Geladandong region is an important and typical source region of great rivers and lakes in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. This data set provides DEM covering glaciers in the source region of the Yangtze River and Selin Co with different time scales and resolutions to calculate the seasonal and decadal changes of glacier surface elevation in the source region. This data set includes seven 5-meter resolution TanDEM-X data from July 2016 to 2017, which can be used to calculate the seasonal change of glacier surface elevation; it includes one KH-9 DEM with a resolution of 30m in 1976, five TanDEM-X with a resolution of 30m in 2011, one TanDEM-X in 2014 and three TanDEM-X in 2017 with a resolution of 30m. The data can be used to calculate the change of glacier surface elevation during 1976-2000, 2000-20112011-2017. At the same time, Landsat ETM data are used to extract the glacier outline in 1976and we divide it according to the RGI6.0; The right figure shows the spatial and temporal coverage information of the data set, and the base figure is the orthophoto corrected kh-9 image.
This dataset contains the glacier outlines in Qilian Mountain Area in 2019. The dataset was produced based on classical band ratio criterion and manual editing. Chinese GF series images collected in 2019 were used as basic data for glacier extraction. Google images and Map World images were employed as reference data for manual adjusting. The dataset was stored in SHP format and attached with the attributions of coordinates, glacier ID and glacier area. Consisting of 1 season, the dataset has a spatial resolution of 2 meters. The accuracy is about 1 pixel (±2 meter). The dataset directly reflects the glacier distribution within the Qilian Mountain in 2019, and can be used for quantitative estimation of glacier mass balance and the quantitative assessment of glacier change’s impact on basin runoff.
This dataset contains the glacier outlines in Qilian Mountain Area in 2020. The dataset was produced based on classical band ratio criterion and manual editing. Chinese GF series images collected in 2020 were used as basic data for glacier extraction. Google images and Map World images were employed as reference data for manual adjusting. The dataset was stored in SHP format and attached with the attributions of coordinates, glacier ID and glacier area. Consisting of 1 season, the dataset has a spatial resolution of 2 meters. The accuracy is about 1 pixel (±2 meter). The dataset directly reflects the glacier distribution within the Qilian Mountain in 2020, and can be used for quantitative estimation of glacier mass balance and the quantitative assessment of glacier change’s impact on basin runoff.
Glacier surface micrometeorology is to observe the wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity, air pressure, four component radiation, ice temperature and precipitation at a certain height of the glacier surface. Glacier surface micrometeorology monitoring is one of the important contents of glacier monitoring. It is an important basic data for the study of energy mass balance, glacier movement, glacier melt runoff, ice core and other related model simulation, which lays a foundation for exploring the relationship between climate change and glacier change. Automatic monitoring is mainly carried out by setting up Alpine weather stations on the glacier surface, and portable weather stations can also be used for short-term flow monitoring. In recent years, more than 20 glacier surfaces in Tianshan, West Kunlun, Qilian, Qiangtang inland, Tanggula, Nianqing Tanggula, southeastern Tibet, Hengduan and Himalayas have been monitored. The data set is monthly meteorological data of glacier area and glacier end.
Glacial mass balance is one of the most important glaciological parameters to characterize the accumulation and ablation of glaciers. Glacier mass balance is the link between climate and glacier change, and it is the direct reflection of glacier to the regional climate. Climate change leads to the corresponding changes in the material budget of glaciers, which in turn can lead to changes in the movement characteristics and thermal conditions of glaciers, and then lead to changes in the location, area and ice storage of glaciers. The monitoring method is to set a fixed mark flower pole on the glacier surface and regularly monitor the distance between the glacier surface and the top of the flower pole to calculate the amount of ice and snow melting; In the accumulation area, the snow pits or boreholes are excavated regularly to measure the snow density, analyze the characteristics of snow granular snow additional ice layer, and calculate the snow accumulation; Then, the single point monitoring results are drawn on the large-scale glacier topographic map, and the instantaneous, seasonal (such as winter and summer) and annual mass balance components of the whole glacier are calculated according to the net equilibrium contour method or contour zoning method. The data set is the annual mass balance data of different representative glaciers in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and Tianshan Mountains, in millimeter water equivalent.
High resolution pollen records from ice cores can indicate the relationship between seasonal vegetation changes and climate indicators. High resolution sporopollen analysis was carried out on the 32 m ice core sediments of Zuopu ice core in Qinghai Tibet Plateau. 117 SPOROPOLLEN ASSEMBLAGES were obtained. All the data are sporopollen percentage data, which are arranged in order of depth.
Glacier thickness is the vertical distance between the glacier surface and the glacier bottom. The distribution of glacier thickness is not only controlled by glacier scale and subglacial topography, but also varies with different stages of glacier response to climate. The data include longitude and latitude, elevation, single point thickness, total ice reserves and instrument type of glacier survey line. The glacier thickness mainly comes from drilling and ground penetrating radar (GPR). The drilling method is to drill holes on the ice surface to the bedrock under the ice, so as to obtain the thickness of the glacier at a single point; Glacier radar thickness measurement technology can accurately measure the continuous distribution of glacier thickness on the survey line, and obtain the topographic characteristics of subglacial bedrock, so as to provide necessary parameters for the estimation of glacier reserves and the study of glacier dynamics The accuracy of glacier drilling data reaches decimeter level. The accuracy of thickness measurement by GPR radar is between 5% and 15% in theory due to the difference of glacier properties and radar signal strength of bottom interface. Glacier thickness is a prerequisite for obtaining information of subglacial topography and glacier reserves. In the numerical simulation and model study of glacier dynamics, glacier thickness is an important basic input parameter. At the same time, glacier reserve is the most direct parameter to characterize glacier scale and glacier water resources. It is not only very important for accurate assessment, reasonable planning and effective utilization of glacier water resources, but also has important and far-reaching significance for regional socio-economic development and ecological security.
This dataset includes data of glacier elevation changes in 2000‒2013 and 2000‒2017 at high spatial resolution (5 m). The specific areas are Namco area in the west section of Nyainqentangula Mountains (WNM) and Kangri Karpo area in the east section of Nyainqentangula Mountains (ENM). Glacier boundary refers to Randolph Glacier Inventory Version 4.0 (RGI 4.0). The glacier elevation changes were calculated from the DEM data generated by ZiYuan-3 Three-Line-Array (ZY-3 TLA) stereo images in 2013 and 2017 and SRTM DEM data in 2000, respectively. The data in the WNM include three periods, i.e., 2000‒2013, 2013‒2017 and 2000‒2017. The data in the ENM include one period, i.e., 2000‒2017. The spatial resolution of the dataset is 5 meters, the unit is m a^−1, the data format is GeoTIFF, the data type is floating-point, and the projection mode is UTM 46N for the west segment and UTM 47N for the east segment. The glacier elevation change can be transformed into the glacier mass balance (unit: w.e. a^−1) of corresponding temporal intervals by multiplying the average density of the glacier. This dataset can provide the details of the spatial patterns of glacier elevation changes to support modeling studies of glacier mass balance in this region.
REN Shaoting, REN Shaoting, REN Shaoting, JIA Li
Radar penetration correction is essential for accurately estimating glacier mass balance when using the geodetic methods based on the radar-derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Due to heterogeneous snow distribution and snowpack properties, the radar penetration depth varies by region and is basically dependent on the altitudes. Therefore, this data set gives the result of the penetration depth difference of SRTM C/X-band radar on 1°×1° grid of High Mountain Asia Glaciers. The data set contains 214 1°×1° grids SRTM X-band and C-band penetration depth difference in HMA, and a linear fitting expression for each grid. According to the geodetic method, the 30 m SRTM X-band and C-band DEM are used to obtain the results of the penetration depth difference between the SRTM X-band and C-band of the 1°×1° high grid in HMA, and obtain the relationship between the SRTM X-C-band penetration depth difference and the elevation in the glacier area (for specific methods, please refer to references). The data is stored in excel files. Observational data can provide important basic data for studying the glacier mass balance in HMA, and can be used by scientific researchers studying climate, hydrology and glaciers.
Mercury is a global pollutant.The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is adjacent to South Asia, which currently has the highest atmospheric mercury emissions, and could be affected by long-distance transport.The history of atmospheric mercury transport and deposition can be well reconstructed using ice cores and lake cores. The history of atmospheric mercury deposition since the industrial revolution was reconstructed based on 8 lake cores and 1 ice core from the Tibetan Plateau and the southern slope of the Himalayas.This data set contains 8 lake core data from Namtso, Bangongtso, Linggatso, Guanyong Lake, Tanggula Lake, Gosainkunda Lake, Gokyo Lake and Phewa Lake, and 1 ice core data .The resolution of ice core data is 1 year, lake core data is 2~20 years, and the data include mercury concentration and flux.
Qiangyong glacier: 90.23 °E, 28.88° N, 4898 m asl. The surface is bedrock. The record contains data of 1.5 m temperature, 1.5 m humidity, 2 m wind speed, 2 m wind orientation, surface temperature, etc. Data from the automated weather station was collected using USB equipment at 19:10 on August 6, 2019, with a recording interval of 10 minutes, and data was downloaded on December 20, 2020. There is no missing data but a problem with the wind speed data after 9:30 on July 14, 2020 (most likely due to damage to the wind vane). Jiagang glacier: 88.69°E, 30.82°N, 5362 m asl. The surface is rubble and weeds. The records include 1.5 meters of temperature, 1.5 meters of humidity, 2 meters of wind speed, 2 meters of wind direction, surface temperature, etc. The initial recording time is 15:00 on August 9, 2019, and the recording interval is 1 minute. The power supply is mainly maintained by batteries and solar panels. The automatic weather station has no internal storage. The data is uploaded to the Hobo website via GPRS every hour and downloaded regularly. At 23:34 on January 5, 2020, the 1.5 meter temperature and humidity sensor was abnormal, and the temperature and humidity data were lost. The data acquisition instrument will be retrieved on December 19, 2020 and downloaded to 19:43 on June 23, 2020 and 3:36 on September 25, 2020. Then the temperature and humidity sensors were replaced, and the observations resumed at 12:27 on December 21. The current data consists of three segments (2019.8.9-2020.6.30; 2020.6.23-2020.9.25; 2020.12.19-2020.12.29), Some data are missing after inspection. Some data are duplicated in time due to recording battery voltage, which needs to be checked. The meteorological observation data at the front end of Jiagang mountain glacier are collected by the automatic weather station Hobo rx3004-00-01 of onset company. The model of temperature and humidity probe is s-thb-m002, the model of wind speed and direction sensor is s-wset-b, and the model of ground temperature sensor is s-tmb-m006. The meteorological observation data at the front end of Jianyong glacier are collected by the US onset Hobo u21-usb automatic weather station. The temperature and humidity probe model is s-thb-m002, the wind speed and direction sensor model is s-wset-b, and the ground temperature sensor model is s-tmb-m006.
The data in the form of .xlsx store the meteorological varialbes observed on the East Rongbuk glacier from May to July. Two sheets, named "Surface_energy_budget" and "Cycle", respectivley, are included. In the sheet of "surface_energy_budget", the meteorological variables are as follows: Four-component radiations (incident solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation, incoming longwave radiation, outgoing longwave radiation)、wind speed and direction, air temperature and relative humidity, cloud index, south Asian summer monsoon and albedo. In addition, net shortwave radiation, net longwave radiation, net radiation, sensible heat, latent heat and subsurface heat are also included. Energy fluxes are in unit of W m-2. The sheet of "Cycle" stores the diurnal cycle of the meteorological variables mentioned above. In the first line, the prefixes of "1"、"2" and “3” indicate three observational periods, i.e., "1" represents days from 1 - 28 May, "2" represents the period between 29 May 16 June and "3" indicates time episode from 17 June to 22 July.
This data set is the physical property data of Hengduan Mountain Glacier, reflecting the temperature condition of Hengduan Mountain Glacier. It was observed on Baishui No.1 glacier on the east slope of Yulong Mountain and dagongba glacier on the west slope of Gongga Mountain by the comprehensive scientific investigation team of Qinghai Tibet Plateau of Chinese Academy of Sciences from 1982 to 1984. The temperature field location, altitude, drilling information, ice surface condition, sampling time, sampling depth and measured temperature of Baishui No. 1 glacier on the east slope of Yulong and dagongba glacier on the west slope of Gongga are recorded in detail in the data, which are obtained from field investigation and calculation. At the same time, the velocity data of dagongba glacier and the surface strain rate, normal strain rate and its error and principal strain rate at 4700m of Baishui No.1 glacier in Yulongshan are available. This data is of great significance to the study of temperature and movement of glacial active layer in Hengduan Mountain area.
The melting observation of Hengduan Moutain glacier is mainly carried out on Hailuogou Glacier on the east slope of Gongga and the large and small Gongba glacier on the west slope of Gongga. In addition, some ablation observations have been made on Baishui 1 glacier on the east slope of Yulong. According to the melting observation of the four glaciers in the above two mountains, there are some regional representativeness, which makes them reflect the basic situation of melting glaciers in Hengduan Mountain. This data set records the glacier ablation data of different time and different places: from June to August 1982, the Glacier No. 1 in Baishui on the east slope of Yulong mountain was observed at the altitude of 4200m, 4600m and 4800m. From August 27, 1982 to the end of August 1983, the annual measured data of different heights of Hailuogou Glacier tongue on the east slope of Gongga Mountain were collected. From July 12, 1982 to August 6, 1983, the observation data of Gongba glacier melting on the west slope of Gongga Mountain were recorded.
This data is the statistics of the glaciers and their types in Hengduan Mountain area, the information of each glacier, and the data of some glacier snow lines and related parameters in China. The data includes eight tables, which are glacier Statistics (measured data) of Hengduan Mountains, glacier Statistics (measured data) of Hengduan Mountains, glacier types (measured data), basic characteristics (measured data) of some glacier recharge areas in Gongga Mountain, AAR value and avalanche area (measured data) of some glaciers in Gongga mountain, and ice field in Gongga mountain Data statistics of Sichuan (measured data), thickness measurement statistics of 4 glaciers in Gongga Mountain (measured data), snow line data of some glaciers in China and related parameters (data statistics).
The data set is a record of glacier distribution in Hoh Xil region, including three tables: the distribution of modern glaciers in various mountain areas in Hoh Xil region, the distribution of modern glaciers in various river basins in Hoh Xil region, and the distribution of modern glaciers in different mountain height segments in Hoh Xil region. Hoh Xil, located in the hinterland of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, has an average altitude of more than 5000m and a very cold climate. According to the catalogue of China's glaciers and the author's re statistics on the 1 / 100000 topographic map, 437 modern glaciers are developed in the whole region, covering an area of 1552.39 square kilometers, with ice reserves of 162.8349 cubic kilometers, becoming an important source of water supply for many rivers and lakes in the region. Through this data set, we can know more about the distribution of glaciers in this area.
The data set includes annual mass balance of Naimona’nyi glacier (northern branch) from 2008 to 2018, daily meteorological data at two automatic meteorological stations (AWSs) near the glacier from 2011 to 2018 and monthly air temperature and relative humidity on the glacier from 2018 to 2019. In the end of September or early October for each year , the stake heights and snow-pit features (snow layer density and stratigraphy) are manually measured to derive the annual point mass balance. Then the glacier-wide mass balance was then calculated （Please to see the reference). Two automatic weather stations (AWSs, Campbell company) were installed near the Naimona’nyi Glacier. AWS1, at 5543 m a. s.l., recorded meteorological variables from October 2011 at half hourly resolution, including air temperature (℃), relative humidity (%), and downward shortwave radiation (W m-2) . AWS2 was installed at 5950 m a.s.l. in October 2010 at hourly resolution and recorded wind speed (m/s), air pressure (hPa), precipitation (mm). Data quality: the quality of the original data is better, less missing. Firstly, the abnormal data in the original records are removed, and then the daily values of these parameters are calculated. Two probes (Hobo MX2301) which record air temperature and relative humidity was installed on the glacier at half hour resolution since October 2018. The observed meteorological data was calculated as monthly values. The data is stored in Excel file. It can be used by researchers for studying the changes in climate, hydrology, glaciers, etc.
This data set includes daily, annual and multi-year surface mass balance data from Antarctic ice cap poles, ice (snow) cores / snow pits, automatic weather station altimeters and ground penetrating radar observations. The data come from published literature, data reports and international data sharing platform. After quality control, the most perfect data set of daily, annual and multi-year resolution of surface mass balance of Antarctic ice sheet has been formed. Its middle-aged resolution data span the past 1000 years. The data set is mainly used in glaciology, climatology, hydrology and other disciplines, especially in the quantitative analysis of the temporal and spatial changes of Antarctic surface mass balance, climate model validation, driving ice sheet model and snow granulation model, etc.
1) These data main included the GPR-surveyed ice thickness of six typical various-sized glaciers in 2016-2018; the GlabTop2-modeled ice thickness of the entire UIB sub-basins, discharge data of the hydrological stations, and related raw & derived data. 2) Data sources and processing methods: We compared the plots and profiles of GPR-surveyed ice bed elevation with the GlabTop2-simulated results and selected the optimal parametric scheme, then simulated the ice thickness of the whole UIB basin and assessed its hydrological effect. These processed results were stored as tables and tif format， 3) Data quality description: The simulated ice thickness has a spatial resolution of 30 m, and has been verified by the GPR-surveyed ice thickness for the MD values were less than 10 m. The maximum error of the GPR-measured data was 230.2 ± 5.4 m, within the quoted glacier error at ± 5%. 4) Synthesizing knowledge of the ice thickness and ice reserves provides critical information for water resources management and regional glacial scientific research, it is also essential for several other fields of glaciology, including hydrological effect, regional climate modeling, and assessment of glacier hazards.
This dataset includes annual mosaics of Antarctic ice velocity derived from Landsat 8 images between December, 2013 and April, 2019, which was updated in 2020 in order to produce multi-year annual ice velocity mosaics and improve the quality of products including non-local means (NLM) filter, and absolute calibration using rock outcrops data. The resulting Version 2 of the mosaics offer reduced local errors, improved spatial resolution as described in the README file.