Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (Leaf area index of Daman Superstation, 2019)

    This dataset contains the LAI measurements from the Daman superstation in the middle reaches of the Heihe integrated observatory network from June 1 to September 20 in 2019. The site (100.376° E, 38.853°N) was located in the maize surface, near Zhangye city in Gansu Province. The elevation is 1556 m. There are 7 observation samples, each of which is about 30m×30m in size, and the latitude and longitude are (100.376°E, 38.853°N)、(100.377° E, 38.858°N)、(100.374°E, 38.855°N)、(100.374°E, 38.858°N)、(100.371°E, 38.854°N)、(100.369°E, 38.854°N)、(100.369°E, 38.854°N). Five sub-canopy nodes and one above-canopy node are arranged in each sample. The data is obtained from LAINet measurements; the four-steps are performed to obtain LAI: the raw data is light quantum (level 0); the daily LAI can be obtained using the software LAInet (level 1); further the invalid and null values are screened and using the 7 days moving averaged method to obtain the processed LAI (level 2); for the multi LAINet nodes observation, the averaged LAI of the nodes area is the final LAI (level 3). The released data are the post processed LAI products and stored using *.xls format. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Qu et al. (2014) for data processing) in the Citation section.

    LIU Shaomin, QU Yonghua, XU Ziwei

    2769 75 Requestable 2021-10-20

    Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (phenology camera observation data set of Sidaoqiao Superstation-2020)

     The dataset contains the phenological camera observation data of the Sidaoqiao Superstation in the downstream reaches of Heihe integrated observatory network before May 31 and after September 2, 2020. Due to the power failure of phenological camera, the time is lost from May 31 to September 2, 2020. In addition, after the camera was moved and reinstalled, the object in the field of view before May 31 and after September 2 would change, which may cause the inconsistency of the data before and after. The site (101.137° E, 42.001° N) was located on a tamarix (Tamarix chinensis Lour.) surface in the Sidaoqiao, Dalaihubu Town, Ejin Banner, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The elevation is 873 m. The instrument was developed and data processed by Beijing Normal University. The phenomenon camera integrates data acquisition and data transmission functions. The camera captures data by look-downward with a resolution of 1280×720. For the calculation of the phenology, firstly, The phenological index needs to be calculated according to the region of interest. Such as, the relative greenness index (GCC, Green Chromatic Coordinate, calculated by GCC=G/(R+G+B)). Then, controlling the quality of data, filling the invalid value and filtering smoothing are performed. Finally, the key phenological parameters are determined according to the growth curve fitting, such as the growth season start date, peak, growth season end, etc. This data set includes the relative greenness index (GCC) in 2020. Please refer to Liu et al. (2018) for sites information in the Citation section.

    LIU Shaomin, QU Yonghua, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, REN Zhiguo

    360 18 Requestable 2021-07-08

    Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (leaf area index of Sidaoqiao superstation, 2020)

    This dataset contains the LAI measurements from the Sidaoqiao in the downstream of the Heihe integrated observatory network from July 25 to October 20 in 2020. The site was located in Ejina Banner in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The elevation is 870 m. There are 1 observation samples, around Sidaoqiao superstation (101.1374E, 42.0012N), which is about 30m×30m in size. Five sub-canopy nodes and one above-canopy node are arranged in each sample. The data is obtained from LAINet measurements; the four-steps are performed to obtain LAI: the raw data is light quantum (level 0); the daily LAI can be obtained using the software LAInet (level 1); further the invalid and null values are screened and using the 7 days moving averaged method to obtain the processed LAI (level 2); for the multi LAINet nodes observation, the averaged LAI of the nodes area is the final LAI (level 3). The released data are the post processed LAI products and stored using *.xls format. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Qu et al. (2014) for data processing) in the Citation section.

    LIU Shaomin, QU Yonghua, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, REN Zhiguo

    408 29 Requestable 2021-07-08

    Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (leaf area index of Mixed forest station, 2020)

    This dataset contains the LAI measurements from the Sidaoqiao in the downstream of the Heihe integrated observatory network from July 26 to October 20 in 2020. The site was located in Ejina Banner in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The elevation is 870 m. There are 1 observation samples, around Mixed forest station (101.1335E, 41.9903N), which is about 30 m×30 m in size. Five sub-canopy nodes and one above-canopy node are arranged in each sample. The data is obtained from LAINet measurements; the four-steps are performed to obtain LAI: the raw data is light quantum (level 0); the daily LAI can be obtained using the software LAInet (level 1); further the invalid and null values are screened and using the 7 days moving averaged method to obtain the processed LAI (level 2); for the multi LAINet nodes observation, the averaged LAI of the nodes area is the final LAI (level 3). The released data are the post processed LAI products and stored using *.xls format. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Qu et al. (2014) for data processing) in the Citation section.

    LIU Shaomin, QU Yonghua, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, REN Zhiguo

    341 28 Requestable 2021-07-08

    Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (leaf area index of Daman Superstation, 2020)

    This dataset contains the LAI measurements from the Daman superstation in the middle reaches of the Heihe integrated observatory network from June 1 to September 20 in 2020. The site (100.376° E, 38.853°N) was located in the maize surface, near Zhangye city in Gansu Province. The elevation is 1556 m. There are 6 observation samples, each of which is about 30m×30m in size, and the latitude and longitude are (100.376°E, 38.853°N), (100.377° E, 38.858°N), (100.374°E, 38.855°N), (100.374°E, 38.858°N), (100.371°E, 38.854°N), (100.369°E, 38.854°N). Five sub-canopy nodes and one above-canopy node are arranged in each sample. The data is obtained from LAINet measurements; the four-steps are performed to obtain LAI: the raw data is light quantum (level 0); the daily LAI can be obtained using the software LAInet (level 1); further the invalid and null values are screened and using the 7 days moving averaged method to obtain the processed LAI (level 2); for the multi LAINet nodes observation, the averaged LAI of the nodes area is the final LAI (level 3). The released data are the post processed LAI products and stored using *.xls format. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Qu et al. (2014) for data processing) in the Citation section.

    LIU Shaomin, QU Yonghua, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, TAN Junlei, REN Zhiguo

    455 40 Requestable 2021-07-08

    Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (phenology camera observation data set of Daman Superstation-2020)

    The dataset contains the phenological camera observation data of the Daman Superstation in the midstream of Heihe integrated observatory network from January 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020. The instrument was developed and data processed by Beijing Normal University. The phenomenon camera integrates data acquisition and data transmission functions. The camera captures data by look-downward with a resolution of 1280×720. For the calculation of the phenology, firstly, the phenological index needs to be calculated according to the region of interest. Such as, the relative greenness index (GCC, Green Chromatic Coordinate, calculated by GCC=G/(R+G+B)). Then, controlling the quality of data, filling the invalid value and filtering smoothing are performed. Finally, the key phenological parameters are determined according to the growth curve fitting, such as the growth season start date, peak, growth season end, etc. This data set includes the relative greenness index (GCC) in 2020. Please refer to Liu et al. (2018) for sites information in the Citation section.

    LIU Shaomin, QU Yonghua, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, TAN Junlei, REN Zhiguo

    365 22 Requestable 2021-07-08

    Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (phenology camera observation data set of A’rou Superstation-2020)

     This dataset contains phenological camera observation data of the A’rou Superstation in the upperstream reaches of Heihe integrated observatory network from January 1 to December 31 in 2020. The site (100.372° E, 38.856° N) was located in the Daban Village, near Qilian County in Qinghai Province. The elevation is 3033 m.The instrument was developed and data processed by Beijing Normal University. The phenomenon camera integrates data acquisition and data transmission functions. The camera captures data by look-downward with a resolution of 1280×720. For the calculation of the phenology, firstly, The phenological index needs to be calculated according to the region of interest. Such as, the relative greenness index (GCC, Green Chromatic Coordinate, calculated by GCC=G/(R+G+B)). Then, controlling the quality of data, filling the invalid value and filtering smoothing are performed. Finally, the key phenological parameters are determined according to the growth curve fitting, such as the growth season start date, peak, growth season end, etc. This data set includes the relative greenness index (GCC) in 2020. Please refer to Liu et al. (2018) for sites information in the Citation section.

    QU Yonghua, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, ZHANG Yang, LIU Shaomin

    465 24 Requestable 2021-07-08

    Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (Large aperture scintillometer of A'rou Superstation, 2020)

    This dataset contains the flux measurements from the large aperture scintillometer (LAS) at Arou Superstation in the Heihe integrated observatory network from January 18 to December 31 in 2020. There were two types of LASs at Arou Superstation: BLS900 and RR-RSS460, produced by Germany and China, respectively. The north tower was set up with the RR-RSS460 receiver and the BLS900 transmitter, and the south tower was equipped with the RR-RSS460 transmitter and the BLS900 receiver. The site (north: 100.471° E, 38.057° N; south: 100.457° E, 38.038° N) was located in Caodaban village of A’rou town in Qilian county, Qinghai Province. The underlying surface between the two towers was alpine meadow. The elevation is 3033 m. The effective height of the LASs was 13.0 m, and the path length was 2390 m. The data were sampled 1 minute at both BLS900 and RR-RSS460. The raw data acquired at 1 min intervals were processed and quality controlled. The data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods, in which sensible heat flux was iteratively calculated by combining Cn2 with meteorological data according to the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The main quality control steps were as follows: (1) The data were rejected when Cn2 exceeded the saturated criterion (BLS900: Cn2>7.25E-14, RR-RSS460: Cn2>7.84E-14). (2) The data were rejected when the demodulation signal was small (BLS900: Average X Intensity<1000; RR-RSS460: Demod>-20mv). (3) The data were rejected when collected during precipitation. (4) The data were rejected if collected at night when weak turbulence occurred (u* was less than 0.1 m/s). In the iteration process, the universal functions of Thiermann and Grassl (1992) and Andreas (1988) were selected for BLS900 and RR-RSS460, respectively. Detailed can refer to Liu et al. (2011, 2013). Due to instrument adjustment and inadequate power supply, the date of missing data for the large aperture scintillator is:2020.09.25-2020.10.16. Several instructions were included with the released data. (1) The data were primarily obtained from BLS900 measurements, and missing flux measurements from the BLS900 instrument were substituted with measurements from the RR-RSS460 instrument. The missing data were denoted by -6999. Due to the problems of storing and wireless transmission. (2) The dataset contained the following variables: Date/time (yyyy/m/d h:mm), the structural parameter of the air refractive index (Cn2, m-2/3), and the sensible heat flux (H, W/m^2). In this dataset, a time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30, and the data were stored in *.xlsx format. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

    LIU Shaomin, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, ZHANG Yang, TAN Junlei, REN Zhiguo

    448 15 Requestable 2021-06-11

    Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (eddy covariance system of mixed forest station, 2020)

    This dataset contains the flux measurements from the mixed forest station eddy covariance system (EC) in the downstream reaches of the Heihe integrated observatory network from January 1 to December 31 in 2020. The site (101.1335° E, 41.9903° N) was located in the Sidaoqiao County, in Ejina Banner in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region . The elevation is 874 m. The EC was installed at a height of 3.2 m, and the sampling rate was 10 Hz. The sonic anemometer faced north, and the separation distance between the sonic anemometer and the CO2/H2O gas analyzer (CSAT3B & Li7500DS) was 0.17 m. The raw data acquired at 10 Hz were processed using the Eddypro post-processing software, including the spike detection, lag correction of H2O/CO2 relative to the vertical wind component, sonic virtual temperature correction, coordinate rotation (2-D rotation), corrections for density fluctuation (Webb-Pearman-Leuning correction), and frequency response correction. The EC data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods. The observation data quality was divided into three classes according to the quality assessment method of stationarity (Δst) and the integral turbulent characteristics test (ITC): class 1-3 (high quality), class 4-6 (good), class 7-8 (poor, better than gap filling data), class9 (rejected). In addition to the above processing steps, the half-hourly flux data were screened in a four-step procedure: (1) data from periods of sensor malfunction were rejected; (2) data collected before or after 1 h of precipitation were rejected; (3) incomplete 30 min data were rejected when the missing data constituted more than 10% of the 30 min raw record. There were 48 records per day, and the missing data were replaced with -6999. Suspicious data were marked in red. The water vapor density data were rejected when the negative values occurred. Data during May 8 to 20, 2020 were missing due to instrument malfunction. The released data contained the following variables: data/time, wind direction (Wdir, °), wind speed (Wnd, m/s), the standard deviation of the lateral wind (Std_Uy, m/s), virtual temperature (Tv, ℃), H2O mass density (H2O, g/m3), CO2 mass density (CO2, mg/m3), friction velocity (ustar, m/s), stability (L), sensible heat flux (Hs, W/m2), latent heat flux (LE, W/m2), carbon dioxide flux (Fc, mg/ (m2s)), quality assessment of the sensible heat flux (QA_Hs), quality assessment of the latent heat flux (QA_LE), and quality assessment of the carbon flux (QA_Fc). In this dataset, the time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30; the data were stored in *.xls format. Detailed information can be found in the suggested references. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) for data processing) in the Citation section.

    LIU Shaomin, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, REN Zhiguo, ZHANG Yang, TAN Junlei

    470 39 Requestable 2021-06-09

    Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (Cosmic-ray observation system of soil moisture of Daman Superstation, 2020)

    This dataset includes data recorded by the Heihe integrated observatory network obtained from a Cosmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System of soil moisture of Daman Superstation from January 1 to December 31, 2020. The site (100.372° E, 38.856° N) was located on a cropland (maize surface) in the Daman irrigation, which is near Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1556 m. The bottom of the probe was 0.5 m above the ground; the sampling interval was 1 hour. The raw COSMOS data include the following: battery (Batt, V), temperature (T, C), relative humidity (RH, %), air pressure (P, hPa), fast neutron counts (N1C, counts per hour), thermal neutron counts (N2C, counts per hour), sample time of fast neutrons (N1ET, s), and sample time of thermal neutrons (N2ET, s). The distributed data include the following variables: Date, Time, P, N1C, N1C_cor (corrected fast neutron counts) and VWC (volume soil moisture, %), which were processed as follows: 1) Data were removed and replaced by -6999 when (a) the battery voltage was less than 11.8 V, (b) the relative humidity was greater than 80% inside the probe box, (c) the counting data were not of one-hour duration and (d) neutron count differed from the previous value by more than 20%; 2) An air pressure correction was applied to the quality-controlled raw data according to the equation contained in the equipment manual; 3) After the quality control and corrections were applied, soil moisture was calculated using the equation in Zreda et al. (2012), where N0 is the neutron counts above dry soil and the other variables are fitted constants that define the shape of the calibration function. Here, the parameter N0 was calibrated using the in situ observed soil moisture by SoilNET within the footprint; 4) Based on the calibrated N0 and corrected N1C, the hourly soil moisture was computed using the equation from the equipment manual. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Zhu et al. (2015) for data processing) in the Citation section.

    LIU Shaomin, CHE Tao, ZHU Zhongli, XU Ziwei, REN Zhiguo, TAN Junlei, ZHANG Yang

    346 16 Requestable 2021-06-02

    Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (Large aperture scintillometer of Sidaoqiao Superstation, 2020)

    This dataset contains the flux measurements from the large aperture scintillometer (LAS) at Sidaoqiao Superstation in the Heihe integrated observatory network from January 1 to December 31 in 2020. There were BLS900, BLS450 and RR-RSS460 at Sidaoqiao Superstation. The north towers were set up with these instruments’ receivers and the south towers were transmitters. The site (north: 101.137° E, 42.008° N; south: 101.131° E, 41.987 N) was located in Ejinaqi, Inner Mongolia. The underlying surfaces between the two towers were tamarisk, populus, bare land and farmland. The elevation is 873 m. The effective height of the LAS was 25.5 m, and the path length was 2350 m. The data were sampled 1 minute. The raw data acquired at 1 min intervals were processed and quality controlled. The data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods, in which sensible heat flux was iteratively calculated by combining Cn2 with meteorological data according to the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The main quality control steps were as follows: (1) The data were rejected when Cn2 exceeded the saturated criterion (BLS900&BLS450:Cn2>7.25E-14,RR-RSS460:Cn2>7.84 E-14). (2) The data were rejected when the demodulation signal was small (BLS900&BLS450:Average X Intensity<1000;RR-RSS460:Demod>-20mv). (3) The data were rejected when collected during precipitation. (4) The data were rejected if collected at night when weak turbulence occurred (u* was less than 0.1 m/s). In the iteration process, the universal functions of Thiermann and Grassl (1992) and Andreas (1988) were selected for BLS900 and RR-RSS460, respectively. Detailed can refer to Liu et al. (2011, 2013). Due to instrument adjustment and inadequate power supply, the date of missing data for the large aperture scintillator is: 2020.02.13-2020.02.14;2020.05.18-2020.15.19。 Several instructions were included with the released data. (1) The las data are firstly from BLS900, followed by BLS450, and finally the final missing data was marked with-6999. (2) The dataset contained the following variables: Date/time (yyyy/m/d h:mm), the structural parameter of the air refractive index (Cn2, m-2/3), and the sensible heat flux (H, W/m^2). In this dataset, a time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30, and the data were stored in *.xlsx format. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

    LIU Shaomin, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, REN Zhiguo, TAN Junlei, ZHANG Yang

    383 11 Requestable 2021-06-02

    Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (Large aperture scintillometer of Daman Superstation, 2020)

    This dataset contains the flux measurements from the large aperture scintillometer (LAS) at Daman Superstation in the Heihe integrated observatory network from January 1 to December 6 in 2020. There were two types of LASs at Daman Superstation: BLS900 and RR-RSS460, produced by Germany. The north tower was set up with the BLS900 receiver and the RR-RSS460 transmitter, and the south tower was equipped with the BLS900 transmitter and the RR-RSS460 receiver. The site (north: 100.379° E, 38.861° N; south: 100.369° E, 38.847° N) was located in Daman irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The underlying surfaces between the two towers were corn, orchard, and greenhouse. The elevation is 1556 m. The effective height of the LASs was 24.1 m, and the path length was 1854 m. The data were sampled 1 minute at both BLS900 and RR-RSS460. The raw data acquired at 1 min intervals were processed and quality controlled. The data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods, in which sensible heat flux was iteratively calculated by combining Cn2 with meteorological data according to the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The main quality control steps were as follows: (1) The data were rejected when Cn2 exceeded the saturated criterion (BLS900:Cn2>7.25E-14,RR-RSS460:Cn2>7.84 E-14). (2) The data were rejected when the demodulation signal was small (BLS900:Average X Intensity<1000;RR-RSS460:Demod>-20mv). (3) The data were rejected when collected during precipitation. (4) The data were rejected if collected at night when weak turbulence occurred (u* was less than 0.1 m/s). In the iteration process, the universal functions of Thiermann and Grassl (1992) and Andreas (1988) were selected for BLS900 and RR-RSS460, respectively. Detailed can refer to Liu et al. (2011, 2013). Due to instrument adjustment and inadequate power supply, the date of missing data for the large aperture scintillator is: 2020.06.21-2020.06.23;2020.09.21-2020.10.14. Several instructions were included with the released data. (1) The data were primarily obtained from BLS900 measurements, and missing flux measurements from the BLS900 instrument were substituted with measurements from the RR-RSS460 instrument. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) The dataset contained the following variables: Date/time (yyyy/m/d h:mm), the structural parameter of the air refractive index (Cn2, m-2/3), and the sensible heat flux (H, W/m^2). In this dataset, a time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30, and the data were stored in *.xlsx format. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

    LIU Shaomin, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, REN Zhiguo, TAN Junlei, ZHANG Yang

    362 20 Requestable 2021-06-02

    Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (automatic weather station of Zhangye wetland station, 2020)

    This dataset includes data recorded by the Heihe integrated observatory network obtained from the automatic weather station (AWS) at the observation system of Zhangye wetland station from January 1 to December 31, 2020. The site (100.4464° E, 38.9751° N) was located on a wetland (reed surface) in Zhangye National Wetland Park, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1460 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (HMP45AC; 5 and 10 m, north), wind speed profile (03002; 5 and 10 m, north), wind direction profile (03002; 10 m, north), air pressure (CS100; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), four-component radiometer (CNR1; 6 m, south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates, -0.06 m), soil temperature profile (109ss-L; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2 and -0.4 m), and four photosynthetically active radiation (PQS-1; two above the plants, 6 m, south, one vertically downward and one vertically upward; two below the plants, 0.25 m, south, one vertically downward and one vertically upward). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and Ta_10 m; RH_5 m and RH_10 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_5 m and Ws_10 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, and Gs_3) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm and Ts_40 cm) (℃), on the plants photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_U_up and PAR_U_down) (μmol/ (s m^-2)), and below the plants photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_D_up and PAR_D_down) (μmol/ (s m^-2)). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2019-6-10 10:30. (6) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) for data processing) in the Citation section.

    LIU Shaomin, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, REN Zhiguo, TAN Junlei, ZHANG Yang

    462 50 Requestable 2021-05-31

    Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (automatic weather station of Yakou station, 2020)

    This dataset includes data recorded by the Heihe integrated observatory network obtained from the automatic weather station (AWS) at the observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Yakou station from January 1 to December 31, 2020. The site (100.2421°E, 38.0142°N) was located on an alpine meadow surface, which is near west of Qilian county, Qinghai Province. The elevation is 4148 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (HMP45C; 5 m, north), wind speed and direction profile (010C/020C; 10 m, north), air pressure (PTB110; in the tamper box on the ground), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), four-component radiometer (CNR1; 6 m, south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates, -0.06 m), soil temperature profile (109ss-L; 0, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m), and soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m; RH_5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_10 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2 and Gs_3) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_80 cm, Ts_120 cm, and Ts_160 cm) (℃), and soil moisture (Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_80 cm, Ms_120 cm, and Ms_160 cm) (%, volumetric water content). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The missing data were denoted by -6999. Due to the sensor malfunction, the four-component radiation was wrong intermittently. Due to the power loss, data during February 2 to April 25 were missing. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2020-9-10 10:30. (6) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) for data processing) in the Citation section.

    LIU Shaomin, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, ZHANG Yang, TAN Junlei, REN Zhiguo

    506 59 Requestable 2021-05-31

    Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Sidaoqiao Superstation, 2020)

    This dataset includes data recorded by the Heihe integrated observatory network obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Sidaoqiao Superstation from January 1 to December 31, 2020. The site (101.137° E, 42.001° N) was located on a tamarix (Tamarix chinensis Lour.) surface in the Sidaoqiao, Dalaihubu Town, Ejin Banner, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The elevation is 873 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (HC2S3; 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 28 m, towards north), wind speed profile (010C; 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 28 m, towards north), wind direction profile (020C; 15 m, towards north), air pressure (CS100; in waterproof box), rain gauge (TE525M; 28 m, towards south), four-component radiometer (CNR4; 10 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 10 m, towards south, vertically downward), two photosynthetically active radiation (PQS-1; 10 m, towards south, one vertically upward and one vertically downward), soil heat flux (HFP01SC; 3 duplicates with G1 below the tamarix; G2 and G3 between plants, -0.06 m), a TCAV averaging soil thermocouple probe (installed on 17 July, 2013, TCAV; -0.02, -0.04 m), soil temperature profile (109ss-L; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, -1.6, -2.0 m), and soil moisture profile (install on 7 December, 2013, ML2X; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, -1.6, -2.0 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m, Ta_7 m, Ta_10 m, Ta_15 m, Ta_20 m and Ta_28 m; RH_5 m, RH_7 m, RH_10 m, RH_15 m, RH_20 m and RH_28 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_5 m, Ws_7 m, Ws_10 m, Ws_15 m, Ws_20 m and Ws_28 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_15 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_up and PAR_down) (μmol/ (s m^-2)), average soil temperature (TCAV, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2 and Gs_3) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_80 cm, Ts_120 cm, Ts_160 cm, Ts_200 cm) (℃), and soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_80 cm, Ms_120 cm, Ms_160 cm, Ms_200 cm) (%, volumetric water content). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. Data of wind speed at 20 m height during January to April, and infrared temperature 2 during January to May were wrong because of the sensor problem; the soil temperature and moisture was occasionally wrong during January 1 to 14 because of datalogger problem. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2020-9-10 10:30. (6) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) for data processing) in the Citation section.

    LIU Shaomin, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, REN Zhiguo, TAN Junlei, ZHANG Yang

    416 40 Requestable 2021-05-31

    Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (automatic weather station of Jingyangling station, 2020)

    This dataset includes data recorded by the Heihe integrated observatory network obtained from the automatic weather station (AWS) at the Jingyangling station from January 1 to December 31, 2020. The site (101.116° E, 37.838° N) was located on a cold meadow surface in the Jingyangling, Qilian County, Qinghai Province. The elevation is 3750 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (5 m, north), wind speed and direction (10 m, north), air pressure (in the tamper box on the ground), rain gauge (10 m), four-component radiometer (6 m, south), two infrared temperature sensors (6 m, south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (3 duplicates, -0.06 m), soil temperature profile (0, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m), and soil moisture profile (-0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m; RH_5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_10 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2 and Gs_3) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_80 cm, Ts_120 cm, and Ts_160 cm) (℃), and soil moisture (Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_80 cm, Ms_120 cm, and Ms_160 cm) (%, volumetric water content). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The missing data were denoted by -6999. Due to the snow cover the solar panel causing insufficient power supply, data during March 14-April 25 were missing; due to the sensor malfunction, there were some NAN invalid values of the wind speed and direction; incorrect data of upward shortwave radiation occasionally; (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2020-9-10 10:30. (6) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) for data processing) in the Citation section.

    LIU Shaomin, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, ZHANG Yang, TAN Junlei, REN Zhiguo

    471 40 Requestable 2021-05-31

    Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (automatic weather station of mixed forest station, 2020)

    This dataset includes data recorded by the Heihe integrated observatory network obtained from the automatic weather station (AWS) at the Sidaoqiao mixed forest station from January 1 to December 31, 2020. The site (101.134° E, 41.990° N) was located on a tamarix and populous forest (Tamarix chinensis Lour. and Populus euphratica Olivier.) surface in the Sidaoqiao, Dalaihubu Town, Ejin Banner, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The elevation is 874 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (28 m, north), wind speed and direction profile (28 m, north), air pressure (in tamper box), rain gauge (28 m, south), four-component radiometer (24 m, south), two infrared temperature sensors (24 m, south, vertically downward), two photosynthetically active radiation (24 m, south, one vertically upward and one vertically downward), soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates, -0.06 m), soil temperature profile (0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -1.0, -1.6, -2.0, -2.4 m), and soil moisture profile (-0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -1.0, -1.6, -2.0, -2.4 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_28 m; RH_28 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_28 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_28 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_up and PAR_down) (μmol/ (s m^-2)), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2 and Gs_3) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, Ts_100, Ts_160, Ts_200, Ts_240 cm) (℃), and soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, Ms_100, Ms_160, Ms_200, Ms_240 cm) (%, volumetric water content). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The missing data were denoted by -6999. Due to the power loss, there were occasionally data missing in January. Due to the sensor malfunction, the wind direction and soil temperature at 240 cm depth during January to June and soil temperature at 10 cm depth were missing. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2020-9-10 10:30. (6) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) for data processing) in the Citation section.

    LIU Shaomin, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, REN Zhiguo, TAN Junlei, ZHANG Yang

    394 40 Requestable 2021-05-31

    Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (automatic weather station of desert station, 2020)

    This dataset includes data recorded by the Heihe integrated observatory network obtained from the automatic weather station (AWS) at the desert station from January 1 to December 31, 2020. The site (100.9872°E, 42.1135°N) was located on a desert surface in the desert, which is near Ejin Banner, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The elevation is 1054 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (HMP45AC; 5 and 10 m, north), wind speed profile (010C; 5 and 10 m, north), wind direction (020C, 10m), air pressure (CS100; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), four-component radiometer (CNR1; 6 m, south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates, -0.06 m), soil temperature profile (109ss-L; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -1.0 m), soil moisture profile (ML3; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -1.0 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and Ta_10 m; RH_5 m and RH_10 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_5 m and Ws_10 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, and Gs_3) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, Ts_100 cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, Ms_100 cm) (%). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2020-6-10 10:30. (6) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) for data processing) in the Citation section.

    LIU Shaomin, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, REN Zhiguo, TAN Junlei, ZHANG Yang

    402 39 Requestable 2021-05-31

    Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (automatic weather station of Huazhaizi desert steppe station, 2020)

    This dataset includes data recorded by the Heihe integrated observatory network obtained from the automatic weather station (AWS) at the observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Huazhaizi desert steppe station from January 1 to December 31, 2020. The site (100.3201°E, 38.7659°N) was located on a desert steppe surface in the Huazhaizi, which is near Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1731 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (HMP45AC; 5 and 10 m, north), wind speed and direction profile (windsonic; 5 and 10 m, north), air pressure (CS100; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), four-component radiometer (CNR1; 6 m, south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates, -0.06 m), soil temperature profile (109ss-L; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -1.0 m), soil moisture profile (ML3; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -1.0 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and Ta_10 m; RH_5 m and RH_10 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_5 m and Ws_10 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_5 m and WD_10 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, and Gs_3) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, Ts_100 cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, Ms_100 cm) (%). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The missing data were denoted by -6999. Due to the malfunction of sensors, data during 1.14-1.17 and 5.11-5.16 were missing; (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2020-6-10 10:30. (6) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) for data processing) in the Citation section.

    LIU Shaomin, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, REN Zhiguo, TAN Junlei, ZHANG Yang

    393 44 Requestable 2021-05-31

    Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (automatic weather station of Heihe remote sensing station, 2020)

    This dataset includes data recorded by the Heihe integrated observatory network obtained from the automatic weather station (AWS) at the observation system of Heihe remote sensing station from January 1 to December 31, 2020. The site (100.4756° E, 38.8270° N) was located on artificial grassland in Dangzhai Town of Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1560 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (1.5 m, north), wind speed and direction (10 m, north), air pressure (2 m), rain gauge (0.7 m), four-component radiometer (1.5 m, south), two infrared temperature sensors (1.5 m, south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (3 duplicates, -0.06 m), soil temperature profile (0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, -1.6 m), soil moisture profile (-0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, -1.6 m), and two photosynthetically active radiation (1.5 m, south, one vertically downward and one vertically upward). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_1.5, RH_1.5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_10 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, and Gs_3) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_80 cm, Ts_120 cm, Ts_160 cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_80 cm, Ms_120 cm, Ms_160 cm) (℃),on the plants photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_U_up and PAR_U_down) (μmol/ (s m^-2)). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The missing data were denoted by -6999. Due to the power loss, data during August 26 to September 18 and October 10 to 17 were missing. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2020-6-10 10:30. (6) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) for data processing) in the Citation section.

    LIU Shaomin, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, REN Zhiguo, TAN Junlei, ZHANG Yang

    388 32 Requestable 2021-05-31