The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition (STEP) program

Brief Introduction: Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition Program

Number of Datasets: 305

  • Simulation forced by orbital variation during the Holocene (2019-2020)

    Simulation forced by orbital variation during the Holocene (2019-2020)

    The Holocene single orbit parameter change simulation results (2019-2020) data set uses the earth system model cesm model (horizontal resolution: about 2 ° for the atmosphere and land surface module and about 1 ° for the ocean and sea ice module) to carry out the Holocene transient simulation test considering the change of earth orbit parameters. The spatial resolution is 2 °; Spatial range: North: 50 ° n, South: 20 ° n, West: 60 ° e, East: 130 ° E; Regional scope: Eurasia; The time range is Holocene. The simulation results can be used to analyze the changes of westerly monsoon in Eurasia under the influence of individual orbital parameters in Holocene.

    2021-07-30 325 0

  • In-situ water quality parameters of the lakes on the Tibetan Plateau (2009-2020)

    In-situ water quality parameters of the lakes on the Tibetan Plateau (2009-2020)

    This dataset provides the in-situ lake water parameters of 124 closed lakes with a total lake area of 24,570 km2, occupying 53% of the total lake area of the TP.These in-situ water quality parameters include water temperature, salinity, pH,chlorophyll-a concentration, blue-green algae (BGA) concentration, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM), and water clarity of Secchi Depth (SD).

    2021-07-29 858 100

  • Stratigraphic column of Silurian at the Yalai 2 section in Nyalam, Tibet

    Stratigraphic column of Silurian at the Yalai 2 section in Nyalam, Tibet

    The Nyalam region of southern Tibet, China, is one of the best locations to study Wenlock to Pridoli conodonts in China, due to the relatively continuous strata. The Yalai West II section is located on the mountain west of the Yalai Town. The Pulu Formation is composed of bioclastic wackestones with some interbeds of lim-mudstones, packstones and calcisiltites. Abundant cephalopods and conodonts, as well as rare bivalves and corals were reported from the Pulu Formation. The Pulu Formation represents a shallow-water marine environment with slow depositional rates. Five conodont biozones are established, i.e., the Ozarkodina sagitta sagitta Biozone, the Kockelella crassa Biozone, the Kockelella variabilis variabilis Interaval Biozone, the Polygnathoides siluricus Biozone, and the “Ozarkodina” eosteinhornensis s.l. Interval Biozone from the Homerian of Wenlock to Pridoli are recognized from the Pulu Formation, which is assigned to the late Telychian of Llandovery to Pridoli based on the conodonts, as well as the graptolites from the underlying strata. Among the conodont fauna in the Nyalam region, Wurmiella alternata has only been recognized from the Gondwana and peri-Gondwana, but others are widespread, which might be an indication of the cosmopolitan character of the Wenlock to Pridoli conodonts.

    2021-07-23 196 0

  • Stratigraphic column of Devonian SZ1 section in Xainza, Tibet

    Stratigraphic column of Devonian SZ1 section in Xainza, Tibet

    Paleozoic strata are well developed and widely outcropped around the Xainza area of central Tibet. Among them, the Devonian succession was first introduced during the geological survey in the late 1970s, and was suggested to comprise the Middle Devonian Dardong Group (including the Lower and Upper formations) and the Upper Devonian Chaguoluoma Formation. However, high-resolution stratigraphic framework and palaeontological research are still lacking for the Lower Devonian in study area. This investigation focus on the Dardong Formation in this area, and detailed geological survey and detailed sampling were carried out in order to improve stratigraphic correlation in central Tibet. The Dardong Formation mainly consists of carbonate and siliciclastic sediments, yielding abundant fossils such as brachiopods, corals, cephalopods, conodonts, tentaculites, etc. This dataset includes the stratigraphic column of the SZ1 section and outcrop photos in the Xainza area, central Tibet.

    2021-07-23 225 0

  • Stratigraphic column of Ordovician Jiaqu Formation in Nyalam, Tibet

    Stratigraphic column of Ordovician Jiaqu Formation in Nyalam, Tibet

    In southern Tibet, Paleozoic strata are well developed and widely outcropped in the Himalaya area. The early stratigraphical divisions and palaeontological investigations of the Mt. Jolmo Lungma area were conducted by pioneer expedition teams in the 1920s, which originally assigned a Carboniferous or Permian age to the limestone from the Summit. The discovery of Ordovician strata in the region was mainly based on finding of index fossils from the Jiacun and other sections in the vicinity of Mt. Jolmo Lungma. However, detailed palaeontological research is still lacking for the Late Ordovician in study area. Our research focus on ostracods fauna from the Jiaqu Formation, which are described for the first time from the Upper Ordovician in Nyalam, southern Xizang (Tibet). Thirty species belonging to sixteen genera are described and figured from the Yalai Waterworks section. The ostracod fauna suggests a probable Sandbian-Katian age for the Jiaqu Formation. The ecological assemblage of ostracods fauna belongs to the Eifelian Ecotype, which implies deposition in an environment of nearshore when the Jiaqu Formation was being laid down. Many cosmopolitan or provincial genera were present in diversified ostracod fauna of the Jiaqu Formation, suggesting close biogeographic relationships among Himalaya terranes, Tarim and South China plates. This dataset includes the stratigraphic column of the Jiaqu Formation section and outcrop photos in the Himalaya area, southern Tibet.

    2021-07-23 177 0

  • Stratigraphic column of Devonian SZ2 section in Xainza, Tibet

    Stratigraphic column of Devonian SZ2 section in Xainza, Tibet

    Paleozoic strata are well developed and widely outcropped around the Xainza area of central Tibet. Among them, the Devonian succession was first introduced during the geological survey in the late 1970s, and was suggested to comprise the Middle Devonian Dardong Group (including the Lower and Upper formations) and the Upper Devonian Chaguoluoma Formation. However, high-resolution stratigraphic framework and palaeontological research are still lacking for the Lower Devonian in study area. This investigation focus on the Dardong Formation in this area, and detailed geological survey and detailed sampling were carried out in order to improve stratigraphic correlation in central Tibet. The Dardong Formation mainly consists of carbonate and siliciclastic sediments, yielding abundant fossils such as brachiopods, corals, cephalopods, conodonts, tentaculites, etc. The Xainza II section is exposed along the cliff of a mountain. The studied Dardong Formation can be divided into five lithological units in ascending order: 1) light grey to grey medium- to thick-bedded limestone with cross-bedding in the middle part, yielding fragments of brachiopods and crinoid stems; 2) grayish white thin- to medium- bedded siltstone; 3) light grey to grey thin- to medium-bedded limestone, containing colonial corals and crinoid stems; 4) grey medium- to thick-bedded limestone; 5) light grey medium-bedded limestone with fragments of crinoid stems, partially covered in the upper part. This dataset includes the stratigraphic column of the SZ2 section and outcrop photos in the Xainza area, central Tibet.

    2021-07-22 217 0

  • Satellite remote sensing precipitation reanalysis dataset over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (1998-2018)

    Satellite remote sensing precipitation reanalysis dataset over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (1998-2018)

    This data is precipitation data, which is the monthly precipitation product of tropical rainfall measurement mission TRMM 3b43. It integrates the main area of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (25 ~ 40 ° n; 25 ~ 40 ° n); The precipitation data of 332 meteorological stations are from the National Meteorological Information Center of China Meteorological Administration. The reanalysis data set is obtained by the station 3 ° interpolation optimization variational correction method. For the monthly sample data from January 1998 to December 2018, the spatial coverage is 25 ~ 40 ° n; 73 ~ 105 ° e, the spatial resolution is 1 ° * 1 °.

    2021-07-21 747 0

  • Integrated provenance analysis data from the Huaitoutala section in the NE Qaidam Basin

    Integrated provenance analysis data from the Huaitoutala section in the NE Qaidam Basin

    The development history of high topography in the northeastern (NE) Tibetan Plateau is essential to test various plateau growth models and understand plateau construction. We present integrated provenance data from the NE Qaidam Basin, south of the Qilian Shan. Results show an increase in carbonate lithics, an increase in Al2O3/SiO2 ratios, a negative shift in εNd values and an appearance of large amounts of Precambrian zircon grains in the period of ~13 to ~8 Ma, arguing that the sediment source of the NE Qaidam Basin may have shifted from the East Kunlun Shan to the Qilian Shan during this time interval. We infer that significant topographic growth of the southern Qilian Shan occurred during the middle-late Miocene. Along with widespread middle to late Miocene deformation records across the Qilian Shan and abruptly shifts on provenance, sedimentary facies and climate indexes in its surrounding basins, present high topography of the NE Tibetan Plateau may have been established since the middle-late Miocene.

    2021-07-20 218 0

  • Tectonic landscape along active faults in the SE Tibetan Plateau

    Tectonic landscape along active faults in the SE Tibetan Plateau

    Based on 12.5m DEM and remote sensing image interpretation, we can clearly identify the scarps, staggered rivers, gate ridges, compression ridges and other structural landforms along the Honghe fault, Nanting River fault and Lancang Gengma fault, which provides basic data for further field verification. Through the analysis of the landform along the fault and the fine structural analysis of the Quaternary fault outcrop, the kinematic characteristics of the fault are determined. The deflections of the drainage system and the geological and geomorphic units of the fault indicate that the amount of dextral dislocation of the HONGHE FAULT ranges from tens of meters to 50 km. A series of structural landforms such as sinistral dislocations of large gullies, fault troughs, fault triangles and scarps developed along the Nanting River fault. The Lancang Gengma fault is dominated by dextral strike slip.

    2021-07-20 405 14

  • Water system data of Sichuan Tibet tranffic corridor (2015)

    Water system data of Sichuan Tibet tranffic corridor (2015)

    The data set contains the data of rivers and lakes in Sichuan Tibet transportation corridor. The river is divided into 1-4 grades. The rivers are numbered and geocoded. The data can be used not only as the basic elements of regional geographic base map, but also as the basic conditions of hydrological regional division. The data source is not the national 1:1 million basic geographic data, covering the national land area and the main islands including Taiwan Island, Hainan Island, Diaoyu Island, South China Sea Islands and their adjacent waters, with a total of 77 1:1 million maps. The overall current situation of the data is 2015. 2000 national geodetic coordinate system, 1985 National elevation datum, longitude and latitude coordinates are used.

    2021-07-19 110 6

  • Distribution map of debris flow in Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor (2020)

    Distribution map of debris flow in Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor (2020)

    The distribution data of debris flow in Sichuan Tibet transportation corridor includes two layers, one is the point layer, which mainly marks the location of debris flow gully, the other is the area layer, which is the drainage area of debris flow gully. The source of the data is the combination of remote sensing identification and ground investigation. Firstly, the remote sensing image is used to interpret the location of the debris flow gully in the region, and then the ground investigation of the debris flow gully is carried out along the Sichuan Tibet railway and Sichuan Tibet highway. The remote sensing interpretation data is verified, and finally the more reliable debris flow distribution data is obtained. The data can be used to analyze the distribution of debris flow in Sichuan Tibet transportation corridor, multi-scale debris flow risk assessment and risk assessment.

    2021-07-19 255 0

  • Vegetation coverage data of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor (1985-2020)

    Vegetation coverage data of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor (1985-2020)

    NDVI of Landsat 5,7,8 images was used to extract the vegetation coverage of Sichuan Tibet transportation corridor from 1985 to 2020. The data is divided into seven periods, each with a time span of five years. From USGS( https://www.usgs.gov/core-science-systems/nli/landsat/landsat-surface-reflectance )。 The vegetation coverage can be divided into seven periods, each with a time span of 5 years. The calculation process is mainly divided into three steps: first, obtain all the images with cloud fraction less than 20 in the period, calculate the NDVI value, and synthesize the NDVI map of the current period by using the median synthesis method; The second step is to calculate the maximum and minimum NDVI, ndvimax and ndvimin; The third step is to get the vegetation coverage through the formula FVC = (NDVI ndvimin) / (ndvimax ndvimin). Due to the use of Landsat data, the spatial resolution of the original vegetation coverage product is 30 m, and this data is obtained after sampling 1000 m.

    2021-07-19 215 25

  • Soil type data of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor (1995)

    Soil type data of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor (1995)

    According to the soil map of the people's Republic of China (1:1 million) compiled and published by the national soil survey office in 1995, the spatial distribution data of soil types in the transportation corridor between Sichuan and Tibet are generated digitally. The traditional "soil genetic classification" system is adopted. The basic mapping unit is subclass, which is divided into 12 soil classes, 61 soil classes and 227 subclasses. There are 2647 records and 16 attribute data items in the soil attribute database, covering all kinds of soil and its main attribute characteristics in China.

    2021-07-19 273 9

  • Modern observational hydrological data set of North and South of the Tibeten plateau (2012-2014)

    Modern observational hydrological data set of North and South of the Tibeten plateau (2012-2014)

    The data set is the seasonal hydrological observation data of the Yellow River from the hydrological station of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. There are two hydrological stations: 1. Longmen hydrological station in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, which is the weekly hydrological data in 2013, including water temperature (T), runoff (QW), physical erosion rate (per) and pH. 2. Tangnaihai hydrological station of the Yellow River is monthly data from July 2012 to June 2014, including runoff (QW), sediment (salt), pH and EC. The data set was commissioned to be observed by the staff of the hydrological station of the Yellow River Water Conservancy Commission to provide basic hydrological data for the study of hydrology, hydrochemistry and hydrosphere cycle under the background of Qinghai Tibet Plateau uplift.

    2021-07-17 232 13

  • Dataset of measured aboveground plant biomass and remote sensing net primary productivity in desert sites on theTibet Plateau (2000-2020)

    Dataset of measured aboveground plant biomass and remote sensing net primary productivity in desert sites on theTibet Plateau (2000-2020)

    A total of 52 sample sites were selected in the desert belts of Qinghai and Tibet for field sampling of aboveground biomass of vegetation during the vegetation growing season in 2019 and 2020. At the same time, the longitude, latitude and altitude of the experimental site were recorded using handheld GPS devices. The field setting method of the quadrate is as follows: select a section with uniform vegetation. When the vegetation is relatively abundant, the quadrate is set as a 10 m x10 m square plot, and when the vegetation is relatively sparse, the quadrate is set as a 30 m x30 m square plot or a 30 m x90 m rectangular plot. 3-5 small sample boxes (1m x 1m) were randomly thrown into the set sample plot to determine the specific location of the sample. Collect plant samples by sample harvesting method: register plant species, number of plants of each species and other information in sample area of 1 square meter. All kinds of plants in the quadrate were planted and mowed on the ground, and the collected herbaceous plant samples were placed in archives and marked with species, sample site name and number, collection time and other information. They were brought back to the laboratory and dried to a constant weight in a constant temperature drying oven at 65 ℃. The dry weight of the plant samples was measured. Finally, the aboveground biomass of the vegetation was calculated. In addition, two kinds of remote sensing net primary productivity (NPP) data of the 52 sample points were extracted by the longitude and latitude of the sampling points. (1) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from 2000 to 2018, and calculated the annual Integrated Enhanced Vegetation Index (IEVI). IEVI was highly correlated with net primary productivity (NPP). Can be used as a proxy indicator of net primary productivity (He et al. 2021, Science of The Total Environment). (2) Percentage of remote sensing net primary productivity (NPP) and its quality control (QC) in 2001-2020, NPP remote sensing data from MOD17A3HGF Version 6 product (https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/products/mod17a3hgfv006/), the net photosynthetic value (the total primary productivity - keep breathing) is calculated. In the sample sites with low vegetation coverage, there may be null value (NA) of remote sensing net primary productivity.

    2021-07-16 299 0

  • Aerial data  set of hydropower station in datong river basin of Qinghai Province

    Aerial data set of hydropower station in datong river basin of Qinghai Province

    The data includes ten typical hydropower stations in Datong River Basin of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in July 2020, including Duolong Hydropower Station, Gousikou Hydropower Station, Jinxing Hydropower Station, Kasuoxia Hydropower Station, Liancheng Hydropower Station, Nazixia Hydropower Station, Stone Gorge Hydropower Station, Tianwanggou Hydropower Station, Tiemai Hydropower Station and Xueyitan Hydropower Station. Data are helpful to study the distribution and use of hydropower stations in Datong River Basin. The data were taken by the expedition team through aerial photography using DJI UAV RTK and Royal Series, and spliced by DJI mapping software. The aerial image data has high definition, which can obviously observe the water level difference between upstream and downstream of the hydropower station and the topographic distribution around the hydropower station. The data can be applied to the research field of hydropower stations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, providing relevant analysis data.

    2021-07-16 349 0

  • Monthly potential evapotranspiration data set based on the Penman-Monteith formula of 1km on the Zoige Plateau (1980-2018)

    Monthly potential evapotranspiration data set based on the Penman-Monteith formula of 1km on the Zoige Plateau (1980-2018)

    A monthly data set of potential evapotranspiration based on the Penman-Monteith formula (1980-2018) of 1km on the Zoige Plateau. We collected daily meteorological data from 1980 to 2018 from the Meteorological Data Sharing Center of China Meteorological Administration, calculated daily-scale potential evapotranspiration through the Penman-Monteith equation, and accumulated daily-scale potential evapotranspiration to obtain monthly and annual potential evapotranspiration (PET mm/month) , Through the Anusplin professional meteorological interpolation software, the multi-year average annual temperature (MAT) and annual average precipitation (MAP) calculated by each meteorological station are interpolated to obtain a 1km resolution spatial data set.

    2021-07-14 302 0

  • The 1km-year effective energy and material transfer (EEMT) dataset of the Zoige Plateau (1980-2018)

    The 1km-year effective energy and material transfer (EEMT) dataset of the Zoige Plateau (1980-2018)

    The effective energy and material transfer (EEMT) data set (1980-2018) for 1km on the Zoige Plateau. Effective energy and matter transfer (EEMT) is closely related to the structure and function of the earth's key zones. The unit of effective energy and matter transfer (EEMT) is (Jm-2 s-1or W m-2). The heat energy (EPPT) related to the effective rain energy material transfer, the net primary production energy material transfer (EBIO), and the effective energy and material transfer (EEMT) (which is the sum of both EPPT and EBIO) are used as comprehensive climate indicators, The EEMTMODEL model simulation method is used to evaluate these three indicators, and the Anusplin interpolation software is used to obtain a spatial data set with a resolution of EEMT 1km.

    2021-07-14 126 0

  • Soil Nutrient Data Set of Typical Small Watersheds in Sichuan Province, Tibet Autonomous Region, and Qinghai Province (2020)

    Soil Nutrient Data Set of Typical Small Watersheds in Sichuan Province, Tibet Autonomous Region, and Qinghai Province (2020)

    This data set contains experimentally measured soil nutrient data collected in typical small watersheds in Sichuan Province, Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai Province. The data comes from the survey of grassland, cultivated land, and woodland in Minhe County, Menyuan County and the east area of Qinghai Lake in the second Qinghai-Tibet Plateau scientific expedition, and recorded detailed soil parameters (including organic carbon, ph, soil Cation exchange capacity, water content, etc.) can provide important values for tracing the source of soil water erosion in small watershed areas and understanding the soil environment.

    2021-07-14 160 0

  • Paleomagnetic data set of the Hoh Xil and Sichuan Basins in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2019-2020)

    Paleomagnetic data set of the Hoh Xil and Sichuan Basins in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2019-2020)

    This set of data is used to reconstruct the magnetostratigraphy of the Hoh Xil basin in the interior of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Sichuan Basinaround the eastern margin of the plateau, and then combined with other chronological methods to establish high-precision chronological scales of the two basins. All the data are thermal demagnetization data, including two parts: one is the paleomagnetic data of the strata about 1000 meters in the top of the Hoh Xil basin; The second is the paleomagnetic data of the bottom strata in Sichuan Basin. The data were measured or obtained in the State Key Laboratory of continental dynamics, Northwestern University and the laboratory of paleomagnetism and geochronology, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The preliminary processing results show that the data quality is high.

    2021-07-12 219 0