The data set of hydrogeological elements in the typical frozen soil area of Qilian Mountain mainly includes groundwater type, water richness (single water inflow or single spring flow), main rivers and tributaries, spring water (falling springs, spring groups, large springs, Mineral spring distribution), borehole (pressure water borehole, submerged borehole, gravity flow borehole distribution), fault zone (compressive fracture, tensile fracture), angle unconformity boundary, parallel unconformity boundary, west branch of upper Heihe River The boundary of the watershed, the seasonal frozen soil area and the permafrost distinguish the boundary, the distribution of modern glaciers and swamps. This data set of hydrogeological elements can provide background information for the hydrological ecological process and hydrogeological environment in cold regions. This data comes from the vectorization of four 1: 200,000 hydrogeological maps (Qilian, Yenigou, Qilian, and Sunan) and reintegrates the groundwater types. With higher resolution, the data can provide background information for the research on the evolution of water and soil resources and environmental changes in the source area of the Pan-Third Pole River.
We compiled the Seismotectonic Map of Western Asia using the ArcGIS platform through data collecting and digitization. The seismotectonic map of Western Asia covers Iran and its surrounding countries and regions. Based on the “Major active faults of Iran” map, the seismotectonic map is replenished with massive published data and depicts the location and nature of the seisogenic faults or active faults and the epicenter of earthquakes with M ≥ 5 from 1960 to 2019. The map can not only be used in the research of active faults and seismic risks in Western Asia, but also will be applied to the seismic safety evaluation for infrastructure construction.
The Pan-Third Polar region has strong seismic activity, which is driven by the subduction and collision of the Indian plate, the Arab plate and the Eurasian plate. 18806 earthquakes with Magnitude 5 or larger have occurred in Pan-Third Polar region (north latitude 0-56 degrees and east longitude 43-139 degrees) since 1960. Among them, 4 earthquakes with Magnitude 8 or larger, 187 earthquakes with Magnitude 7.0-7.9， 1625 earthquakes with Magnitude 6.0-6.9 and 16990 earthquakes with Magnitude 5.0-5.9 have occurred. Earthquakes occurred mainly in the foothills of the India-Myanmar Mountains, the Himalaya Mountains, the Sulaiman Mountains, where the India Plate collided with the Eurasian plate, and the Zagros Mountains where the Arab plate collided with the Eurasian plate.
This data set is from the paper: Ding, L., Spicer, R.A., Yang, J., Xu, Q., Cai, F.L., Li, S., Lai, q.z., Wang, H.Q., Spicer, t.e.v., Yue, Y.H., Shukla, A., Srivastava, g., Khan, M.A., BERA, S., and Mehrotra, R. 2017. Quantifying the rise of the Himalaya origin and implications for the South Asian monsoon. Geography, 45:215-218. This achievement is part of a series of research results of paleoaltitude carried out by Ding Lin' team. We reconstruct the rise of a segment of the southern flank of the Himalaya-Tibet orogen, to the south of the Lhasa terrane, using a paleoaltimeter based on paleoenthalpy encoded in fossil leaves from two new assemblages in southern Tibet (Liuqu and Qiabulin) and four previously known floras from the Himalaya foreland basin. U-Pb dating of zircons constrains the Liuqu flora to the latest Paleocene (ca. 56 Ma) and the Qiabulin flora to the earliest Miocene (21–19 Ma). The proto-Himalaya grew slowly against a high (~4 km) proto–Tibetan Plateau from ~1 km in the late Paleocene to ~2.3 km at the beginning of the Miocene, and achieved at least ~5.5 km by ca. 15 Ma. Contrasting precipitation patterns between the Himalaya-Tibet edifice and the Himalaya foreland basin for the past ~56 m.y. show progressive drying across southern Tibet, seemingly linked to the uplift of the Himalaya orogen.
Guided by the theories of plate tectonics, paleogeography, petroliferous basin analysis and sedimentary basin dynamics, we have collected a large number of data and achievements of geological research and oil-gas geological research in Pan third pole in recent years, including basic materials such as stratum, sedimentation, paleontology, paleogeography, paleoenvironment, paleoclimate, structure, oil-gas (potash) geology, especially paleomagnetism and paleogenesis On the basis of zircon and geochemical data, combined with the results of typical measured stratigraphic sections, the lithofacies and climate palaeogeographic pattern of Jurassic period are restored and reconstructed, and the paleogeographic map of lithofacies and climate of Pan third extremely early, middle and late Jurassic (3 sheets) and pan third extremely early, middle and late Jurassic (3 sheets) are obtained, aiming to discuss paleogeography and paleostructure The control and influence of paleoclimate on oil and gas (including potash) resources, in order to reveal the geological conditions and resource distribution rules of oil and gas formation, and provide scientific basis and technical support for overseas and domestic oil and gas exploration and deployment in China.
The data set includes soil organic carbon concentrations data of representative soil samples collected from July 2012 to August 2013 in the Heihe River Basin. The first soil survey was conducted in 2012. After the representativeness evaluation of collected samples, we conducted an additional sampling in 2013. These samples are representative enough to represent the soil variation in the Heihe River Basin, of which the soil variation in each landscape could be accounted for. The sampling depths in field refer to the sampling specification of Chinese Soil Taxonomy, in which soil samples were taken from genetic soil horizons.
SONG Xiaodong ZHANG Ganlin
The data set includes soil bulk density data of representative soil samples collected from July 2012 to August 2013 in the Heihe River Basin. The first soil survey was conducted in 2012. After the representativeness evaluation of collected samples, we conducted an additional sampling in 2013. These samples are representative enough to represent the soil variation in the Heihe River Basin, of which the soil variation in each landscape could be accounted for. The sampling depths in field refer to the sampling specification of Chinese Soil Taxonomy, in which soil samples were taken from genetic soil horizons.
SONG Xiaodong ZHANG Ganlin
The data set includes soil pH data of representative soil samples collected from July 2012 to August 2013 in the Heihe River Basin. The first soil survey was conducted in 2012. After the representativeness evaluation of collected samples, we conducted an additional sampling in 2013. These samples are representative enough to represent the soil variation in the Heihe River Basin, of which the soil variation in each landscape could be accounted for. The sampling depths in field refer to the sampling specification of Chinese Soil Taxonomy, in which soil samples were taken from genetic soil horizons.
SONG Xiaodong ZHANG Ganlin
Paleomagnetism has played an important role in quantifying the Mesozoic evolution of “Proto-Tibet”. We present here our recent paleomagnetic data from five Middle-Upper Jurassic sedimentary sequences of the eastern North Qiangtang Terrane at Yanshiping. The new paleomagnetic results from 99 sites, 1,702 samples and reveal paleopoles at 79.1°N/306.9°E (dp=3.9°, dm=6.3°) for Quemo Co Fm, 68.9°N/313.8°E (dp=2.1°, dm=3.7°) for Buqu Fm, 66.1°N/332.1°E (dp=2.7°, dm=4.6°) for Xiali Fm, 72.4°N/318.6°E (dp=3.9°, dm=6.7°) for Suowa Fm, and 76.9°N/301.1°E (dp=7.9°, dm=13.2°) for Xueshan Fm, respectively. These results indicate that Yanshiping experienced latitudinal changes from ~24.5° N to ~22.0º N over the time interval 171.2 - <157.5 Ma, accompanied by clockwise (CW) rotations of ~19.8±9.4º between ~171.2 and 161.7 Ma and counterclockwise (CCW) rotations of ~15.4±13.4º between ~161.7 and <157.2 Ma. We attribute the change in rotation sense at approximately ~161.7 Ma to the initial collision of the Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes. Using this and other paleomagnetic data from the Lhasa, Qiangtang and Tarim terranes, as well as other geological evidence, such as tectonism-related sedimentary sequences, volcanism, and HP metamorphism, we propose a new conceptual evolution model for the Mesozoic QT and Tethyan Oceans, including 3 intra-continental collisions (South-North Qiangtang, Qiangtang-Songpan-Ganzi and Lhasa-Qiangtang) and post collisional extensions.
This data is the grain size data set of the XS loess section at Ganzi in the east of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The whole section is 10 meters thick, and the grain size analysis is carried out according to the interval of 2.5cm. A total of 398 groups of grain size data are obtained. The grain size analysis was carried out at the Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems（Ministry of Education), Lanzhou University. Before the measurement, the organic matter and carbonate in the sample were removed by H2O2 and hydrochloric acid, then adding the sodium hexago-hydrophosphate and vibrating for about 10 min to disperse samples by using ultrasonic apparatus. All measurements are conducted by using the Mastersizer 2000. This data reflects variations of the loess grain size since the last interglacial, which is of great importance for understanding past evionroment changes in the eastern Tibet Plateau.
The Simao Basin is located in the south of the Yunnan province and the southeast of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. It is classified as the Sanjiang tectonic domain belongs to the eastern part of Tethyan tectonic domain. The thick and continuous Early Cenozoic strata preserved in the basin is thought to be an ideal achieve to reconstruct the history of tectonic evolution in this area as well as on the southeastern plateau. The most complete Early Cenozoic strata in the Simao Basin are located in Xiaojinggu Town, Jinggu County, which mainly includes the sedimentary strata of the Mengyejing Formation, the Denghei Formation and the Mengla Formation. Previously, the chronological study of sedimentary strata in the Simao Basin is mainly concentrated in the Mengyejing Formation with potassium salt. However, scholars still have significant controversy about the deposition time of this group at this stage. Further, a complete sedimentary profile containing the middle and lower part of the Mengyejing Formation could not obtain due to vegetation cover and village construction. Through the systematic thermal demagnetization analysis of the 361.86-meter-thick borehole that encompasses the entire Mengyejing Formation, a Paleocene-Cretaceous high-resolution magnetic chronology results were obtained in this area initially.
The Qujing Basin is located in the eastern part of Yunnan Province, is a long and narrow rift basin with north-south trend in shape. The Basin preserves thick and continuous Cenozoic sediments, which can be divided into Xiaotun Formation, Caijiachong Formation and Ciying Formation from bottom to top. These thick Cenozoic sediments deposited are ideal achieves used to explore the history of local deformation process affected by the collision of the Indian-Eurasian plate as well as the evolution of the Indian monsoon in the Cenozoic. Previously, the macrochronological framework of these stratum was mainly defined by biological fossils, but high-resolution chronology with precise chronological control has not been carried out, thus limiting the understanding of tectonic evolution and climate and environmental changes since the Eocene in Yunnan. Based on the paleomagnetic test performed on the 300-meters thick boreholes drilled in the Qujing Basin as well as the U-Pb age (35.49 ± 0.78 Ma) results of volcanic tuff zircon collected from the top of the Caijiachong Formation, we then present the preliminary results of a precise chronological controlled high-resolution magnetic chronology record.
The data set integrated glacier inventory data and 426 Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI images, and adopted manual visual interpretation to extract glacial lake boundaries within a 10-km buffer from glacier terminals using ArcGIS and ENVI software, normalized difference water index maps, and Google Earth images. It was established that 26,089 and 28,953 glacial lakes in HMA, with sizes of 0.0054–5.83 km2, covered a combined area of 1692.74 ± 231.44 and 1955.94 ± 259.68 km2 in 1990 and 2018, respectively.The current glacial lake inventory provided fundamental data for water resource evaluation, assessment of glacial lake outburst floods, and glacier hydrology research in the mountain cryosphere region
This data set comes from shallow marine carbonate sections at Tingri and Gamba, south Tibet. The age of these samples is about 56 Ma (at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary). At Tingri, we studied two parallel sections (13ZS section and 10-11TM section), and at Gamba, we studied one section (11TMG). From the 13ZS section, we analyzed carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions and calcium carbonate content of the whole carbonate rock, as well as the in-situ carbon isotopic compositions and element contents of the foraminifera shell. From the 10-11TM section, we analyzed carbon, oxygen and strontium isotopic compositions of the whole rock. From the 11TMG section, we analyzed carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of the whole carbonate rock. Carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of the whole rock were measured by gas isotope mass spectrometer (MAT251), strontium isotope by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), calcium carbonate content by acid dissolution, in-situ carbon isotopic compositions by SIMS, and in-situ element contents by LA-ICPMS. Among these data, in-situ carbon isotope data were obtained from the laboratory of Professor John Valley at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in the United States, and the rest are from the relevant laboratories of the Department of Geosciences at the University of Bremen in Germany. Based on these data, we published three peer-reviewed papers on Journals of Gondwana Research, GSA Bulletin, and Global and Planetary Change.
The thick Cenozoic sediments deposited in Yunnan are ideal achieves used to explore the history of local deformation process affected by the collision of the Indian-Eurasian plate as well as the evolution of the Indian monsoon in the Cenozoic. However, due to the lack of precise age control, the early Neogene strata in Yunnan are poorly constrained. The Qujing Basin in the northern part of Yunnan Province preserves thick and continuous Cenozoic sediments, which can be divided into the Xiaotun Formation, the Caijiachong Formation and the Ciying Formation from bottom to top. Through the combination of the field outcrop profile and the borehole core, the research team obtained the stratified stratum of the Xiaotun Formation and the Caijiachong Formation with a total thickness of 251 m in the Qujing Basin. The U-Pb geochronology of the top volcanic tuff layer (35.49 ± 0.78 Ma), Caijiachong mammal fossil group (late Eocene) as well as magnetic stratigraphy collectively reveals that the age at the bottom of the Xiaotun Formation is 46.2 Ma, the top of the Caijiachong Formation should be < 36.2 Ma, and the epoch line of the two groups is 41.2 Ma. However, due to the weak influence of tectonic activities in the late Cenozoic and the small deformation of the formation, the terrain in the middle of the basin is relatively flat, resulting in the inability to obtain the top of the continuous Caijiachong Formation and the upper Ciying Formation samples. A total of 320.1 meter core covering the entire Ciying Formation and the Caijiachong Formation was obtained through the continuous drilling mission carried out in the center of the basin. Among them, the overall lithology of the core of the Ciying Formation (0-216.3 m) is dominated by gray mudstone and siltstone, and several layers of coal seams are intercalated; while the lower Caijiachong Formation (216.3-305.5 m) is grayish and grayish green mudstone. The lithology of the Xiaotun Formation (305.5-320.1 m) is mainly dominated by red mudstone.
The most complete Early Cenozoic strata in the Simao Basin are located in Xiaojinggu Town, Jinggu County, which mainly includes the sedimentary strata of the Mengyejing Formation, the Denghei Formation and the Mengla Formation. Due to the tectonic uplifting of the mountain in the late Cenozoic, the syncline structure caused the top of the Mengyejing Formation, the Denghei Formation and the Mengla Formation to be exposed to the surface. However, a complete sedimentary profile containing the middle and lower part of the Mengyejing Formation could not be obtained due to vegetation cover and village construction. The chronological study of sedimentary strata in the Simao Basin is mainly concentrated in the Mengyejing Formation with potassium salt. However, there still has significant controversy about the deposition time of this group at this stage. Recently, a continuous and complete high-resolution sequence (361.86 m in thickness) of the Mengyejing Formation was obtained through the continuous drilling. Among them, the Mengyejing Formation (0-353.3 m) is mainly a set of purple-red muddy silt and mudstone combination, while the underlying Mangang Formation (353.3-361.86 m) is a set of gray-white sandstone.
The Lunpola Basin in the central Tibetan Plateau is situated along the southern margin of the east-west stretched Banggong-Nujiang suture belt between the Qiangtang Terrane and the Lhasa Terrane. The thick and continuous Cenozoic sediments in the basin can provide great potential for understanding the tectonic uplift, paleoaltimetry, erosion and depositional history of the Tibetan Plateau and climate environmental evolution. However, the study of geologic and climatic changes has been hindered by poor age constraints on the Cenozoic sedimentary sequence in the Lunpola Basin, especially its upper part with typical lacustrine oil shale sediments due to the discontinuous or unexposed outcrop caused by erosion or weathering. In this study, we investigated a 658 m-thick Cenozoic continuous lacustrine sedimentary section, Lunpori, from the upper sequence of the central basin. We found two layers of tuffs in this section and then carried out detailed paleomagnetic measurements. Constrained by tie points of U-Pb zircon ages, the observed magnetic zones are well correlated with chrons C5Bn.2n to C6AAn of the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale, yielding ages of ~21.2 to 15 Ma for the section. Lithofacies, pollen and fossil records suggest a relative temperate, humid climate prevailing in the Lunpola Basin during the period of Dingqinghu Formation, indicating that the Indian monsoon occurred before ~26 Ma.Through paleomagnetic analysis and testing of fluvial and lacustrine facies strata in Lumpola Basin since Miocene, 22Ma-15Ma magnetic stratigraphic chronology has been obtained.
This data is derived from the Supplementary Tables of the paper: Chen, F. H., Welker, F., Shen, C. C., Bailey, S. E., Bergmann, I., Davis, S., Xia, H., Wang, H., Fischer, R., Freidline, S. E., Yu, T. L., Skinner, M. M., Stelzer, S., Dong, G. R., Fu, Q. M., Dong, G. H., Wang, J., Zhang, D. J., & Hublin, J. J. (2019). A late Middle Pleistocene Denisovan mandible from the Tibetan Plateau. Nature, 569, 409-412. This research is another breakthrough made by academician Fahu Chen and his team over the years research of human activities and environmental adaptation on the Tibetan Plateau. The research team analyzed the newly discovered hominid mandible fossils in Xiahe County, Gansu Province, China, and identified it belongs to Denisovan of the Tibetan Plateau, which suggested to call Xiahe Denisovan. The team conducted a multidisciplinary analysis of the fossil, including chronology, physique morphology, molecular archaeology, living environment and human adaptation. It is the first Denisovan fossil found outside the Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains and the earliest evidence of human activity on the Tibetan Plateau (160 kyr BP). This study provides key evidence for further study of Denisovans' physical characteristics and distribution in East Asia, it also provides evidence of a deep evolutionary history of these archaic hominins within the challenging environment of the Tibetan Plateau. This data contains 6 tables, table name and contents are as follows: t1: Distances in mm between meshes generated from CT versus photoscans (PS). t2: Measurements of the Xiahe mandible after reconstruction. t3: Comparative Dental metrics. t4: Comparative crown morphology. t5: Uniprot accession numbers for protein sequences of extant primates used in the phylogenetic analyses. t6: Specimen names and numbers.
This data set is used to analyze the global activity level of strong earthquakes (Mw 5) in the past 30 years, and to present it spatially. It can be used to obtain the distribution areas of strong earthquakes with high frequency and activity level in recent years. By comparing the distribution of strong earthquakes in 2018 with that in 1989-2018, the distribution characteristics of global strong earthquakes in 2018 are obtained. The original data of strong earthquakes are from USGS, and the local density is calculated as frequency information. The magnitudes of all earthquake cases are interpolated globally, and then the frequency and magnitude are multiplied as the activity level of strong earthquakes. The data set is in TIff format with a spatial resolution of about 80 km. The data set can provide a reference for the analysis of strong earthquake activity level on the global scale, and is helpful for the analysis of global earthquake risk and the construction of earthquake prevention and disaster reduction system.
Chen Jin Tang Hong Wu Jianjun Zhou Hongmin
The landform information integration in western China was completed by a team led by Dr. Xie chuanjie, from the institute of geography, resources and environment, Chinese academy of sciences.It includes 1:400,000 national geomorphologic database and 1:100,000 western geomorphologic database. 1:400,000 geomorphologic data are "China geomorphologic map (1:400,000)" edited by LI Bingyuan and "China and its adjacent areas geomorphologic map (1:400,000)" edited by CHEN Zhiming. Scan and register the data, vectorize all the registered maps by using ArcMap software, and establish their own classification and code system. According to map spots (common staining) and symbols, geomorphic types are divided into basic geomorphic types and morphological structure types (points, lines and planes). 1:1000000 western geomorphic data is integrated and updated by digital geomorphology based on multi-source data such as remote sensing image and adopts hierarchical interpretation method.Plains and mountains;Primary geomorphic types (25 types),10 genetic types: secondary genetic types: subdivision of morphological differences. The type of geomorphic material whose composition or lithology is determined. Conducted among 16 landscape points of interpretation work, their Numbers are: 45 (Kathmandu), G - G - 46 (the) wrong, H - 44 (pli), 45 (xigaze), H - H - 46 (Lhasa), H - 47 (qamdo), 43 (Islamabad), I - I - 44 (lion spring river), 45 (change), I - I - (amdo) 46, 47 (yushu), J - I - 43 (kashi) (wada), J, J - 44-45 (JuMo), 46 (golmud), J J - - 47 (xining)
ZHOU Chenghu CHENG Weiming