Temporal aliasing caused by the incomplete reduction of high frequency atmosphere and ocean variability contributes as a major error source in the time-variable gravity field products recovered from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and GRACE-Follow On (GRACE-FO), and likely future gravity missions. The current state-of-the-art of satellite gravity data processing makes use of de-aliasing products to reduce high-frequency mass anomalies, for example, the most recent official Atmosphere and Ocean De-aliasing products (AOD1B-RL06) are applied to model non-tidal mass changes in the ocean and atmosphere. The products already achieved a temporal resolution of 3 hours that greatly improved the quality of gravity inversion compared to the previous releases. In this study, we explore a refined mass integration approach of the atmosphere that considers geometrical, physical, and numerical modifications of the current AOD1B method. Then, the newly available ERA-5 global climate data of 31 km spatial and 1-hour temporal resolution are used to produce a new set of non-tidal atmosphere de-aliasing product (HUST-ERA5) that is computed in terms of spherical harmonics up to degree/order 100 covering 2002 onwards. Despite of an overall agreement with the AOD1B-RL06 (correlation of low-degree coefficients are all greater than 0.99), discrepancy is still distinguished for spatial-temporal analysis, i.e., a better consistency of HUST-ERA5 from 2007 to 2010. The factors contributing the differences, including the input data, method and temporal resolution, are therefore respectively analyzed and quantified through extensive assessments. We find the difference of HUST-ERA5 and AOD1B-RL06 has led to a mean variation of 7.34 nm/s on the the LRI (Laser Ranging Interferometry) range-rate residual on Jan 2019, which is close to the LRI precision already. This impact is invisible for GRACE(-FO) gravity inversion because of the less accurate onboard KBR(K-band ranging) instrument, however, it will be nonnegligible and should be considered when the LRI completely replaces KBR in the future gravity mission. In addition, HUST-ERA5 can also be widely used in LEO satellite orbit determination and superconducting gravimeter atmospheric correction.
YANG Fan LUO Zhicai
These datasets fill the data gap between GRACE and GRACE-FO, they contain CSR RL06 Mascon and JPL RL06 Mascon. They take China as the study area, and the dataset includes "Decimal_time”, "lat”, "lon”, "time”, "time_bounds”, "TWSA_REC" and "Uncertainty" 7 parameters in total. Among them, "Decimal_time” corresponds to decimal time. There are 191 months from April 2002 to December 2019 (163 months for GRACE data, 17 months for GRACE-FO data, and 11 months for the gap between GRACE and GRACE-FO. We have not filled the missing data of individual months between GRACE or GRACE-FO data). "lat" corresponds to the latitude range of the data; "lon" corresponds to the longitude range of the data; "time" corresponds to the cumulative day of the data from January 1, 2002. And "time_bounds" corresponding to the cumulative day at the start date and end date of each month. “TWSA_REC" represents the monthly terrestrial water storage anomalies from April 2002 to December 2019 in China; "Uncertainty" is the uncertainty between the data and CSR RL06 Mascon products. We use GRACE satellite data from CSR GRACE/GRACE-FO RL06 Mascon solutions (version 02), China Gauge-based Daily Precipitation Analysis (CGDPA, version 1.0) data, and CN05.1 temperature dataset. The precipitation reconstruction model was established, and the seasonal and trend terms of CSR RL06 Mascon products were considered to obtain the dataset of terrestrial water storage anomalies in China. The data quality is good as a whole, and the uncertainty of most regions in China is within 5cm. This dataset complements the nearly one-year data gap between GRACE and GRACE-FO satellites, and provides a full time series for long-term land water storage change analysis in China. As the CSR RL06 Mascon product, the average value between 2004.0000 and 2009.999 is deducted from this dataset. Therefore, the 164-174 months (i.e., July 2017 to May 2018) of this dataset can be directly extracted as the estimation of terrestrial water storage anomalies during the gap period. The reconstruction method for the gap of JPL RL06 Mascon is consistent with that of CSR RL06 Mascon.
ZHONG Yulong FENG Wei ZHONG Min MING Zutao