This dataset includes the schematic diagrams and lithologic histograms of the measured sections of typical unconsolidated sediments in Shigatse, Yarlung Tsangpo River Basin, as well as the statistical table of measured sections. The source data comes from a two-month field measurement in Shigatse, Tibet. 16 sections of unconsolidated sediments were measured, and 128 samples were collected, including 89 cosmic nuclide samples and 39 optically stimulated luminescence samples. 16 schematic diagrams and 38 lithologic histograms were shown. The dataset primarily shows the genetic types of typical unconsolidated sediments in the Shigatse area, such as alluvium, eluvium, diluvium, colluvium, and moraine deposits. The exposed range of measured sediment thickness is about 1.6–70 m, the average thickness is about 29 m, and the horizontal distribution is 41–9059 m. The dataset demonstrates the discrete, porous, sandy and weakly cemented structural characteristics of the unconsolidated sediments with high gravel content (80%–95%), and the main gravel diameter distribution is 0.05–0.1m; sorting and roundness of alluvium are good, while the colluvial materials are poor. Fining-upward trends are commonly seen in most sections, and parallel and tabular cross-bedding are occasionally developed. Untangling the sedimentary characteristics of unconsolidated sediments in the Yarlung Tsangpo River Basin is vital to reveal the storage of fluvial solid matter across the basin, and provide important instructions for disaster warning and prevention and control of related features caused by sliding, unloading, and collapse of the ground surface. It is also of great scientific value to reveal the source-sink process and evolution of fluvial and alluvial systems in the Tibet Plateau and its surrounding basins.
LIN Zhipeng, WANG Chengshan , HAN Zhongpeng, BAI Yalige, WANG Xinhang, ZHANG Jian, MA Xinduo
Focusing on the objective of estimating the total amount of unconsolidated sediments in the Yarlung Tsangpo River Basin (YTRB), we marked a series of Quaternary sections of unconsolidated sediments in the whole basin to measure their thickness. The dataset presents a collection of field photos of unconsolidated sediments obtained in the scientific expedition in YTRB in 2020. Specifically, this dataset comprises of 16 composite first–class sub basins, from upstream to downstream, including Dangque–Laiwu Tsangpo, Resu–Lierong Tsangpo, Chaiqu–Menqu, Xiongqu–Wengbuqu, Jiada Tsangpo, Pengji Tsangpo–Sakya Chongqu, Duoxiong Tsangpo, Shabu–Danapu, Nianchu River, Xiangqu–Wuyuma, Manqu, Nimuma–Lhasa River, Gonggapu–Luoburongqu, Niyang River, Yigong Tsangpo–Palong Tsangpo, and Xiangjiang River Basin. A total of 584 sites of unconsolidated sediments were marked. The atlas displays different types of unconsolidated sediments, such as alluvium, eluvium, diluvium, colluvium, eolian, lacustrine and moraine deposits, showing their spatial distribution in hillsides, foothills, floodplains, terraces, alluvial–diluvial fans and glacier fronts. With a scale of 1m benchmarking, it shows the significant difference in distribution of thickness. Generally, the thickness of the eluvium on the upper part of the hillside is about 0.3–2.5m, and the thickness of the alluvium is difficult to bottom out. The thickness of diluvium in the gentle area of the piedmont with steep slope is usually between 5 and 10 m, while the thickness of the deposit at the piedmont gully mouth is related to the scale of the pluvial fan, which can reach tens of meters thick and only 3 to 4 meters thin. From the upstream to the downstream, the thickness of alluvium varies greatly. The bedrock in the canyon area is exposed, and the thickness is almost 0. However, the thickness of alluvium in the upstream river valley is large and difficult to see the bottom interface; The maximum thickness of measured moraine deposits can reach more than 20 m. Aeolian deposits are common in the middle and upper reaches, with a wide range of thickness, ranging from a few meters to more than 20 meters. The dataset provides a wide variety of in–suit photos and measurements of unconsolidated sediments covering the whole basin, showing their characteristics of spatial distribution and genetic types, which lays a material foundation and prior knowledge for further detailed characterization and investigation of unconsolidated sediments. This work presents data for estimating the total accumulation of solid debris deposited in the YTRB, and provides a basis for assessing the risk of natural disasters related to unconsolidated sediments and formulating scientific preventive measures.
LIN Zhipeng, WANG Chengshan , HAN Zhongpeng, BAI Yalige, WANG Xinhang, HU Taiyu
The considerable amount of solid clastic material in the Yarlung Tsangpo River Basin (YTRB)) is one of the important components in recording the uplift and denudation history of the Tibet Plateau. Different types of unconsolidated sediments directly reflect the differential transport of solid clastic material. Revealing its spatial distribution and total accumulation plays an important value in the uplift and denudation process of the Tibet Plateau. The dataset includes three subsets: the type and spatial distribution of unconsolidated sediments in theYTRB, the thickness spatial distribution, and the quantification of total deposition. Taking remote sensing interpretation and geological mapping as the main technical method, the classification and spatial distribution characteristics of unconsolidated sediments in the whole YTRB (16 composite sub-basins) were comprehensively clarified for the first time. Based on the field measurement of sediment thickness, the total accumulation was preliminarily estimated. A massive amount of sediment is an important material source of landslide, debris flow and flood disasters in the basin. Finding out its spatial distribution and total amount accumulation not only has theoretical significance for revealing the key information recorded in the process of sediment source to sink, such as surface environmental change, regional tectonic movement, climate change and biogeochemical cycle, but also has important application value for plateau ecological environment monitoring and protection, flooding disaster warning and prevention, major basic engineering construction, and soil and water conservation.
LIN Zhipeng, WANG Chengshan , HAN Zhongpeng, BAI Yalige, WANG Xinhang, ZHANG Jian, MA Xinduo, HU Taiyu, ZHANG Chenjin
The establishment and improvement of the chronological framework of the Cenozoic strata within and around the Tibetan Plateau, are very essential and significant for revealing the history of the collision, uplift and deformation of the Tibetan Plateau. It's vital to enhance the understanding of the denudation and weathering patterns varying with time and space and find out the mechanism of the uplift and deformation of the Tibetan Plateau and its relevant effects on the regional and even global environment and climate. This data set has improved or established the chronological framework of the Cenozoic strata within and around the Tibetan Plateau, based on the magnetostratigraphy and accompanied by zircon U-Pb geochronology of the volcanics/tuffs/sedimentary tuffs or detrital rocks and/or biostratigraphy. The precisely dated sedimentary sequences include a 90-m loess sequence of the Duikang section constrained as ~8.1-3.7 Ma in the Linxia basin, several fluvial and lacustrine sequences (such as the 1890-m Dayu section with a range of ~41.8-21.5 Ma in age in the Lunpola basin, the 300-m Shuanghe section dated as ~42.7-36 Ma in the Jianchuan basin, the 252-m Caijiachong section with a range of ~47-36 Ma in the Qujing basin) and a 932-m saline lacustrine sequence with gypsolyte of the Jiangcheng section in the Simao basin whose age has identified to >112-63 Ma. All relevant experiments of the above chronology results have been conducted in the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy Sciences, Lanzhou University, Tübingen University (Germany) , University of Texas at Austin (USA). The thermal demagnetization has been implemented using a thermal demagnetization oven and measured by a cryogenic magnetometer in a magnetically shielded room. The zircon U-Pb dating has been carried out using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with an attached laser ablation system. This data set provides an important chronological foundation for the following researches on tectonic evolution, paleoenvironment and paleoclimate. It has created a series of original theoretical achievements with widespread influence.
FANG Xiaomin , FANG Xiaomin, YAN Maodu, ZHANG Weilin, ZHANG Dawen
The Cenozoic strata developed within and around the Tibetan Plateau, contain fruitful information on the tectonic evolution, paleoenvironment and paleoclimate changes. It's very significant on revealing the history of the uplift and deformation of the Tibetan Plateau and its relevant effects on the regional and even global environment and climate. This data set contains several well developed sections, which have been identified by the systematic geological survey. Depending on the tools (e.g. GPS, geological compass) in the fieldwork, we have finished the geological measurements and descriptions of these sections as well as the relevant geological maps. It includes a 90-m loess deposit of the Duikang section in the Linxia basin, several fluvial and lacustrine deposits (such as the 1890-m Dayu section in the Lunpola basin, the 300-m Shuanghe section in the Jianchuan basin, the 252-m Caijiachong section in the Qujing basin) and a 932-m saline lacustrine deposit with gypsolyte of the Jiangcheng section in the Simao basin. This data set provides a solid geological foundation for the following researches on stratigraphic chronology, tectonic evolution, paleoenvironment and paleoclimate, and so forth.
FANG Xiaomin , FANG Xiaomin, YAN Maodu, ZHANG Weilin, ZHANG Dawen
Magnetic susceptibility and chromaticity data of the Oligocene Baiyanghe Formation in the southern margin of the Jiuxi Basin on the northeastern margin of the Tibet Plateau. The data are experimental data. The average sampling interval in the field is 1m, and a total of 437 pieces of magnetic susceptibility and chromaticity data were obtained. Magnetic susceptibility data was measured with a Bartington MS-2 portable magnetic susceptibility meter; chromaticity data was measured with a Konica Minolta CM-700 spectrophotometer. Sample collection, pre-processing and experimental procedures were carried out in accordance with strict standards, and the quality of the data obtained was reliable. The results show that the magnetic susceptibility and chromaticity values in the lower part of Baiyanghe Formation have consistent and obvious changes. Combined with the variation characteristics of the strata sedimentary facies in the profile, it is believed that a climate change event occurred in the early Baiyanghe Formation in the southern margin of the Jiuxi Basin. A large number of previous studies on stratigraphy, sedimentology and thermochronology revealed that there were no obvious tectonic events in the northeastern margin of the Tibet Plateau during this period, indicating that the climate change events in this area may be caused by regional climate changes. The climate information reflected by the magnetic susceptibility and chromaticity data of the Baiyanghe Formation in the southern margin of the Jiuxi Basin can provide data support for the study of the paleoclimate in the northeastern margin of the Tibet Plateau.
The data are the detrital zircon ages of the late Cretaceous early Cenozoic strata in Sichuan Basin, Xichang Basin, Huili basin and Chuxiong Basin on the eastern margin of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau; All detrital zircon samples collected in this study are sandstone. The crushing and zircon selection of samples were completed in Langfang Chengxin Geological Service Co., Ltd; Zircon U-Pb dating was done at the State Key Laboratory of Earthquake Dynamics, Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). At least 200 zircon grains were randomly selected to adhere to double-sided adhesive, and were poured into the laser sample target with epoxy resin. All samples were ablated by using a laser beam with a diameter of 28μm, a frequency of 10 Hz and laser energy density of 4.0J/cm 2 .
This data is the relevant data of biogeochemistry and stable isotope geochemistry of Qaidam Basin. This set of data is mainly based on the research means of paleontology, sedimentary strata and biogeochemistry of typical sections to explore the sedimentary, climatic and biological response of Qaidam basin to the uplift of Qinghai Tibet Plateau in Cenozoic. The data of paleontological isotope and oxygen isotope of the Dachaigou basin are the main biomarkers for the study of Paleontology in the Dachaigou basin. The preliminary research processing results show that the data quality is high
The process of reconstructing the river blocking disaster chain in Yajiang river basin is of great significance to deeply understand the natural attributes and evolution law of ice river lake water landscape system in natural state. This data is the digital surface elevation model obtained in the process of scientific research. The data source is UAV tilt photography, which is corrected by real-time differential GPS (RTK) control points; The vertical resolution is 5cm and the horizontal resolution is 20cm. This data can be used to assist in identifying the spatial distribution of break flood sediments (break flood hills, gravel hills, Boulder core beach, etc.) in typical manqu river reach and the position of weir plug dam body, so as to obtain the section elevation. It is the first-hand data for restoring the scale of break flood.
ZHAO Zhijun , CAO Xilin
The Cenozoic terrestrial chemical weathering records from the surrounding areas of the Tibetan Plateau are of great significance for understanding the relationship between Tibetan Plateau uplift, chemical weathering and global cooling. In this study, detailed mineralogical and geochemical analysis were performed on the early Cenozoic sediments from the Hongliugou section (54-26 Ma) in the Qaidam Basin, the Xiejia section in the Xining Basin (52-26 Ma) and the Caijiachong section in the Qujing Basin (46.6-36 Ma). Then a comprehensive chemical weathering history of the Early Cenozoic (54-26 Ma) in the northeastern and southeastern Tibetan Plateau was established. Specially, clay minerals of 315 samples from the Hongliugou section, 131 samples from the Xiejia section and 230 samples from the Caijiachong section were analyzed using Bruker D8+ X-ray diffraction analyzer. Major and trace elements of 310 samples from the Hongliugou section, 120 samples from Xiejia section and 201 samples from the Caijiachong section were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES; Leeman Labs Prodigy-H) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; X-7; Thermo-Elemental, USA), respectively. While the hematite content of 835 samples from the Hongliugou section were determined using a Purkinje General TU1901 UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The regional chemical weathering intensity as suggested by clay mineral assemblage (i.e. (illite/smectite mixed layers + smectite)/illite), elemental geochemical indices (e.g., CIA) and hematite content shows a long-term decreasing trend in 54-26Ma, resembling the contemporary benthic oxygen isotopes variations, thus indicating that global temperature is the main controlling factor regulating the reginal chemical weathering in the early Cenozoic.
FANG Xiaomin , FANG Xiaomin, HAN Wenxia HAN Wenxia
Dating data of debris flow and dammed lake sediments in complex mountainous areas from 2019 to 2021. The data collection sites are complex mountainous areas prone to debris flow in the eastern and southern edges of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The experimental analysis is mainly completed in the salt lake chemical analysis and testing center of Qinghai Salt Lake Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences and the analysis and testing center of Chengdu Mountain Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences. The instruments used include RIS ø TL / OSL – Da – 20 automatic luminescence instrument, etc. The age data set of debris flow sediments in typical complex mountainous areas is established, the formation age of debris flow sediments in complex mountainous areas is quantitatively studied, and the ancient debris flow disaster activity history in complex mountainous areas is determined.
The single mineral EPMA data set of magmatic rocks in the Himalayan orogenic belt is mainly based on the main data of single minerals in Jilong area, and the test points of single minerals are more than 200. The rock is light colored granite. The single minerals tested are mainly feldspar, garnet, muscovite and biotite. The single mineral electron probe uses cameca sxvivefe electron microprobe, etc. The data has not been published, and the data results are true and reliable. The testing units are mainly the Institute of geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences and the Institute of mineral resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences. The data set can be used to study the petrogenesis of leucogranite melts in the Himalayan orogenic belt.
ZENG Lingsen , GAO Lie , YAN Lilong
This dataset includes 14 detrital zircon U-Pb chronological data from Cretaceous-Pliocene sediments sampled from Tierekesazi section in the Pamir-Tian Shan convergence zone. Detrital zircon in sedments could reveal the coupling of sedimentary basin and adjacented orogenic belt. U-Pb age of detrital zircon is a important method to analysis provenance tracing of sediments in basin. Moreover, this method also could constrain the uplift process of orogenic belt. Purification of detrital zircon grain following standard protocols includes contents, jaw crusher, shaking table, magnetic separator and heavy liquids. The separated zircon grains were mounted in epoxy resin and polished for LA-ICP-MS analysis. Cathodoluminescence (CL) images were taken for potential target spot selection. Each sample chose 120 points as potential target spot, at least. Zircon U-Pb dating was conducted using an Agilent 7500a Q-ICP-MS coupling with a 193 nm COMPex Pro laser. U-Pb age distributions were counted and analysed using DensityPlotter. U-Pb age of sediments of Tierekesazi section reveal chronology of Cretaceous-Pliocene strata of the profile, Tierekesazi section located in the narrow Pamir-Tian Shan convergence zone, the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sediments in the Tierekesazi section were sourced from the adjacent and eroding Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges.which provide a general context for our provenance analyses. This data allowed us to reconstruct the Cretaceous-Pliocene tectonic-geomorphic evolution of the Pamir-Tian Shan corridor.
Collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates produced concomitant uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and its basin-ridge geomorphological systems. Surface relief of the Tibetan Plateau has significant dynamic and thermal effects on atmospheric circulation and on regional and global climate. It has been considered as one of the key drivers for the formation of the Asian monsoon, enhanced erosion and weathering, global decreased CO2 during the Cenozoic. Finally, this uplift caused global cooling in the Cenozoic. However, at present, the driving mechanisms of these processes still remain controversies and have not been clearly confirmed by records of chemical weathering from the Tibetan Plateau. This dataset includes major elemental compositions of the Fenghuoshan Group (thick of ~4500 m) from the Hoh Xil Basin which has been dated back to the Late Cretaceous-Eocence. Element was measured in the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences using XRF-1500. The resconstructed Paleogene chemical weathering sequences allow us to constrain the trends of chemical weathering history of the studied area. We found that intensity of chemical weathering is well correlated with global temperature change. These results provide further data supprot for discussing the dynamic mechanisms and links among the Paleogene chemical weathering in the Hoh Xil Basin, uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, and global change.
Southern Xizang represents a most important part of the Neo-Tethys. Neo-Tethyan deposits in this region can be divided into two types in general: a deep water oceanic represented by the Yarlung Zangbo suture zone and the other shallow marine one in the south of the suture. The main history of the Neo-Tethys is seen in the Triassic to Paleogene sequence, which destines the work of building a complete sedimentary sequence of the Neo-Tethys a basic goal of this scientific expedition. This dataset packages all the fossiliferous profiles that have been explored in the field by the Mesozoic and Cenozoic expedition group of the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences on the Yarlung Zangbo suture zone and Tethys Himalayan Triassic to Paleogene in southern Xizang. There are 12 column profiles, compiled in an order of age from old to young.
LI Jianguo, LI Xianghui, LUO Hui, WANG Bo, LI Xin
The Qaidam Basin is located in the northern margin of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. It is one of the most representative sedimentary basins in Qinghai Tibet Plateau. Tertiary red sandstones, Jurassic coal stara and Cretaceous conglomerates are developed in the basin, The paleoclimate, paleogeography and paleotectonic information recorded in the study are of great significance to the study of the uplift and evolution of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The field stratigraphic investigation of Qaidam Basin is not only beneficial to the reconstruction of paleoclimate, paleogeography and paleostructure of Mesozoic terrestrial system, but also to the exploration, development and utilization of coal, oil and gas resources in Qinghai Tibet region. It is also beneficial to the scientific investigation of Qinghai Tibet region and is expected to contribute to the major national development strategy Make a contribution. This field exploration and sampling were finished in multiple sections in the Qaidam Basin, and details of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata in these sections and field photos were provided. All data are from our field measurements.
The Yarlung Zangbo suture zone and its neighbouring areas are key to the research of the evolution of Neo-Tethys. The sedimentary sequence as evidence of the evolution of Neo-Tethys remains unclear in many areas, particularly in the western and northern Xizang. The limits in stratigraphy and sedimentology have greatly restricted the investigation of the evolution of Neo-Tethys as well as the collision between Indian-Eurasian plates. This exploration team conducted a joint investigation on the Mesozoic strata in this area, with emphasis on their stratigraphy, palaeontology, and sedimentology, to retrieve potential stratigraphic and sedimentary evidence of the opening, evolution, and retreat of the Neo-Tethys. This dataset records the work of the expedition team in Xigaze, Ngari and Nagqu of Xizang. It consists of four parts, each part includes diaries and photos of the strata, geological structure, profiles, and fossils that have been collected by a special expedition group. The explored strata encompass the Cretaceous and Paleogene and the radiolarite strata in the above mentioned areas.
LI Jianguo, LUO Hui, HUANG Diying, LI Xin