nitrogen cycle in the western Qinghai Tibet Plateau.

    2022-05-30 200 0

  • Dataset of classification, spatial distribution, and total accumulation of unconsolidated sediments in the Yarlung Tsangpo River Basin (2019–2022)

    Dataset of classification, spatial distribution, and total accumulation of unconsolidated sediments in the Yarlung Tsangpo River Basin (2019–2022)

    The considerable amount of solid clastic material in the Yarlung Tsangpo River Basin (YTRB)) is one of the important components in recording the uplift and denudation history of the Tibet Plateau. Different types of unconsolidated sediments directly reflect the differential transport of solid clastic material. Revealing its spatial distribution and total accumulation plays an important value in the uplift and denudation process of the Tibet Plateau. The dataset includes three subsets: the type and spatial distribution of unconsolidated sediments in theYTRB, the thickness spatial distribution, and the quantification of total deposition. Taking remote sensing interpretation and geological mapping as the main technical method, the classification and spatial distribution characteristics of unconsolidated sediments in the whole YTRB (16 composite sub-basins) were comprehensively clarified for the first time. Based on the field measurement of sediment thickness, the total accumulation was preliminarily estimated. A massive amount of sediment is an important material source of landslide, debris flow and flood disasters in the basin. Finding out its spatial distribution and total amount accumulation not only has theoretical significance for revealing the key information recorded in the process of sediment source to sink, such as surface environmental change, regional tectonic movement, climate change and biogeochemical cycle, but also has important application value for plateau ecological environment monitoring and protection, flooding disaster warning and prevention, major basic engineering construction, and soil and water conservation.

    2022-05-30 121 0

  • Field investigation of elements (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium) of vegetation in the Water tower area of Qinghai Tibet Plateau and Himalayan Mountains (2020s)

    Field investigation of elements (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium) of vegetation in the Water tower area of Qinghai Tibet Plateau and Himalayan Mountains (2020s)

    Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and potassium are important basic life elements of ecosystem. It plays an important role in revealing the impact of its regional variation and spatial pattern on human activities and the sustainable development of ecosystem in the future. The Qinghai Tibet Plateau has unique alpine vegetation types and rich vertical zone landforms and surface cover types. The biogeographic pattern of surface elements (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium) is an important manifestation of the coupling of carbon, nitrogen and water cycle processes and related mechanisms of alpine ecosystems. This dataset focuses on the distribution pattern and spatial variation of surface materials (plant leaf branch stem root and litter) in the complex ecosystem of the Water tower area of Qinghai Tibet Plateau and Himalayan Mountains, in order to provide data support for regional model simulation and ecological management.

    2022-05-30 333 5

  • 14 Ka quantitative temperature record of Xingyun Lake

    14 Ka quantitative temperature record of Xingyun Lake

    Focusing on the "Holocene temperature problem", the Holocene earth temperature change has become a hot issue in the past climate change research. Based on the fossil sporopollen of Xingyun Lake in Yunnan Province, the newly developed method of quantitative reconstruction significance test based on random data is used to quantitatively reconstruct the summer temperature (average temperature in July) in the study area since the past 14000 years. It is found that there is a difference in the change trend between it and the summer precipitation records based on carbon, acid and oxygen isotopes of sediments in the lake, which is mainly reflected in the uncoupled change of the two in the early Holocene, The early Holocene had higher summer precipitation, but lower summer temperature. The author further puts forward that the internal feedback of the earth system dominated by clouds, aerosols and high latitude ice sheet boundary conditions in the northern hemisphere is the main reason for the uncoupling of early Holocene summer precipitation and temperature in Southwest China.

    2022-05-30 99 24

  • The diurnal(hourly)albedo product coupling topographic effects and combining multi-sensory data over the Tibet Plateau (2016-2019)

    The diurnal(hourly)albedo product coupling topographic effects and combining multi-sensory data over the Tibet Plateau (2016-2019)

    This diurnal (hourly) land surface albedo product is with a spatial resolution of 0.02 ° x 0.02 ° over the Tibet Plateau from 2016-2019. Multi-sensory data is used to retrieve the Extended Multi-Sensor Combined BRDF Inversion model (EMCBI) developed from a kernel-driven BRDF model and coupled with topographic effects, and prior knowledge is introduced for quality control inversion. The high-precision BRDF / albedo of good spatial-temporal continuity is retrieved by combining MODIS reflectance data (a polar orbiting satellite) and himiwarri-8 AHI land surface reflectance (a geostationary satellite ). MODIS land surface reflectance data and AHI TOA reflectance data are downloaded from the official websites. After registration, atmospheric correction and other processing, the daily resolution BRDF is synthesized with a period of 5 days, and then the albedo is estimated. The black sky albedo is calculated hourly from 9:00 to 18:00 at Beijing Time (UTM zone 8). The validation results show that it meets the accuracy requirements of albedo application, and agreed well with the in situ albedo inner-daily variation.Tt has more advantages in capturing rapidly changing surface features, especially the inner-daily variations, and has better temporal and spatial continuity. It can effectively support the study of radiation energy balance and environmental change in the Tibet Plateau.

    2022-05-28 111 21

  • Seasonally frozen ground soil temperature and moisture data set of alpine meadow site in Qinghai Lake Basin(2018-2021)

    Seasonally frozen ground soil temperature and moisture data set of alpine meadow site in Qinghai Lake Basin(2018-2021)

    This dataset is a high-frequency observation data of soil temperature and humidity in the active layer of seasonal frozen soil observed in the alpine meadow of Qianhuli Small watershed of Qinghai Lake, with a time resolution of half an hour. The data set can provide data support for the rate-dependent soil hydrothermal model and dynamic characterization of soil active layer.

    2022-05-26 231 0

  • Physical property data of typical debris flow ditch of G217 and G30 main traffic roads in Tianshan area (2021)

    Physical property data of typical debris flow ditch of G217 and G30 main traffic roads in Tianshan area (2021)

    This data is the material physical property data of the typical debris flow trenches of G217 and G30, the main traffic roads in the Tianshan area. This data is the detailed information of the typical debris flow disaster points in the study area, including watershed parameters, channel parameters, and debris flow accumulation material physical parameters; these data can be Combined with the rainfall data, the research contents such as the rainfall threshold of debris flow activities in this area can be further carried out. Including the area of the debris flow basin, the width of the ditch, the length of the ditch, the vertical gradient, the area of the glacial lake, and the physical properties of the debris flow deposits. The physical property data of the accumulation were obtained by experimental equipment such as a laser particle size analyzer, and the saturated permeability coefficient was obtained by a triaxial experiment.

    2022-05-26 186 0

  • MODIS Terra 8-days products with 500m spatial resolution over the Tibetan Plateau (2020)

    MODIS Terra 8-days products with 500m spatial resolution over the Tibetan Plateau (2020)

    The dataset includes FPAR, GPP, NPP, evapotranspiration product and LAI product. FPAR product is and LAI product are obtained from the MODIS Terra MOD15A2H dataset, GPP and NPP product are obtained from the MOD15A2H dataset and evapotranspiration product is obtained from MODIS Terra MOD16A2 dataset of 2020 over the Tibetan Plateau,which is downloaded from USGS, and their formats are converted from .hdf to .tif by GDAL.The quality assessment files are also included for aboved products,and they are stored in an efficient bit-encoded manner.The MODIS products play an important role in forest, agriculture, ecology.

    2022-05-26 82 3

  • Magnetic susceptibility and chromaticity data of Oligocene Baiyanghe Formation in the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and the southern margin of jiuxi Basin

    Magnetic susceptibility and chromaticity data of Oligocene Baiyanghe Formation in the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and the southern margin of jiuxi Basin

    Magnetic susceptibility and chromaticity data of the Oligocene Baiyanghe Formation in the southern margin of the Jiuxi Basin on the northeastern margin of the Tibet Plateau. The data are experimental data. The average sampling interval in the field is 1m, and a total of 437 pieces of magnetic susceptibility and chromaticity data were obtained. Magnetic susceptibility data was measured with a Bartington MS-2 portable magnetic susceptibility meter; chromaticity data was measured with a Konica Minolta CM-700 spectrophotometer. Sample collection, pre-processing and experimental procedures were carried out in accordance with strict standards, and the quality of the data obtained was reliable. The results show that the magnetic susceptibility and chromaticity values in the lower part of Baiyanghe Formation have consistent and obvious changes. Combined with the variation characteristics of the strata sedimentary facies in the profile, it is believed that a climate change event occurred in the early Baiyanghe Formation in the southern margin of the Jiuxi Basin. A large number of previous studies on stratigraphy, sedimentology and thermochronology revealed that there were no obvious tectonic events in the northeastern margin of the Tibet Plateau during this period, indicating that the climate change events in this area may be caused by regional climate changes. The climate information reflected by the magnetic susceptibility and chromaticity data of the Baiyanghe Formation in the southern margin of the Jiuxi Basin can provide data support for the study of the paleoclimate in the northeastern margin of the Tibet Plateau.

    2022-05-26 159 0

  • A new vegetation map for Qinghai-Tibet Plateau by integrated classification from multi-source data products(2020)

    A new vegetation map for Qinghai-Tibet Plateau by integrated classification from multi-source data products(2020)

    In this study,a vegetation classification system for the vegetation types in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was designed. The integrated classification method,taken into account of multi-source vegetation classification / land cover classification products, was used to produce the actual vegetation map. This integrated classification method followed the principle of data consistency,and the resultant vegetation map was superior over other vegetation maps in terms of reflection of current situation, classification system, and classification accuracy. This vegetation map is timely and could better reflect current vegetation distribution than earlier ones. This vegetation map could be conducive to fully extract vegetation information from multi-source data products with high reliability and consistency. Compared with previous data products,the overall accuracy (78.09%,kappa coefficient is 0.75) of this new vegetation map was found to increase by 18.84%-37.17%,especially for grassland and shrub.

    2022-05-25 276 88

  • Data set of DEM and orthography image on the Nyangqu River in the Yarlung Zangbo River (2021)

    Data set of DEM and orthography image on the Nyangqu River in the Yarlung Zangbo River (2021)

    The data are DEM and orthographic image data along the Nyangqu River of Yarlung Zangbo River. The camera carried by DJI UAV was used to take photos of the sampling section of Nyangqu River according to the set flight path. The overlap of adjacent photos was not less than 70%. The photos were utilized by Agisoft Metashape software to generate orthography image and DEM. Orthography image contains three bands: red, green and blue. The sampling river reaches of Nyangqu River basin contained four locations of main channel and two locations of tributaries. The resolution of the digital elevation model was less than 1.0m and the coordinate system was WGC1984. The data set can provide data support for the accurate simulation of flood disaster in the Nyangqu River, and further serve the prevention and control of flood disaster and risk assessment, which has important scientific and engineering value.

    2022-05-24 135 0

  • Health index data of some scientific research team members on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (2019-2021)

    Health index data of some scientific research team members on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (2019-2021)

    (1) All data are measured at the station where each scientific research route is completed each time. (2) The sample number represents the team members and data contributors participating in the scientific examination; Different numbers represent different people. (3) Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and pulse were measured by OMRON arm electronic sphygmomanometer; The data of blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate were measured by fish jump finger clip oximeter; All hormones were determined by Shanghai ELISA kit. (4) There are two groups of blood pressure, pulse, oxygen saturation and heart rate data in each batch; One group (in the evening) is measured after arriving at a new destination, and the other group (in the morning) is measured before arriving at a new accommodation every day for breakfast; Hormone data were measured after blood collection in some accommodation points and taken back to the laboratory for treatment. (5) When the human body enters the high altitude hypoxic environment, heart rate, oxygen saturation and blood pressure are very sensitive response indicators. Blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen saturation are important indicators to reflect the degree of hypoxia. In particular, continuous detection of subjects can show the change process of hypoxic stress and adjustment. (6) From the perspective of physiology, it is analyzed that after people face hypoxic stress, the body increases or decreases the hormone level to maintain normal life activities, so as to achieve an adaptive protective mechanism, which provides a theoretical basis for the development of hypoxic drugs in the future; The choice of traveling on the plateau has a profound impact on the development of the plateau, which is not only conducive to the development of the plateau, but also has a profound impact on the development of the plateau. Health index data of some scientific research team members on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (2019-2021)

    2022-05-24 342 6

  • China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and active fault zone in Tianshan Mountains (2013)

    China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and active fault zone in Tianshan Mountains (2013)

    This dataset is the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and the active fault zone of the Tianshan Mountains (2013). The obtained geological map is a 1:2.5 million geological map, covering the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and the Tianshan Mountains. Geological structural maps can provide a digital space platform for the informatization of the national economy, and provide information services for national and provincial departments for regional planning, geological disaster monitoring, geological surveys, prospecting and exploration, and macro decision-making. The source of the obtained geological map data is to scan the paper map first, then perform georeferencing on the ArcGIS 10.5 platform, and then obtain it by vectorization. The storage format is vector data, and the spatial granularity is divided into regions.

    2022-05-23 153 0

  • China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and geological map of Tianshan Mountains (2013)

    China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and geological map of Tianshan Mountains (2013)

    This dataset is the geological structure map of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and the Tianshan Mountains. The obtained geological map is a 1:2.5 million geological map, covering the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and the Tianshan Mountains. Geological structural maps can provide a digital space platform for the informatization of the national economy, and provide information services for national and provincial departments for regional planning, geological disaster monitoring, geological surveys, prospecting and exploration, and macro decision-making. The obtained geological map data source is obtained by first scanning the paper version of the map, then performing georeferencing on the ArcGIS 10.5 platform, and then vectorizing it. The storage format is vector data, and the spatial granularity is divided into regions.

    2022-05-23 108 4

  • Data set of Element Content and Isotope in Tarim Basin, Xinjiang (9.3-10Ma)

    Data set of Element Content and Isotope in Tarim Basin, Xinjiang (9.3-10Ma)

    1) Data content: Element content and carbon and oxygen isotope analysis are important indexes for Miocene paleoclimate reconstruction in Tarim Basin 2) Data sources and processing methods Iron content: 4g samples were placed in vibration mill, grinding to less than 200 mesh, the samples were pressed in boric acid with hydraulic press, and finally measured in X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Isotope: The sample is dried at 40℃, then refined to less than 200 mesh, and reacts with 100% phosphoric acid to release CO2 gas in a gas source isophase mass spectrometer. 3) Data quality Sample collection and experimental processing were carried out in accordance with strict standards, and the data obtained were of reliable quality. 4) Data application achievements and prospects Published one SCI paper with this plan.

    2022-05-23 77 26

  • Atmospheric oxidizability data set of Namco station (2019)

    Atmospheric oxidizability data set of Namco station (2019)

    1) Data content: the observation data of atmospheric oxidation related parameters in Namuco from April to July 2019, including O3, H2O, CO2, NO2, VOCs, wind direction and wind speed. The coordinates of the observation points are 90.96 ° e, 30.77 ° n, 4730m above sea level, and the underlying surface is alpine grassland. (2) Data source and processing method: the original observation data shall be processed and quality controlled by special personnel according to the observation records. (3) Data quality description: due to the problem of instrument status, the data is missing and discontinuous in some periods. (4) Application prospect of data: the data can be applied to plateau atmospheric chemical analysis and other fields.

    2022-05-21 99 0

  • Photos and images of the Himalayas and the Asian water tower area (2021)

    Photos and images of the Himalayas and the Asian water tower area (2021)

    The photos contain the disaster spots and work photos of the scientific research every day (Juue 15th, 2021-July 24 6th, 2021), and the questionnaire of each disaster spot (including landslide, collapse, debris flow, etc.). The disaster spots recorded every day are marked on the map, converted into KMZ format, and the distribution of disaster spots in the scientific research area is analyzed on GIS. The distribution of disaster points shows that rainfall-induced landslide, debirs flow and rockfall, flash flood disaster points are major located along along the eastern route and the intensity are dense in there. In addition, the transportation infrastructure and popultion are relative densely distributed along the earstern route, may be resulte in high comprehensively disaster risk.In the western route, there are major distributed sand disaster, also mass movement disasters such as landslde and rockfall. The above pictures, vedios, disaster point map and route map are recorded. The above data are intuitive data for researching scientific expeditions, also are the key input data and examine data. In addition, they are fundamental significance for objectively judging the types and distribution of disasters in the scientific expedition area, as well as disaster prevention and mitigation measures.

    2022-05-21 81 0

  • Stratigraphic histogram of key horizons in southern Tibet

    Stratigraphic histogram of key horizons in southern Tibet

    The Paleogene marine strata in southern Tibet are well developed and rich in foraminifera and other marine fossils. Based on the study of macroforaminifera taxonomy and Stratigraphy in the West Tethys domain (mainly the Mediterranean region), western scholars established the Paleocene Eocene macroforaminifera biostratigraphy in 1998. Compared with Tibet in the East Tethys domain, the development of macroforaminifera in the Paleocene in the Mediterranean region is relatively poor. Therefore, the accuracy of biostratigraphy based on sittis foraminifera is low. In this study, detailed profile survey and high-density sample collection of lower Paleogene carbonate sedimentary strata in guru area, southern Tibet are carried out to supplement and improve the biostratigraphy of macroforaminifera in southern Tibet on the basis of macroforaminiferal taxonomy research; Based on biostratigraphy and carbon isotope stratigraphy, a high-resolution chronostratigraphic framework is established. A total of 7 profiles were measured in this study, and the profiles are located between 89 ° 11 ′ ~ 89 ° 13 ′ E and 28 ° 3 ′ ~ 28 ° 7 ′ n; The elevation range is 4643 ~ 5380 M. Based on the observation of rock slices in the laboratory, the age of the measured strata is preliminarily judged. P2 section is a limestone sequence overlying the late Cretaceous strata, representing the earliest Paleocene sedimentation in the study area; P1 section is a set of very thick limestone deposits of lower Paleocene; Section E2 is the top of Paleocene, close to the Paleocene / Eocene boundary; The ages of sections E1, E3, E3s and E4 are roughly early Eocene; The grayish green marl and red shale at the top of section E4 represent the latest marine strata in the study area. We plan to conduct detailed taxonomic and stratigraphic studies on foraminifera in these sections to establish high-resolution large foraminifera biostratigraphy; At the same time, we also need to analyze the changes in composition and abundance of macroforaminifera, and further explore the evolution process of macroforaminifera in early Paleogene. For the sandstone strata in the section, we need to conduct detrital zircon U-Pb isotope analysis, the obtained age and biostratigraphic data confirm each other, and further explore the paleogeographic evolution process under the influence of India Eurasia collision.

    2022-05-20 123 0