This data is the relevant data of biogeochemistry and stable isotope geochemistry of Qaidam Basin. This set of data is mainly based on the research means of paleontology, sedimentary strata and biogeochemistry of typical sections to explore the sedimentary, climatic and biological response of Qaidam basin to the uplift of Qinghai Tibet Plateau in Cenozoic. The data of paleontological isotope and oxygen isotope of the Dachaigou basin are the main biomarkers for the study of Paleontology in the Dachaigou basin. The preliminary research processing results show that the data quality is high
Simao basin is located in the south of Yunnan Province and the southeast of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. It belongs to the Sanjiang tectonic domain in the east of Tethys tectonic domain. Thick and continuous early Cenozoic strata are preserved in the basin, so it is an ideal material to restore the tectonic evolution history of the region and the southeast side of the plateau. a continuous and complete high-resolution sequence (361.86 m in thickness) of the Mengyejing Formation was obtained through the continuous drilling in the previous study. The mass-specific magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanent magnetization, and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization from parts of samples of Xiaojinggu core (250 m) have been measured, and several important magnetic parameters were determined, including the high and low-frequency magnetic susceptibility (χlf), SIRM, and ARM. These records will provide an important insight into the paleoclimate change covering the Mengyejing Formation.
Qujing basin, located in the east of Yunnan Province, is a long and narrow faulted basin with a north-south trend. Thick and continuous Cenozoic sediments are preserved in the basin, which can be divided into Xiaotun Formation, Caijiachong Formation, and Ciying Formation from bottom to top. These sediments are ideal materials to explore the southeast escape and deformation affected by the India-Eurasian plate collision in the early Cenozoic and the formation and evolution history of the Indian monsoon. A total of a 320.1-meter core covering the entire Ciying Formation and the Caijiachong Formation was obtained through the continuous drilling mission carried out in the center of the basin in the previous study. The mass-specific magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) from parts of samples of Caijiachong core (320.1m) have been measured, and several important magnetic parameters were determined, including the high and low-frequency magnetic susceptibility (χlf), SIRM and ARM, thus providing important basic information for further mult-index climate reconstruction.
In 2017, 27 surface sediments were collected in Qinghai Lake by gravity sampler, and the top 1cm was taken as the surface layer, which was freeze-dried and ground into powder after being taken back to the laboratory. Before testing the content of organic carbon and nitrogen, 1mol / L hydrochloric acid should be used to stir the reaction for more than 10 hours, so that the carbonate is completely removed, then dried and ground, and the organic carbon and nitrogen are tested on the element analyzer. The total inorganic carbon content is the carbonate content of the whole rock powder sample measured by infrared spectrum, which is then calculated as the total inorganic carbon content. The contents of organic carbon and inorganic carbon constitute the total carbon content of the lake, and they are close to each other, indicating that the inorganic carbon burial flux and organic carbon burial flux of Qinghai Lake are similar.
In the summer of 2019, the surface sediments of Nam Co, Wuru Co, Gren Co, Qiago Co, Dazz Co, Saibu Co, Gomang Co, Guomang Co, Bamu Co, Nurma Co, Nariping Co, Zhi Co, Jiang Co, Daru Co and Yueqia Co lakes in Nam Co and Siling Co area were collected by grab. The lake sediments were brought back to the laboratory and frozen, and then put into the freeze dryer for freeze drying, The freeze-dried samples were ground to powder by agate mortar, and then the samples were tested by XPert3 Powder X-ray diffraction method. Based on the analysis of Highscore Plus0 software, the content of each major mineral was obtained. The results show that the main minerals in this area are stalagmite, aragonite, calcite and illite.
In the dense area of stone products exposed to the ground, five different sizes (about 2 × 3 m). The stone materials are collected and analyzed in detail by using technology typology. In addition, it has a tetrahedral selection of 1.2 × 5 m of soil and 10 cm of topsoil were removed. These 10 – 50 cm soil samples were screened by wet sieving at 2 cm intervals, and the residues found in each layer were counted. At the same time, the djcn 3-2-2 profile (No. 1-10) exposed and scattered on the ground of the study area was measured and excavated on ten hearth. The profile was collected from local sedimentary strata about 2 m southeast of the site. The section is about 100 cm thick. According to the lithology and color of the sediments, two main stratigraphic units are identified. Between 0 and 90cm, the stratum is composed of light yellow loess, where there are two buried cultural layers rich in charcoal. 24 – 28 cm and 30 – 32 cm, respectively; In the lower layer of D, 90-100 cm depth is blue gray lacustrine sediments. 45 samples were collected at 2 cm intervals along the cross section for measuring particle size, magnetic susceptibility, pollen, charcoal and fungal spores; Three charcoal samples (djcn 3-2-2c1) were collected from the furnace and burned soil in the field, and djcn 3-2-2c2 and djcn 3-2-2c3 from the burned soil (No. 5 and No. 8 hearth) were collected from AMS14C dating of beta analytical company in Miami, Florida, USA. AMS14C dates were further converted to calendar year values by using the intcal 13 calibration curve of calib Rev 7.0.2 program (stuiver and Reimer, 1993) (reimeret et al., 2013). Physical geography and environmental process of Qinghai Normal University. Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The unexposed middle part was used to measure the equivalent dose (DE). We also use automatic RIS ø The OSL measurements were obtained by TL / osl-da-20-c / dreamer. 90Sr / 90Y beta light source was used in the laboratory. Sample preparation included treatment with HCl (10%) and H2O2 (30%) respectively to remove organic matter and carbonate. Select 38 to 63 by wet sieving µ And treated with H2SiF6 for about 2 weeks. Water content 10 ± 5% to calculate age (stauch et al., 2012). The particle size and magnetic susceptibility were measured in the Key Laboratory of physical geography and environmental process of Qinghai Province, Qinghai Normal University. Standard processes were used for particle size analysis, including removing carbonate and organic matter with HCl (10%) and H2O2 (10%), respectively, and treating dispersant with 10 ml of 10% (NaPO3) 6 and shaking with an ultrasonic cleaning machine to fully disperse the particles (Lu and an, 1997). Susceptibility was analyzed with MS2 dual frequency susceptibility meter produced by bartington, UK. The low frequency magnetic susceptibility is obtained by calculating the difference between the average of three low frequency magnetic susceptibility values and the average of two background values. The fungal spores, charcoal and pollen samples were treated with HF (faegri and Iversen, 1989; Moore et al., 1991). The samples were boiled in 10% HCl and 10% KOH to dissolve calcium minerals and humus. The sample is then passed through 200 µ M sieve, and treated with 40% HF to digest the fine silica. Next, pass the sample through 7 µ M screen to remove clay sized particles. Finally, the samples were stored and fixed in glycerol jelly. Pollen and fungal spores were identified at 400 and 1000 magnification. The identification of fungal spore morphotypes is based on comparison with the descriptions and illustrations of van geel (1978), van geel et al（ Pollen and fungal spores of van.300 were recorded for each sample and expressed as a percentage of the total content. Pollen and fungi were first isolated by adding Lycoris radiata spores (27637 ± 563 spores) to calculate spore concentration values, and then use Tilia and Tilia graph software to make charts (Grimm, 2011). Charcoal was counted and divided into two types, namely 20 – 100 µ M and > 100 µ m。
In June 2017, we found Jianzui site (36.95%) ° N,99.61 ° E; The altitude is 3350m), and 1m above the surface × According to its structural characteristics, it can be roughly divided into four layers: the first layer (0 ~ 30cm), which is the present representative soil layer, developed with modern alpine meadow soil; the second layer (0 ~ 30cm), which is composed of three layers: the first layer (0 ~ 30cm), developed with modern alpine meadow soil; The second layer (30 ~ 85CM) is gray black silty clay layer Mixed with a large number of charcoal chips, there are pottery pieces, animal bones, stone tools and other cultural relics unearthed, of which the bones are mostly broken pieces, and some are suspected to be bone artifacts; The pottery and bones (part) have obvious traces of fire. The stone tools are made of stone tools with rough technology, and their lithology is consistent with the nearby exposed bedrock, which indicates that they are made from local materials; The third layer (85 ~ 130cm) is sandy loess with loose soil. A thin layer of light red paleosol (about 2 ~ 3cm thick) is developed at the bottom of the layer, which belongs to primary sedimentary strata and has little interference from human activities; The fourth layer (below 130cm) is bedrock without any cultural relics. In this study, the reference specimens are mainly from the laboratory of animal archaeology, scientific and technological archaeology center, Institute of archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and the Institute of Paleovertebrates and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Please refer to the manual of Chinese vertebrate fossils, After the identification and collection of animal bones, charcoal scraps and other cultural relics, four dating samples (a45b, a75c, a75b and a87c, respectively) were selected from the 45cm, 75cm, 75cm and 87cm layers of the profile strata, It was sent to the beta Laboratory of the United States for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating. The 14C dating obtained was corrected to calendar year by using the intcali13 tree ring correction curve in calibrev702
Based on the previous research results, this paper collected the palynological sequence of the plateau strata from the published literature at home and abroad, and selected reliable records, in order to explore the information of human activities in this area. The selection principles are as follows: (1) the palynological sequence time should cover the middle and late Holocene (since 6.0kabp.)（ 2) The time series are expressed quantitatively in calendar year or 14C year time system（ 3) It has high resolution（ 4) According to the above principles, 28 fossil sporopollen sequences are selected in this area. Age correction: some of the 28 sequences are calendar years, and some are carbon 14 dating, so they are corrected to calendar years. Data acquisition: the sequence is quantified, and the sporopollen content and corresponding age of the sequence are read to ensure the validity of the data, The inflection point data is selected first, and the average sporopollen content data of less than 100 years is selected. A total of 568 sporopollen records are obtained from 28 sequences, Abstract and calculate the parasporal pollen records since the middle and late Holocene (6.0 ~ 2.0 Ka B.P.) in the merging cost area. Based on the original parasporal pollen records extracted from 28 stratigraphic fossil sporopollen sequences, the deviation method is used to standardize the sequence, so as to eliminate the dimensional differences between different sporopollen types and compare them, The original data after standardization is converted into standardized values, and then the average value of each record in each partition is calculated, so that it can be combined with the sporopollen records in the cost area, which is called companion index in this paper. It means that the higher the index is, the stronger the intensity of human activity is, and the lower the index is, the weaker it is
The data is based on the published archaeological materials in Gansu and Qinghai areas, and the excavation reports of 21 sites in 7 Cultural sequences in the study area, including 12 sites in Gansu and 9 sites in Qinghai. By using the method of mathematical statistics, this paper sorts out the quantity, height and combination of the pot, bowl, basin, pot, Zun, Weng, Dou, bowl, plate, cup, pan, bottle, jar and steamer of the Neolithic Bronze Age in Gansu Qinghai area. In view of the fact that there are many kinds of cultural relics in some sites, this paper uses the method of repeated statistics of cultural periods to determine the data of a certain cultural type. By using the method of mathematical statistical analysis, this paper makes a statistical analysis of the collected data, and analyzes and interprets the relationship between the data by drawing the change trend chart; In addition, this paper calculates and summarizes the quantity proportion and combination of a certain utensil in its cultural sequence, so as to ensure the cross validation among the three, further reveal its changing characteristics and reveal its changing rules. This paper mainly discusses the evolution of the four types of commonly used pottery, and analyzes the factors that may affect the evolution of pottery in combination with the paleoclimate records and archaeological data in Gansu Qinghai region and its surrounding areas.
The data used in this paper are: the range and boundary data of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau ; 90 m in the international scientific data mirror website of computer network information center of Chinese Academy of Sciences (http: / / www.gscloud. CN) × DEM data products with 90 m spatial resolution; The site data is mainly based on the results of the second national cultural relic survey, combined with the cultural relic Atlas of relevant provinces. In the process of data processing, firstly, the specific location of the site is determined, and the site with unknown longitude and latitude is interpreted with google satellite map; Secondly, according to the identification standard of China's cultural relics census, the sites are classified and dated (excluding the points with unknown age), and a small number of cross age sites are calculated repeatedly. Finally, according to the characteristics of archaeology, history and chronology system, the sites in the study area are counted according to the comprehensive division method of cultural type and history. The application of GIS and RS in the research of settlement and regional archaeology is becoming more and more mature. The shortest path in GIS is used to simulate the prehistoric traffic route of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and the kernel density estimation method is used to calculate the data aggregation of the whole region according to the input feature data set, so as to produce a continuous density surface. The results show that the distribution probability of the research object can be directly expressed, and the size of the kernel density represents the agglomeration degree of the site in the spatial distribution. The larger the kernel density estimation is, the denser the distribution density of the site is. The distance between the centroid of each element and its nearest element is measured by the average nearest neighbor index, and the average value of all the nearest distances is calculated, and compared with the average distance in the hypothetical random distribution, so as to judge whether the studied elements are clustered distribution. The description of the spatial distribution characteristics of attributes in the whole region is used to judge whether a certain element or phenomenon in the study area has aggregation characteristics in space. In this paper, the global Moran's I index is used to measure the global spatial autocorrelation degree of the sites in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
The Lunpola Basin distributed in the central part of the Banggong-Nujiang suture belt contains thick and continuous Cenozoic sediments, which have great potential for increasing our understanding of the tectonic uplift, paleoaltimetry, erosion, and depositional history of the Tibetan Plateau and climate environmental evolution. In this study, detailed investigations were carried on a Cenozoic continuous lacustrine sedimentary section, Lunpori (LPR), from the upper sequence of the central basin. Constrained by tie points of U-Pb zircon ages in the layers of tuffs and mammalian fossils of a rhinocerotid humerus, paleomagnetic methods yield ages of ~21.2 to 15 Ma for the section. In addition, we further select some parameters (e.g., magnetic susceptibility and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM)) to establish a high-resolution magnetic record to explore the paleoclimate change. The magnetic susceptibility is measured by Kappabridge while the SIRM is measured by Mini spin and Impulse Magnetizer. The results suggest that magnetic susceptibility (χ) gradually increases during the period of semi-deep to the deep lake but shows a decrease in the stage of the shallow lake. Combining with the maximum values of χ often appearing in the layer of sandstones and no obvious correlation between the χ and SIRM, we preliminarily considered that the supply of detritus may dominate the variation of the χ. Lithofacies, pollen, and fossil records suggest that a relatively temperate, humid climate prevailed in the Lunpola Basin during the sedimentary period of the Dingqinghu Fm.
This data set is composed of two sedimentary profiles of Huangyang river a (altitude: 2447 m, depth: 3.20 m, 37 ° 25 ′ n 102 ° 36 ′ E) and B (altitude: 2454 m, depth: 3.20 m, 37 ° 25 ′ n 102 ° 36 ′ E). Both of them are located in the hilly area at the northern foot of Qilian Mountain, 1km apart. The annual precipitation here is about 500mm, and the annual average temperature is about 2 ℃. The interval between the two slices was 2 cm, and 160 samples were obtained from each slice to analyze the total organic carbon, carbonate content, particle size and other information. The data set is of great significance to the study of paleoclimate / paleoenvironment.
Clay minerals are the weathering products of the parent rocks, which was formed by a series of chemical processes under a specific climate, and they are also widely-used indicators to reconstruct the history of the regional paleochemical weathering process. In this study, we present a detailed mineralogical investigation of 76 clay samples collected from the Lunpori section (21-15 Ma) in the Lunpola Basin by using X-ray diffraction. The results show that illite-smectite mixed layers, illite, chlorite, and kaolinite are the common clay mineral types in this section. The illite-smectite mixed layers and illite are the most abundant ones, which account for 80-90% of the total clay content; while the content of kaolinite and chlorite is relatively low, only occupying ~10-20% of the total clay minerals. The variations of clay mineral content are relatively stable in the Lunpori section, thus indicating that the intensity of regional chemical weathering was less variable during this period.
The marine- and terrestrial-facies sediments from the southern piedmont of the Himalayan margin recorded the tectonic deformation and environmental evolution of the front edge of continental collision. To better understand the deformation mechanism of the southern Himalayan margin and constrain the continental collision age, we selected the three well exposed outcrop profiles from late Cretaceous to middle Eocene strata in the western Nepal and carried on rock magnetism. All the samples for the Palpa section with depth of 120 m had been performed on mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (χlf), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM). Meanwhile, the isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and the hysteresis loops was acquired from the fine sediments, and several important magnetic parameters were determined, including the saturation magnetization (Ms) and saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs).
Cenozoic sedimentary strata, which have been extensively developed in the low Himalaya region of western Nepal, provide an opportunity to study the dynamics of plateau uplift and the effects of climate and environment. According to a detailed field explored in the region nearly 10 sections, we found that a typical Cenozoic strata in the area is mainly composed of passive continental margin sedimentary of India's Tansen group and the Himalayas of foreland basin of Siwalik group, thickness of the Tansen group of 2000-3000 m, bottom-up Cenozoic strata, including the Amile group (Amile), and Bhainskati group (Bhainskati), Dumri group (Dumri); The Siwalik group, up to 4000m-6000m, is mainly composed of the lower, middle and upper west Siwalik. Cenozoic strata in Butwal section (309 m, including Amile and upper Bhainskati formation), Tulsipur section (357 m, including the top of Amile group and Bhainskati group formation) and Kalyan section (1161 m, including upper Bhainskati group formation and Dumri formation) are well exposed. High precise (with 1 m spacing) paleomagnetic chronology and environmental proxies samples collected in those three sections. By giving the precise stratigraphic age and paleoenvironmental data, it is of great significance to explore whether the north-south monsoon and drought events on the plateau are coupled and synchronized, and to reveal their relationship with the tectonic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and global change.
This data is the grain size data set of the XS loess section at Ganzi in the east of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The whole section is 10 meters thick, and the grain size analysis is carried out according to the interval of 2.5cm. A total of 398 groups of grain size data are obtained. The grain size analysis was carried out at the Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems（Ministry of Education), Lanzhou University. Before the measurement, the organic matter and carbonate in the sample were removed by H2O2 and hydrochloric acid, then adding the sodium hexago-hydrophosphate and vibrating for about 10 min to disperse samples by using ultrasonic apparatus. All measurements are conducted by using the Mastersizer 2000. This data reflects variations of the loess grain size since the last interglacial, which is of great importance for understanding past evionroment changes in the eastern Tibet Plateau.
The data include the carbonate content, carbon isotope and oxygen isotope analysis results of inorganic carbonates of 79 samples from 850 m natural section of the middle late Eocene in the salkuli basin. The carbon and oxygen isotopes of carbonate in the sediments record the hydrological and vegetation information in the geological history, which is one of the main indicators of paleoenvironmental tracer research. After grinding and sieving, the carbon and oxygen isotope analysis is completed by the sample processing unit (carbonate device) and MAT252 isotope mass spectrometry online automatic online system. The analytical accuracy of the sample is: carbon isotope is better than ± 0.06 ‰, and oxygen isotope is better than ± 0.08 ‰. Through the analysis of carbon and oxygen isotope data of solkuli section, the evolution history of arid environment since Eocene can be reconstructed, and the paleoclimate effect of the Tibetan Plateau uplift and global climate change can be discussed.
This data includes the accessibility of 15 kinds of public facilities and services, such as roads and schools, in the communities of 1280 households at domestic and abroad, as well as the farmers' satisfaction with these public facilities and public services by comparing that with 3 years ago and current status with neighboring village. This data is used to support the analysis of the material capital part of sustainable livelihood. The data was collected by the research group through field survey in 2019. Before collecting the data, the research group and invited experts conducted a pretest and improved the survey questionnaire; Before the formal investigation, the members participating in the data collection were strictly trained; In the formal survey, each questionnaire is checked three times before it is filed. This data is of great value for understanding the physical capital accessibility and satisfaction of rural households in environment-economic fragile areas, and is an important supplement to national and macro data.