1) Data content: Paleomagnetic data, magnetic index data, major element percentage data and chemical weathering index can establish the paleomagnetic age framework of the Dahonggou section and restore the precipitation change and chemical weathering history in geological history. 2) Data sources and processing methods The data source is experimental data. Paleomagnetic data: a cylindrical sample of 2x2x2cm was drilled with a small gasoline drill and measured with a low-temperature superconducting magnetometer in a magnetic shielding room. Magnetic data: the samples collected in the field were ground into fine particles by mortar and put into 2x2x2 non-magnetic plastic box, and tested by kappa bridge susceptibility meter, pulse magnetometer and rotating magnetometer. Mass percentage content and chemical weathering index data of major elements in the whole sample and particle size fraction: firstly, the whole sample and particle size fraction sample were pretreated with acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide to remove carbonate and organic matter, and then pressed into a round cake with a diameter of about 4cm and a thickness of about 8mm by a pressure apparatus, and finally XRF fluorescence analysis was carried out. 3) Data quality The sample collection and experimental processing are carried out according to strict standards, and the data quality is reliable. 4) Data application achievements and Prospects Three SCI papers were published using this set of data, one of which is Ni.
The study of fossils in Bangor and Lunpola is of great significance, and the date of fossils is indispensable. There are volcanic tuffs in this area. Zircon can be used for U-Pb age analysis to determine the age of strata and fossils. This data shows the zircon U-Pb age analysis results of tuff samples from bango and Lunpola fossil sites in a graphical way. The figure shows the shape of a large number of zircons, and indicates the age analysis results on different zircon samples. The data show the large sample size used in related research, and the analysis results are also clear. The image display of this data is intuitive and clear, and the results are reliable, which is of great significance to the study of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
This data is the distribution data of the prehistoric era sites on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and surrounding areas, which is derived from the Supplementary Maps of the paper: Chen, F.H., Dong, G.H., Zhang, D.J., Liu, X.Y., Jia, X., An, C.B., Ma, M.M., Xie, Y.W., Barton, L., Ren, X.Y., Zhao, Z.J., & Wu, X.H. (2015). Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 BP. SCIENCE, 347, 248-250. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, with an average altitude of more than 4000m, is the highestand largest plateau all around the world, and also is one of the most unsuitable areas for human life with long-term on the earth. The remains at the archaeological site are direct evidences left behind the ancient human activities. The original data of this data is digitized from the results of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau high-textual census and archaeological survey (Qinghai Volume and Tibet Volume of the Chinese Cultural Relics Atlas). The map was digitized mainly based on the distribution maps of the sites, and the latitude and longitude coordinates and altitude were obtained. a total of 6,950 sites, most of which are distributed in the northern part of the plateau. The age range of the site is between 7000BP and 2300BP. This data set is of reference value for the research on the process and power of human diffusion to the Tibetan Plateau in the prehistoric era and other studies related to human activities in the Tibetan Plateau and the prehistoric era.
DONG Guanghui LIU Fengwen
The Lunpola Basin distributed in the central part of the Banggong-Nujiang suture belt contains thick and continuous Cenozoic sediments, which have great potential for increasing our understanding of the tectonic uplift, paleoaltimetry, erosion, and depositional history of the Tibetan Plateau and climate environmental evolution. In this study, detailed investigations were carried on a Cenozoic continuous lacustrine sedimentary section, Lunpori (LPR), from the upper sequence of the central basin. Constrained by tie points of U-Pb zircon ages in the layers of tuffs and mammalian fossils of a rhinocerotid humerus, paleomagnetic methods yield ages of ~21.2 to 15 Ma for the section. In addition, we further select some parameters (e.g., magnetic susceptibility and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM)) to establish a high-resolution magnetic record to explore the paleoclimate change. The magnetic susceptibility is measured by Kappabridge while the SIRM is measured by Mini spin and Impulse Magnetizer. The results suggest that magnetic susceptibility (χ) gradually increases during the period of semi-deep to the deep lake but shows a decrease in the stage of the shallow lake. Combining with the maximum values of χ often appearing in the layer of sandstones and no obvious correlation between the χ and SIRM, we preliminarily considered that the supply of detritus may dominate the variation of the χ. Lithofacies, pollen, and fossil records suggest that a relatively temperate, humid climate prevailed in the Lunpola Basin during the sedimentary period of the Dingqinghu Fm.
Paleomagnetic Dataset of Zagros forelandbasin in IranPaleomagnetic Dataset of Zagros forelandbasin in IranPaleomagnetic Dataset of Zagros forelandbasin in IranPaleomagnetic Dataset of Zagros forelandbasin in IranPaleomagnetic Dataset of Zagros forelandbasin in IranPaleomagnetic Dataset of Zagros forelandbasin in Iran
We have completed the pollen analyses of 252 sedimentary samples from Dahonggou section in Qaidam Basin covering the Cenozoic. Palynomorph extraction followed the routine process with HCl and HF treatments during the extraction. Airborne pollen-charcoal traps and surface-sediment samples from soils were collected to evaluate the relationship between pollen-charcoal contents and vegetation structure, and effect of sedimentary environment conditions on the pollen dispersal and deposition. Combined with pollen-charcoal data from other sections, we are going to establish the fire history spanning the last 30 Ma years, and to discuss the responds and feedbacks of the vegetation and fire to the climate changes. Our work is beneficial to the knowledge of the processes of aridification in Inner Asia and its mechanism. The submitted pollen data set is according to the proposal, and in order to guarantee data accuracy, 20% of the data have been examined in our lab by random sampling method. Data collection and analysis are continued, we hope our work can contribute more to the project in the next few years.
The marine- and terrestrial-facies sediments from the southern piedmont of the Himalayan margin recorded the tectonic deformation and environmental evolution of the front edge of continental collision. To better understand the deformation mechanism of the southern Himalayan margin and constrain the continental collision age, we selected the three well exposed outcrop profiles from late Cretaceous to middle Eocene strata in the western Nepal and carried on rock magnetism. All the samples for the Palpa section with depth of 120 m had been performed on mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (χlf), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM). Meanwhile, the isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and the hysteresis loops was acquired from the fine sediments, and several important magnetic parameters were determined, including the saturation magnetization (Ms) and saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs).
Lake sediment is important archive for reconstructing the past climate change, in which the chronological framework of sediments is the basis. Varve is a kind of sedimentary lamina formed in pairs in lake sediments, usually with one year as a cycle. Supported by the projects the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences “Pan-Third Pole Environment Study for a Green Silk Road (Pan-TPE)” and The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research, the authors obtained a 1-meter long sediment gravity core from Jiangco in the central Tibet Plateau, and found well preserved varves. Subsequently, core thin sections were made, and the varve and its thickness were counted and measured to obtain the chronological sequence from 81 A.D. to 2015. The precipitation in this area in the past 2000 years has been reconstructed by using the percentage of coarse-grained layer thickness in the total varve thickness, which represents the precipitation. High resolution and high-precision chronology and precipitation records can provide reliable background of climate and environmental change, and provide reference for paleoclimate simulation and the rise and fall of ancient civilization.
This data set is the hydrogen isotope data of leaf wax from 10 m core of Qinghai Lake in Tengchong, Southeast of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. Tengchong Qinghai Lake is a small crater lake in Gaoligong Mountain, Southwest China. Core samples were collected at about 4m in the center of the lake in 2017. Ams-14c dating was used to establish the age series. The n-alkane leaf wax hydrogen isotope was determined and analyzed by Agilent 6890 GC gas chromatograph and Deltaplus XL type chromatography isotope mass spectrometry. The data reflect the information of atmospheric precipitation isotope in this area, and play an important role in the study of monsoon precipitation changes in southwest monsoon region in the past 40000 years. Data acquisition, pre-processing extraction and instrument testing were completed in strict accordance with the relevant operating procedures.
Pollen and spores extracted from sediment are considered as the important proxy in reconstructing past vegetation and climate, and which plays essential role in investigating environmental evolution during the Quaternary. Accurate identification of pollen and spore is the base for palynological research, which determines it is quite necessary to establish modern atlas for pollen and spore. Supported by the projects the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences “Pan-Third Pole Environment Study for a Green Silk Road (Pan-TPE)” and The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research, authors completed the vegetation and soil surveys in 2018 for the alpine meadow in the east Tibetan Plateau (including Yushu Prefecture, Changdu City, Ganzi prefecture, Naqu City) and alpine forest in the southeast Tibetan Plateau (Linzhi City) , and collected 401 specimens for anther of flowering plants and sporangium of ferns. Pollen and spores were extracted and from these specimens using the standard acid-alkali approach and acetolysis (9:1 mixture of acetic anhydride and sulphuric acid) treatment, and further were refrigerated in glycerin. More than two photographs were took for each pollen and spore type, using the LEICA-dm-2500 optical microscope and its imaging system with scale. The atlas of pollen and spore morphology will be a valuable reference for palynology research and teaching.
CAO Xianyong TIAN Fang LI Kai NI Jian
Airborne pollen is mainly produced and disseminated during the process of plant flowering, controlled by plant phenology and climatic conditions. As an important bioindicator of plant behavior, airborne pollen can supply information about reproductive phenology, climate and atmospheric circulations. From 2011 to 2013, airborne pollen samples were collected using a volumetric Burkard pollen trap at the Qomolangma Station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS, 28.21°N, 86.56°E; 4276 m a.s.l.), on the northern slope of the Himalayas. The sampler is a volumetric air-suction device capable of continuously gathering pollen and spore particles. Air is drawn in at a speed of 10 l/min, and airborne particles are deposited on a sticky tape mounted on a drum that makes one complete rotation per week. The tape is changed weekly after a complete rotation. Then, the tape is removed and cut into seven pieces, with each piece representing one day of sampling. The pieces are mounted on slides using glycerin and safranin. Identification and counting of pollen grains were performed under an Olympus BX41 microscope at 400× magniﬁcation; all pollen grains on each slide were counted . Pollen concentration was expressed as the daily pollen grains per cubic meter of air using a constant air intake speed of 10 l/min. The pollen concentration and percentage of each pollen taxon in each year were calculated. The pollen sampling and lab process were followed the standard methods to ensure the authenticity and reliability of the data. The pollen data can provides insights into vegetation response to climate change and has significance for interpreting fossil pollen records.
Data set contains tree age of trees growing at different glacier moraines in the central Himalayas. The data were obtained using tree ring samples. Cores samples were collected (almost near to the ground level to estimate the minimum age of the related moraine) using an increment borer. Samples were processed by using standard dendrochronological techniques.
SIGDEL Shalik Ram ZHNAG Hui ZHU Haifeng MUHAMMAD Sher MUHAMMAD Sher MUHAMMAD Sher MUHAMMAD Sher MUHAMMAD Sher LIANG Eryuan*
Guided by the theories of plate tectonics, paleogeography, petroliferous basin analysis and sedimentary basin dynamics, we have collected a large number of data and achievements of geological research and oil-gas geological research in Pan third pole in recent years, including basic materials such as stratum, sedimentation, paleontology, paleogeography, paleoenvironment, paleoclimate, structure, oil-gas (potash) geology, especially paleomagnetism and paleogenesis On the basis of zircon and geochemical data, combined with the results of typical measured stratigraphic sections, the lithofacies and climate palaeogeographic pattern of Jurassic period are restored and reconstructed, and the paleogeographic map of lithofacies and climate of Pan third extremely early, middle and late Jurassic (3 sheets) and pan third extremely early, middle and late Jurassic (3 sheets) are obtained, aiming to discuss paleogeography and paleostructure The control and influence of paleoclimate on oil and gas (including potash) resources, in order to reveal the geological conditions and resource distribution rules of oil and gas formation, and provide scientific basis and technical support for overseas and domestic oil and gas exploration and deployment in China.
Cenozoic sedimentary strata, which have been extensively developed in the low Himalaya region of western Nepal, provide an opportunity to study the dynamics of plateau uplift and the effects of climate and environment. According to a detailed field explored in the region nearly 10 sections, we found that a typical Cenozoic strata in the area is mainly composed of passive continental margin sedimentary of India's Tansen group and the Himalayas of foreland basin of Siwalik group, thickness of the Tansen group of 2000-3000 m, bottom-up Cenozoic strata, including the Amile group (Amile), and Bhainskati group (Bhainskati), Dumri group (Dumri); The Siwalik group, up to 4000m-6000m, is mainly composed of the lower, middle and upper west Siwalik. Cenozoic strata in Butwal section (309 m, including Amile and upper Bhainskati formation), Tulsipur section (357 m, including the top of Amile group and Bhainskati group formation) and Kalyan section (1161 m, including upper Bhainskati group formation and Dumri formation) are well exposed. High precise (with 1 m spacing) paleomagnetic chronology and environmental proxies samples collected in those three sections. By giving the precise stratigraphic age and paleoenvironmental data, it is of great significance to explore whether the north-south monsoon and drought events on the plateau are coupled and synchronized, and to reveal their relationship with the tectonic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and global change.
1) Data content: this data is the DNA data of the paleoenvironmental sediments generated from the study of four archaeological sites in the downstream of Yarlung Zangbo River in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, including Changguogou, Liding, Liena and, Qugong. It includes the sequence of Hiseqx metagenomic data of 10 samples of the paleoenvironmental sediments in four archaeological sites. It can be used to study the research methods and feasibility of the ancient environment DNA in the archaeological sites of the Tibet Plateau and its possible important role in the research of the ancient agricultural development processes. 2) Data source and processing method: it is the own data of our research group, and the data is detected by using the pair-end library building method and Illumina Hiseqx sequencing method. 3) Data quality: 279M data volume, Q30 > 85%. 4) Achievements and prospects of data application: data are used to reveal the ancient agriculture in the Tibet Plateau at the level of ancient environmental DNA.
This data is the grain size data set of the XS loess section at Ganzi in the east of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The whole section is 10 meters thick, and the grain size analysis is carried out according to the interval of 2.5cm. A total of 398 groups of grain size data are obtained. The grain size analysis was carried out at the Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems（Ministry of Education), Lanzhou University. Before the measurement, the organic matter and carbonate in the sample were removed by H2O2 and hydrochloric acid, then adding the sodium hexago-hydrophosphate and vibrating for about 10 min to disperse samples by using ultrasonic apparatus. All measurements are conducted by using the Mastersizer 2000. This data reflects variations of the loess grain size since the last interglacial, which is of great importance for understanding past evionroment changes in the eastern Tibet Plateau.
This magnetic susceptibility data set of the XS loess section at Ganzi in the eastern Tibet Plateau. We analyzed the magnetic susceptibility of the top part of the loess sequence at 5cm intervals, and obtained 200 sets of magnetic susceptibility data. The experimental analysis was completed in the Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems（Ministry of Education), Lanzhou University. Air-dried and grind the samples were put it into a non-magnetic cubic box, and measured by the British Bartington MS2. The result indicates the varations of the low frequency magnetic susceptibility of the Loess sequence since the Last Interglacial at Ganzi area, which is of great importance for understanding past environment changes in the eastern Tibet Plateau.
The climate model used is a fast air sea coupled model (famous) developed jointly by the British meteorological agency and the University of England. In the famous model, the horizontal resolution of the atmospheric model is 5 °× 7.5 ° and there are 11 layers in the vertical direction; the horizontal resolution of the ocean model is 2.5 °× 3.75 ° and there are 20 layers in the vertical direction. The atmosphere and the ocean are coupled once a day without flux adjustment
The data include the carbonate content, carbon isotope and oxygen isotope analysis results of inorganic carbonates of 79 samples from 850 m natural section of the middle late Eocene in the salkuli basin. The carbon and oxygen isotopes of carbonate in the sediments record the hydrological and vegetation information in the geological history, which is one of the main indicators of paleoenvironmental tracer research. After grinding and sieving, the carbon and oxygen isotope analysis is completed by the sample processing unit (carbonate device) and MAT252 isotope mass spectrometry online automatic online system. The analytical accuracy of the sample is: carbon isotope is better than ± 0.06 ‰, and oxygen isotope is better than ± 0.08 ‰. Through the analysis of carbon and oxygen isotope data of solkuli section, the evolution history of arid environment since Eocene can be reconstructed, and the paleoclimate effect of the Tibetan Plateau uplift and global climate change can be discussed.