This meteorological data is the basic meteorological data of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, precipitation, air pressure, radiation, soil temperature and humidity observed in the observation site (86.56 ° e, 28.21 ° n, 4276m) of the comprehensive observation and research station of atmosphere and environment of Qomolangma, Chinese Academy of Sciences from 2019 to 2020. Precipitation is the daily cumulative value. All data are observed and collected in strict accordance with the instrument operation specifications, and some obvious error data are eliminated when processing and generating data The data can be used by students and scientific researchers engaged in meteorology, atmospheric environment or ecology (Note: when using, it must be indicated in the article that the data comes from Qomolangma station for atmospheric and environmental observation and research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS / CAS))
1) This data is the aridity index data calculated based on the latest simulation results of 22 cmip6 coupled global climate models; 2) The calculation formula is p / PET (ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration), and the calculation of pet is based on PM formula; 3) The monthly data of the Great Lakes region of Central Asia from January 1900 to December 2100, including ssp2-4.5 and ssp5-8.5, with a resolution of 1 degree * 1 degree; 4) The data can be used to analyze the distribution and evolution of dry and wet pattern in the Great Lakes region of Central Asia under medium and high emission scenarios in the future. The data has been converted into 3-mongth running means.
This data set is the data set of drought index AI from 1948 to 2018, with spatial coverage of 60s-60n, 180e-180w, spatial resolution of 0.5 °, and temporal resolution of year. The potential evapotranspiration (PET) is calculated based on penman Monteith model, in which the wind speed, relative humidity, sensible heat, latent heat, soil heat flux and surface pressure data are from GLDAS, air temperature data are from CPC, and precipitation data are also from CPC. GLDAS data is divided into two sections. The first section is from GLDAS_ NOAH10_ M v2.0 series, covering the period from 1948 to 2015; The second paragraph is from GLDAS_ NOAH10_ M v2.1, covering the period from 2000 to now, we spliced the overlapping data segments from 2000 to 2014, subtracted the average values of wind speed, relative humidity, sensible heat, latent heat, soil heat flux and surface air pressure of the two sets of data in this period, obtained the difference, and added the difference to the data set of v2.1 to calculate pet.
YU Haipeng YU Haipeng
The data set contains atmospheric aerosol PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 data and ambient air temperature and humidity from meduo National Climate Observatory (29 ° 18'n, 95 ° 19'e, 1305.0m above sea level) in meduo region, Tibet. The observation instrument is grimm-180 environmental particle analyzer. The observation time is from April 8, 2021 to May 22, 2021. The data time resolution is 10 seconds. The abnormal data generated during the operation of the instrument has been eliminated. During the observation period, due to the influence of the South Asian monsoon, the air humidity is high, and the surrounding of the observation site is less disturbed by human activities. This data set provides basic data for studying the physical characteristics, temporal and spatial variation characteristics and source analysis of atmospheric dust aerosols in Southeast Tibet. Supported project: Topic 2 of the sixth research task of the second comprehensive scientific investigation of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (2019qzkk0602).
HUANG Jianping, ZHANG Lei, TIAN Pengfei, SHI Jinsen
Central Asia (referred to as CA) is among the most vulnerable regions to climate change due to the fragile ecosystems, frequent natural hazards, strained water resources, and accelerated glacier melting, which underscores the need of high-resolution climate projection datasets for application to vulnerability, impacts, and adaption assessments. We applied three bias-corrected global climate models (GCMs) to conduct 9-km resolution dynamical downscaling in CA. A high-resolution climate projection dataset over CA (the HCPD-CA dataset) is derived from the downscaled results, which contains four static variables and ten meteorological elements that are widely used to drive ecological and hydrological models. The static variables are terrain height (HGT, m), land use category (LU_INDEX, 21 categories), land mask (LANDMASK, 1 for land and 0 for water), and soil category (ISLTYP, 16 categories). The meteorological elements are daily precipitation (PREC, mm/day), daily mean/maximum/minimum temperature at 2m (T2MEAN/T2MAX/T2MIN, K), daily mean relative humidity at 2m (RH2MEAN, %), daily mean eastward and northward wind at 10m (U10MEAN/V10MEAN, m/s), daily mean downward shortwave/longwave flux at surface (SWD/LWD, W/m2), and daily mean surface pressure (PSFC, Pa). The reference and future periods are 1986-2005 and 2031-2050, respectively. The carbon emission scenario is RCP4.5. The results show the data product has good quality in describing the climatology of all the elements in CA, which ensures the suitability of the dataset for future research. The main feature of projected climate changes in CA in the near-term future is strong warming (annual mean temperature increasing by 1.62-2.02℃) and significant increase in downward shortwave and longwave flux at surface, with minor changes in other elements. The HCPD-CA dataset presented here serves as a scientific basis for assessing the impacts of climate change over CA on many sectors, especially on ecological and hydrological systems.
Based on China's daily meteorological elements data set and National Geographic basic data, the extreme precipitation, extreme temperature, drought intensity, drought frequency and other indicators in Hengduan Mountain area were calculated by using rclimdex, nspei and bilinear interpolation methods. The data set includes basic data set of disaster pregnant environment, basic data set of extreme precipitation index, basic data set of extreme temperature index, basic data set of drought intensity and frequency. The data set can provide a basic index system for regional extreme high temperature, precipitation and drought risk assessment.
The dataset contains observed climate data (1/1/2019-12/31/2019) from two automatic meteorological station located in the Qinghai Lake Basin. The niaodao station (36°58′N，99°52′E) is located in Gonghe County, Hainan Prefecture, Qinghai Province, and the wayanshan station (37°44′ N，100°05′ E) is located in Gangcha County, Haibei Prefecture, Qinghai Province. The observed elements include air temperature (℃) and relative humidity (%) at three layers (1m, 5m, and 10m), atmospheric pressure (hPa), and photosynthetically active radiation (W/m2). Both stations use CR1000 to collect climate data and record it every half an hour, the air temperature and humidity were measured by hmp155a, the atmospheric pressure was measured by CS106 and the photosynthetically active radiation was measured by LI200R. Our dataset will support the study of optimizing the ecological security barrier system in the key urbanized areas of the Tibetan Plateau.
CHEN Kelong, CHEN Zhirong
The data includes the daily mean value of stable isotope δ18O in precipitation, the air temperature and precipitation amounts in Bomi in 2008; the precipitation samples are collected by Bomi meteorological station, and the stable isotope of precipitation is measured at the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement, France., The δ18O amounts were measured by equilibration on a MAT-252 mass spectrometer, with an analytical precision of 0.05‰. The air temperatures and precipitation amounts were recorded for each precipitation events at Bomi meteorological stations, through the average of the observed temperature before and after the precipitation event, and through the total precipitation amount for each event. The data study has been published in the Journal of Climate, entitled Precipitation Water Stable Isotopes in the South Tibetan Plateau: Observations and Modeling.
The data set is the daily precipitation stable isotope data (δ 18O, δ D, d-excess) from Satkhira, Barisal and sylhet3 stations in Bangladesh from 2017 to 2018. The data set was collected by Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) and measured by picarro l2130i wavelength scanning cavity ring down spectrometer in the Key Laboratory of environment and surface processes, Institute of Qinghai Tibet Plateau, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Sampling location and time of three observation points: Satkhira ：2017.03.11-2018.07.16 Barisal：2017.03.05-2018.07.02 Sylhet : 2017.02.20-2018.09.04
Precipitation stable isotopes (2H and 18O) are adequately understood on their climate controls in the Tibetan Plateau, especially the north of Himalayas via about 30 years’ studies. However, knowledge of controls on precipitation stable isotopes in Nepal (the south of Himalayas), is still far from sufficient. This study described the intra-seasonal and annual variations of precipitation stable isotopes at Kathmandu, Nepal from 10 May 2016 to 21 September 2018 and analysed the possible controls on precipitation stable isotopes. All samples are located in Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal (27 degrees north latitude, 85 degrees east longitude), with an average altitude of about 1400 m. Combined with the meteorological data from January 1, 2001 to September 21, 2018, the values of precipitation (P), temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) are given.
The data are collected from the automatic weather station (AWS, Campbell company) in the moraine area of the 24K glacier in the Southeast Tibet Plateau, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The geographic coordinates are 29.765 ° n, 95.712 ° E and 3950 m above sea level. The data include daily arithmetic mean data of air temperature (℃), relative humidity (%), wind speed (M / s), net radiation (w / m2), water vapor pressure (kPa) and air pressure (mbar). In the original data, an average value was recorded every 30 minutes before October 2018, and then an average value was recorded every 10 minutes. The temperature and humidity are measured by hmp155a temperature and humidity probe. The net radiation probe is nr01, the atmospheric pressure sensor probe is ptb210, and the wind speed sensor is 05103. These probes are 2 m above the ground. Data quality: the data has undergone strict quality control. The original abnormal data of 10 minutes and 30 minutes are removed first, and then the arithmetic mean of each hour is calculated. Finally, the daily value is calculated. If the number of hourly data is less than 24, the data is removed, and the corresponding date data in the data table is empty. In addition to the lack of some parameter data due to the thick snow and low temperature in winter and spring, the data can be used by scientific researchers who study climate, glacier and hydrology through strict quality control.
The data set contains the stable oxygen isotope data of ice core from 1864 to 2006. The ice core was obtained from Noijinkansang glacier in the south of Southern Tibetan Plateau, with a length of 55.1 meters. Oxygen isotopes were measured using a MAT-253 mass spectrometer (with an analytical precision of 0.05 ‰) at the Key Laboratory of CAS for Tibetan Environment and Land Surface Processes, China. Data collection location: Noijinkansang glacier (90.2 ° e, 29.04 ° n, altitude: 5950 m)
This data set includes the daily average values of air temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, precipitation, total radiation, p2.5 concentration, short wave radiation, etc. observed by the comprehensive observation and research station of atmosphere and environment of Everest from 2017 to 2018.
This data set includes the daily average data of air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed, wind direction, net radiation, air pressure, etc. of Southeast Tibet station from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2018.
Luo Lun, ZHU Liping
Near surface atmospheric forcing data were produced by using Wether Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the Heihe River Basin at hourly 0.05 * 0.05 DEG resolution, including the following variables: 2m temperature, surface pressure, water vapor mixing ratio, downward shortwave & upward longwave radiation, 10m wind field and the accumulated precipitation. The forcing data were validated by observational data collected by 15 daily Chinese Meteorological Bureau conventional automatic weather station (CMA), a few of Heihe River eco-hydrological process comprehensive remote sensing observation (WATER and HiWATER) site hourly observations were verified in different time scales, draws the following conclusion: 2m surface temperature, surface pressure and 2m relative humidity are more reliable, especially 2m surface temperature and surface pressure, the average errors are very small and the correlation coefficients are above 0.96; correlation between downward shortwave radiation and WATER site observation data is more than 0.9; The precipitation agreed well with observational data by being verified based on rain and snow precipitation two phases at yearly, monthly, daily time scales . the correlation coefficient between rainfall and the observation data at monthly and yearly time scales were up to 0.94 and 0.84; the correlation between snowfall and observation data at monthly scale reached 0.78, the spatial distribution of snowfall agreed well with the snow fractional coverage rate of MODIS remote sensing product. Verification of liquid and solid precipitation shows that WRF model can be used for downscaling analysis in complex and arid terrain of Heihe River Basin, and the simulated data can meet the requirements of watershed scale hydrological modeling and water resources balance. The data for 2000-2012 was provided in 2013. The data for 2013-2015 was updated in 2016. The data for 2016-2018 was updated in 2019. The data for 2019-2021 was updated in 2021.
This data set is output from WRF model. The data include ‘LU_INDEX’ (land use category), ‘ZNU’(eta values on half (mass) levels), ‘ZNW’(eta values on full (w) levels)，’ZS’(depths of centers of soil layers), ‘DZS’ (thicknesses of soil layers), ‘VAR_SSO’ (variance of subgrid-scale orography), ‘U’(x-wind component), ‘V’(y-wind component),’W’(z-wind component),’T’(perturbation potential temperature (theta-t0)), ‘Q2’ ('QV at 2 M), ‘T2’ (TEMP at 2 M), ‘TH2’ ('POT TEMP at 2 M), ‘PSFC’ (SFC pressure), ‘U10’ (U at 10 M), ‘V10’ (V at 10 M), ‘QVAPOR’ (Water vapor mixing ratio), ‘QLOUD’ (Cloud water mixing ratio),’QRAIN’ (Rain water mixing ratio), ‘QICE’ (Ice mixing ratio), ‘QSNOW’ (Snow mixing ratio), ‘SHDMAX’ (annual max veg fraction), ‘SHDMIN’ (annual min veg fraction), ‘SNOALB’ (annual max snow albedo in fraction), ‘TSLB’ (soil temperature), ‘SMOIS’ (soil moisture), ‘GRDFLX’ (ground heat flux), ‘LAI’ (Leaf area index),’ HGT’ (Terrain Height), ‘TSK’ (surface skin temperature), ‘SWDOWN’ (downward short wave flux at ground surface), ‘GLW’ (downward long wave flux at ground surface), ‘HFX’ (upward heat flux at the surface), ‘QFX’ (upward moisture flux at the surface), ‘LH’ (latent heat flux at the surface), ‘SNOWC’ (flag indicating snow coverage (1 for snow cover)), and so on. The data is in netCDF format with a spatial resolution of 10 km.
In April 2014 and may 2016, 21 Lakes (7 non thermal lakes and 14 thermal lakes) were collected in the source area of the Yellow River (along the Yellow River) respectively. The abundance of hydrogen and oxygen allogens was measured by Delta V advantage dual inlet / hdevice system in inno tech Alberta laboratory in Victoria, Canada. The isotope abundance was expressed in the form of δ (‰) (relative to the average seawater abundance in Vienna) ）Test error: δ 18O: 0.1 ‰, δ D: 1 ‰. The data also includes Lake area and lake basin area extracted from Landsat 2017 image data in Google Earth engine.
The matching data of water and soil resources in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, the potential evapotranspiration data calculated by Penman formula from the site meteorological data (2008-2016, national meteorological data sharing network), the evapotranspiration under the existing land use according to the influence coefficient of underlying surface, and the rainfall data obtained by interpolation from the site rainfall data in the meteorological data, are used to calculate the evapotranspiration under the existing land use according to the different land types of land use According to the difference, the matching coefficient of water and soil resources is obtained. The difference between the actual rainfall and the water demand under the existing land use conditions reflects the matching of water and soil resources. The larger the value is, the better the matching is. The spatial distribution of the matching of soil and water resources can pave the way for further understanding of the agricultural and animal husbandry resources in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
This dataset includes data recorded by the Heihe integrated observatory network obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Daman Superstation from January 1 to December 31, 2018. The site (100.372° E, 38.856° N) was located on a cropland (maize surface) in the Daman irrigation, which is near Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1556 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (AV-14TH;3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 m, towards north), wind speed and direction profile (windsonic; 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 m, towards north), air pressure (CS100; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 2.5 m, 8 m in west of tower), four-component radiometer (PIR&PSP; 12 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (IRTC3; 12 m, towards south, vertically downward), photosynthetically active radiation (LI190SB; 12 m, towards south, vertically upward; another four photosynthetically active radiation, PQS-1; two above the plants (12 m) and two below the plants (0.3 m), towards south, each with one vertically downward and one vertically upward), soil heat flux (HFP01SC; 3 duplicates with G1 below the vegetation; G2 and G3 between plants, -0.06 m), a TCAV averaging soil thermocouple probe (TCAV; -0.02, -0.04 m), soil temperature profile (AV-10T; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_3 m, Ta_5 m, Ta_10 m, Ta_15 m, Ta_20 m, Ta_30 m, and Ta_40 m; RH_3 m, RH_5 m, RH_10 m, RH_15 m, RH_20 m, RH_30 m, and RH_40 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_3 m, Ws_5 m, Ws_10 m, Ws_15 m, Ws_20 m, Ws_30 m, and Ws_40 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_3 m, WD_5 m, WD_10 m, WD_15 m, WD_20 m, WD_30m, and WD_40 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (μmol/ (s m-2)), average soil temperature (TCAV, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, below the vegetation; Gs_2, and Gs_3, between plants) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_80 cm, Ts_120 cm, and Ts_160 cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_80 cm, Ms_120 cm, and Ms_160 cm) (%, volumetric water content), above the plants photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_U_up and PAR_U_down) (μmol/ (s m-2)), and below the plants photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_D_up and PAR_D_down) (μmol/ (s m-2)). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day.The meterological data during September 17 and November 7 and TCAV data after November 7 were wrong because the malfunction of datalogger. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2018-6-10 10:30. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) for data processing) in the Citation section.
LI Xin, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, REN Zhiguo, TAN Junlei
This data set includes the daily values of temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, precipitation, total radiation, etc. observed at Namuco station from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2018.
WANG Junbo, WU Guangjian