The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition (STEP) program

Brief Introduction: Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition Program

Number of Datasets: 305

  • Plant diversity and distribution data of CHNZ020 grid on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Plant diversity and distribution data of CHNZ020 grid on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    This data is the plant diversity and distribution data of chnz020 grid on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, including the Chinese name, Latin name, latitude and longitude, altitude, collection number, number of molecular materials, number of specimens, administrative division, small place, collector, collection time and creator of plants in this grid. The data is obtained from e scientific research website( http://ekk.kib.ac.cn/web/index/#/ ), and partially identificated. This data has covered the list and specific distribution information of 150 species belonging to 129 genera and 87 families in this flora. This data can be used not only to study the floristic properties of this region, but also to explore the horizontal and vertical gradient pattern of plants in this region.

    2021-10-19 22 0

  • Black carbon observation data of Ali, Tibet (2019-2020)

    Black carbon observation data of Ali, Tibet (2019-2020)

    The data set is the observation data of Shiquanhe town in Ali area. The longitude, latitude and altitude of the station in Ali area are 32.50 and 80.10 respectively; 4360m。 Continuously observe the mass concentration of black carbon in the atmosphere. The measuring instrument is ae31 (aethalometer), and its observation period is from 12:00:00 on July 13, 2019 to 21:35:00 on July 17, 2020. The time resolution is 5 minutes. There is data loss due to instrument failure. The data file includes instrument information, flow parameter setting (LPM) and specific observed concentration. Supported project: the second comprehensive scientific investigation and Research on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau 2019QZKK0602.

    2021-10-04 1144 12

  • 1km seamless land surface temperature dataset of China (2002-2020)

    1km seamless land surface temperature dataset of China (2002-2020)

    Kilometer-level spatially complete (seamless) land surface temperature products have a wide range of applications needs in climate change and other fields. Satellite retrieved LST has high reliability. Integrating the LST retrieved from thermal infrared and microwave remote sensing observation is an effective way to obtain the SLT with certain accuracy and spatial integrity. Based on this guiding ideology, the author developed a framework for retrieving 1km and seamless LST over China landmass, and generated the LST data set accordingly (2002-2020) Firstly, a look-up table based empirical retrieval algorithm is developed for retrieving microwave LST from AMSR-E/AMSR2 observations. Then, AMSR-E/AMSR2 LST is downscaled by using geographic weighted regression to obtain 1km LST. Finally, the multi-scale Kalman filter is used to fuse AMSR-E/AMSR2 LST and MODIS LST to generate a 1km seamless LST data set. The ground valuation results show that the root mean square error (RMSE) of the 1km seamless LST is about 3K. In addition, the spatial distribution of the 1km seamless LST is consistent with MODIS LST and CLDAS LST.

    2021-09-28 2324 121

  • Glacier coverage data  on the Tibetan Plateau  in 1970s (TPG1976, Version 1.0)

    Glacier coverage data on the Tibetan Plateau in 1970s (TPG1976, Version 1.0)

    The Tibetan Plateau Glacial Data -TPG1976 is a glacial coverage data on the Tibetan Plateau in the 1970s. It was generated by manual interpretation from Landsat MSS multispectral image data. The temporal coverage was mainly from 1972 to 1979 by 60 m spatial resolution. It involved 205 scenes of Landsat MSS/TM. There were 189 scenes(92% coverage on TP)in 1972-79,including 116 scenes in 1976/77 (61% of all the collected satellite data).As high quality of MSS data is not accessible due to cloud and snow effects in the South-east Tibetan Plateau, earlier Landsat TM data was collected for usage, including 14 scenes of 1980s(1981,1986-89,which covers 6.5% of TP) and 2 scenes in 1994(by 1.5% coverage on TP).Among all satellite data,77% was collected in winter with the minimum effects of cloud and seasonal snow. The most frequent year in this period was defined as the reference year for the mosaic image: i.e. 1976. Glacier outlines were digitized on-screen manually from the 1976 image mosaic, relying on false-colour image composites (MSS: red, green and blue (RGB) represented by bands 321; TM: RGB by bands 543), which allowed us to distinguish ice/snow from cloud. Debris-free ice was distinguished from the debris and debris-covered ice by its higher reflectance. Debris-covered ice was not delineated in this data. The delineated glacier outlines were compared with band-ratio results, and validated by overlapping them onto Google Earth imagery, SRTM DEM, topographic maps and corresponding satellite images. For areas with mountain shadows and snow cover, they were verified by different methods using data from different seasons. For glaciers in deep shadow, Google EarthTM imagery from different dates was used as the reference for manual delineation. Steep slopes or headwalls were also excluded in the TPG1976. Areas that appeared in any of these sources to have the characteristics of exposed ground/basement/bed rock were manually delineated as non-glacier, and were also cross-checked with CGI-1 and CGI-2. Steep hanging glaciers were included in TPG1976 if they were identifiable on images in all three epochs (i.e. TPG1976, TPG2001, and TPG2013). The accuracy of manual digitization was controlled within one half-pixel. All glacier areas were calculated on the WGS84 spheroid in an Albers equal-area map projection centred at (95°E, 30°N) with standard parallels at 15°N and 65°N. Our results showed that the relative deviation of manual interpretation was less than 6.4% due to the 60 m spatial resolution images.

    2021-08-30 4459 160

  • Glacier coverage data on the Tibetan Plateau in 2013 (TPG2013, Version1.0)

    Glacier coverage data on the Tibetan Plateau in 2013 (TPG2013, Version1.0)

    The Tibetan Plateau Glacier Data –TPG2013 is a glacial coverage data on the Tibetan Plateau around 2013. 128 Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images were selected with 30-m spatial resolution, for comparability with previous and current glacier inventories. Besides, about 20 images acquired in 2014 were used to complete the full coverage of the TP. The most frequent year in this period was defined as the reference year for the mosaic image: i.e. 2013. Glacier outlines were digitized on-screen manually from the 2013 image mosaic, relying on false-colour image composites (RGB by bands 654), which allowed us to distinguish ice/snow from cloud. Debris-free ice was distinguished from the debris and debris-covered ice by its higher reflectance. Debris-covered ice was not delineated in this data. [To minimize the effects of snow or cloud cover on glacierized areas, high-resolution (30 m spatial resolution and 4-day repetition cycle) images were also used for reference in glacier delineation from the Chinese satellites HJ-1A and HJ-1B, which were launched on Sep.6th 2008. Both carried as payload two 4-band CCD cameras with swath width 700 km (360 km per camera). All HJ-1A/1B data in 2012, 2013 and 2014 (65 scenes, Fig.S1, Table S1) were from China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application (CRESDA; http://www.cresda.com/n16/n92006/n92066/n98627/index.html). Each scene was orthorectified with respect to the 30m-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and Landsat images.] The delineated glacier outlines were compared with band-ratio (e.g. TM3/TM5) results, and validated by overlapping them onto Google Earth imagery, SRTM DEM, topographic maps and corresponding satellite images. Topographic maps from the 1970s and all available satellite images (including Google EarthTM imagery and HJ-1A/1B satellite data) were used as base reference data. For areas with mountain shadows and snow cover, they were verified by different methods using data from different seasons. For glaciers in deep shadow, Google EarthTM imagery from different dates was used as the reference for manual delineation. Steep slopes or headwalls were also excluded in the TPG2013. Areas that appeared in any of these sources to have the characteristics of exposed ground/basement/bed rock were manually delineated as non-glacier, and were also cross-checked with CGI-1 and CGI-2. Steep hanging glaciers were included in TPG2013 if they were identifiable on images in all three epochs (i.e. TPG1976, TPG2001, and TPG2013). The accuracy of manual digitization was controlled within one half-pixel. All glacier areas were calculated on the WGS84 spheroid in an Albers equal-area map projection centred at (95°E, 30°N) with standard parallels at 15°N and 65°N. Our results showed that the relative deviation of manual interpretation was less than 3.9%.

    2021-08-30 4091 202

  • Dataset of Major Elements and Isotopes of Longmen and Tangnaihai Hydrological Stations in the Yellow River (2012-2014)

    Dataset of Major Elements and Isotopes of Longmen and Tangnaihai Hydrological Stations in the Yellow River (2012-2014)

    The study of chemical weathering is of great significance to understand how the plateau uplift regulates the mechanism of climate change and the circulation of elements and materials in the sphere. The data set is the seasonal major element concentration and stable isotope data of the river water at the hydrological station of the Yellow River Basin originating from the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. There are two hydrological stations in total: 1. Longmen hydrological station in the middle reaches of the Yellow River is the high-resolution (weekly) sample data collected in 2013, and the element concentrations include K, CA, Na, Mg, SO4, HCO3, Cl, etc. The cation data of collected water samples are tested on ICP-AES of Institute of earth environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the anion data are tested on ion chromatograph (ics1200) of Nanjing Institute of geography and lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The uncertainty is within 5%, and HCO3 is tested by titration. The high-resolution (weekly) Li isotope data of river water was tested in MC-ICP-MS of Institute of earth environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2017, and the test accuracy 2sd is better than 5 ‰; 2. Tangnaihai hydrological station on the Yellow River is the river water (month by month) data set collected from July 2012 to June 2014. The major element concentrations include K, CA, Na, Mg, SO4, HCO3, Cl, etc., and the stable isotope data include s, O and H. The data set can be used to study the modern weathering process under the background of the uplift of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and provides the first-hand reliable data for the study of physical erosion and chemical weathering in the basin.

    2021-08-23 131 2

  • Socio economic data of typical mineral development projects in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (1949, 1953, 1965, 1970, 1978-2018)

    Socio economic data of typical mineral development projects in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (1949, 1953, 1965, 1970, 1978-2018)

    The regional socio-economic data of typical mineral development projects include the economic and social data set of Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (1949, 1953, 1965, 1970, 1978-2018), the economic and social data set of cooperative city of Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (2000-2017), and the economic and social data set of Maqu County of Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (2000-2017). The first row of data is the economic and social indicator, the second row is the indicator unit, and the first column is the year. The data sources are Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture statistical yearbook, cooperative city statistical yearbook and Maqu County statistical yearbook. The data is sorted and processed to form, and one person enters and one person checks to ensure the data quality. The data format is xlsx and the accuracy is years. It can be used to evaluate the comprehensive economic and social effects of typical mineral development areas in the super large gold belt of Qilian Mountain metallogenic belt in the northeast of Qinghai Tibet Plateau.

    2021-08-17 168 12

  • Debris flow field investigation data in Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor (2020)

    Debris flow field investigation data in Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor (2020)

    According to Ya'an Qamdo, Qamdo Nyingchi, Nyingchi Lhasa and other sections, carry out field investigation on debris flow within 10km along the new Sichuan Tibet railway line and Sichuan Tibet highway, fill in debris flow questionnaire and take photos. Based on the investigated debris flow data, the basic data are provided for the pregnant disaster background characteristics and distribution law of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor. At the same time, the hazard modes of debris flow and the hazard modes to highway, railway and other traffic lines are investigated in detail; Furthermore, debris flow risk, vulnerability and risk assessment shall be carried out along the new Sichuan Tibet railway line at different scales such as regional scale, key sections and typical disasters, so as to provide support for the route selection of Sichuan Tibet railway.

    2021-08-17 305 11

  • Land cover data of typical mineral development projects in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (2000, 2010, 2020)

    Land cover data of typical mineral development projects in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (2000, 2010, 2020)

    Land cover data of typical mineral development project areas include land cover data set of Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (2000), land cover data set of Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (2010) and land cover data set of Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (2020). The data format is shape file with a spatial resolution of 30m, including ten categories: cultivated land, forest land, grassland, shrub land, wetland, water body, tundra, artificial surface, bare land, glacier and permanent snow, and the time resolution is years. The data comes from globeland30 (global geographic information public product), http://www.globallandcover.com/ ), obtained by mosaic and reorganization. The data accuracy evaluation of source data is led by Tongji University and Aerospace Information Innovation Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the overall accuracy of data exceeds 83.50%. The data set can provide high-precision basic geographic information for relevant research, and can be applied to the comprehensive effect assessment of land cover in typical mineral development areas of super large gold belt in Qilian Mountain metallogenic belt in the northeast of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. It has important applications in the environmental effect assessment of mineral development, natural disaster risk assessment and disaster prevention and reduction.

    2021-08-16 180 11

  • Seismic waveforms of global earthquakes of Mw≥7.0 recorded by stations in Himalayan area

    Seismic waveforms of global earthquakes of Mw≥7.0 recorded by stations in Himalayan area

    The global seismic waveform data of magnitude 7 or above recorded by 10 seismic stations in the Himalaya region (from January 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020), including the name and location of stations, and the clear seismic waveform of each event filtered by the seismic event directory (the seismic directory is from USGS) to 10 stations. The waveform data is clipped to 100s before and 300s after the arrival of P wave, and the format is sac format. The header contains station information, event information, azimuth and other information. It is named in the form of "network. Station name. Channel. Component. D. year. Julian day - time. 000000. Event".

    2021-08-04 299 15

  • 90m DEM of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor (2000)

    90m DEM of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor (2000)

    The data comes from radar topographic mapping SRTM product, and the download address is http://gdex.cr.usgs.gov/gdex/ 。 Import the SHP boundary of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor on the download website to select the map within the study area and merge it into one by using ArcGIS software. The accuracy of the data is 90m, and the format is grid data. The data size is 136mb. The area is Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor. This data is applicable to the extraction of 1:100000 relevant topographic data, such as slope, aspect, river network and other topographic factor data. As the basic data for the topographic analysis of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor, it is helpful to understand the topographic and geomorphic characteristics of the whole region and is of great significance to the disaster risk management and decision-making level of a large region.

    2021-08-02 170 16

  • 30m DEM of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor (2006)

    30m DEM of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor (2006)

    The data is from JAXA earth observation research center( http://www.eorc.jaxa.jp/ALOS/en/aw3d30/ )The product is alos World 3D - 30m (aw3d30). Select and download the map by importing the SHP boundary of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor, and merge it into one by using relevant software. The format is raster data, the spatial resolution is 30m, and the data size is 1.3GB. The DEM data can generate topographic factor data such as slope, aspect and river network by using relevant software. They are the basic data for topographic analysis of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor, help to understand the geomorphic form of the basin, and are also the key factors for disaster zoning research and risk assessment. The acquisition of high-precision DEM is of great significance for disaster risk management and decision-making level and reducing the loss of major geological disasters.

    2021-08-02 159 0

  • Geological map of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor (2002-2007)

    Geological map of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor (2002-2007)

    The data is vectorized from the national 1 ∶ 100W digital geological map spatial database. According to the regional scope of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor and the division mode of 1:100w topographic map, the geological maps of h45, h46, H47, h48, i45, i46, I47 and i48 are used. The data source format is WP area file, which is converted into SHP format vector file by relevant software, which can be viewed and edited by arcigs software. This data contains basic geological information such as stratum, stratum symbol and rock type. The acquisition of geological data can basically understand the stratum and lithology within the scope of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor, which is conducive to tracing the geological conditions of debris flow and landslide disasters.

    2021-07-31 200 17

  • Basic data on the current situation of major hydropower cascade development projects under construction and planning on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (2020)

    Basic data on the current situation of major hydropower cascade development projects under construction and planning on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (2020)

    The current basic data set of major hydropower cascade development projects under construction and planning on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (2020) includes hydropower stations completed, under construction and planned on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau in 2020. The current basic data set of major hydropower cascade development projects under construction and planning on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (2020) includes the name of power station, river name, superior river name, construction location, installed capacity and annual power generation. The data is stored in Excel file in xlsx format and can be opened directly for use. The data is manually sorted and processed into tables, and one person enters and one person checks to ensure the data quality.

    2021-07-31 281 45

  • Desertification data of Sanjiangyuan land (1980-2015)

    Desertification data of Sanjiangyuan land (1980-2015)

    The data set of land desertification distribution in Sanjiangyuan area is derived from the desertification pattern and change data of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. This data is obtained based on the integration of remote sensing images, auxiliary data and other multi-source data. The main data used and referred to include: 1) remote sensing image data: Landsat was selected to extract the images from June to September as the main data source for land desertification monitoring on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and five images were selected to monitor land desertification in 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2015. 2) auxiliary data: terrain data, soil type data, vegetation type data Land use data, Google Earth image and other auxiliary data are important data in the interpretation of desertification land; 3) The indicators of desertification are wind erosion rate, percentage of quicksand area and vegetation coverage; 4) The area of the source area of the three rivers is 382312 km2. The data set is cut out from the land desertification distribution data of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, so as to carry out the research and analysis of the source area of the three rivers separately; 5) This data format is ShapeFile format. It is recommended to use ArcMap to open data.

    2021-07-31 278 25

  • Landform data of 90m of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor (2009)

    Landform data of 90m of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor (2009)

    The ups and downs of the earth's surface become landforms. This data set is geomorphic data within the Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor area with an accuracy of 90m, and the data format is TIF. The data is digitized from the geomorphic Atlas of the people's Republic of China (1:1 million). The landforms of plains, hills and platforms are classified according to altitude and fluctuation. The accuracy of the data is low, and there are few types of landforms in the study area. The regional combination and vertical differentiation of various landforms are not only closely related to the changes of climate and hydrology and the distribution of soil and organisms, but also have a significant impact on industrial and agricultural production, water conservancy and transportation construction, but also an important factor that must be considered in the evolution and management of ecological environment.

    2021-07-31 178 4

  • Identification lists of fossils from Nyalam and Xainza, Tibet and Longmenshan, Sichuan

    Identification lists of fossils from Nyalam and Xainza, Tibet and Longmenshan, Sichuan

    Paleozoic chronostratigraphic division and correlation are mainly based on biostratigraphy studies. In Tibet, biostratigraphic sequences of major fossil groups, such as conodont and rugose coral, have been briefly summarized by previous research. However, due to its remoteness, high altitude and the geographic extent of this vast mountainous region, most of the paleontological work being conducted in Tibet is of a reconnaissance nature. Collections and identifications of important index fossils are especially significant in improving our understating of Paleozoic stratigraphy in Himalayan, Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes and associated arc-basin systems. Abundant conodont, rugose coral, tabulate coral and stromatoporoid samples from the Pulu Formation in Nyalam (Himalaya terrane, Llandovery to Pridoli Yalai 2 sction, GPS coordinates: 28°24′17″ N, 86°5′48″ E)) and the Dardong Formation in Xainza (Lhasa terrane, Pragian to early Emsian SZ1 and SZ2 sections, GPS coordinates: 31°8′36.63″ N, 88°38′39.22″ E和31°7′56″ N, 88°37′47″ E), Tibet and the Changtanzi Formation in Longmenshan (Songpan-Ganzi terrane, Late Devonian Famennian Longmenshan section, GPS coordinates: 31°54′3.55″ N, 104°42′29.82″ E), Sichuan were collected and identified in this study. This dataset include identification lists from four sections in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its adjacent area, which are named as SZ1, SZ2, Yalai2 and Longmenshan, respectively.

    2021-07-31 295 0

  • Carbon and oxygen isotopic features of marine carbonate rocks from the Yalai 2 section in Nyalam, Tibet (433-419 Ma)

    Carbon and oxygen isotopic features of marine carbonate rocks from the Yalai 2 section in Nyalam, Tibet (433-419 Ma)

    Carbon cycle is controlled by relative changes in carbon fluxes of global atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. During the geological history, carbon isotope excursions usually occur in the critical period. Carbon isotope positive excursions are recognized to be related to abundant organic burial or enhanced primary productivity. Silurian δ13Ccarb curves from Euramerica have been established, but the isotopic patterns in different sections and regions can be quite different. Before the use of δ13Ccarb records to facilitate high resolution correlation, it is necessary to conduct sedimentary facies and diagenesis analyses and compare numerous isotopic records on a global scale, in order to learn the global versus local contribution in a δ13C record. 43 geochemical samples were collected from the Wenlock to Pridoli Pulu Formation for carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses, in order to reveal carbon cycling process in northern margin of Gondwana continent and alternation of carbon isotopic records during diagenesis. At the Yalai 2 section, δ13C values show a major positive shift in the Ludlow, which could be recognized in other sections around the world, indicating that major carbon cycling perturbation occurred during this time interval. This dataset include 43 carbon and oxygen isotopic records.

    2021-07-31 181 0

  • Fault distribution data of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor (2020)

    Fault distribution data of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor (2020)

    The data coverage area is Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor, which is vector line data. The data defines its active period and names it. The strike, nature, active period and exposure of the fault are described. However, the content is missing, and the secondary fault zone is not named. There are 590 linear elements within the Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor in this data set, but some linear elements are multiple elements of the same fault zone. The active fault zone is often the combination zone of different plates and different blocks. It is a relatively weak zone of the crust, which is easy to induce extremely serious earthquake disasters. It is also a concentrated development zone of geological disasters such as collapse, landslide and debris flow. The judgment of the location and nature of fault zone is of great significance to the risk susceptibility evaluation of geological disasters, and it is the key factor to study geological disasters.

    2021-07-30 144 18

  • Vegetaion type data of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor

    Vegetaion type data of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor

    The vegetation classification data of Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor is digitized from the 1:4 million vegetation map of China (1979). The digitized data also adopts equal product cone projection and can be converted to other projections by GIS software. The completion time is 1990. This data is area SHP data, and its attributes include vegetation code and its meaning. For details, please refer to the design description of China Vegetation code, which contains a detailed description of the vegetation code of 1:4 million China vegetation map. The data basically includes natural vegetation and agricultural vegetation, and the area is Sichuan Tibet traffic corridor. The development of vegetation roots and whether they like water are important factors affecting the development of geological disasters. The statistical study of the relationship between vegetation types and disasters is of great significance for disaster prevention and reduction, and vegetation types can also be used as key factors for disaster risk assessment.

    2021-07-30 205 15