The thickness of the active layer of the three pole permafrost combines two sets of data products. The main reference data is the annual value of the active layer thickness from 1990 to 2015 generated by GCM model simulation. The data format of this data set is netcdf4 format, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 ° and a temporal resolution of years. The reference correction data set is the average value of active layer thickness from 2000 to 2015 simulated by statistical and machine learning (ML) methods. The data format is GeoTIFF format, the spatial resolution is 0.1 °, and the data unit is m. Through post-processing operations such as data format conversion, spatial interpolation, data correction, etc., this research work generates the permafrost active layer thickness data in netcdf4 format, with a spatial resolution of 0.1 °, a temporal resolution of years, a time range of 1990-2015, and a data unit of CM.
The original data of carbon flux in the three pole permafrost region are generated by GCM model simulation, and the original data are from http://www.cryosphere.csdb.cn/portal/metadata/5abef388-3f3f-4802-b3de-f4d233cb333b 。 This data set contains the prediction of future scenarios under different representative concentration paths (RCPs) in the next 2046-2065 years, including rcp2.6 scenario, rcp4.5 scenario and rcp8.5 scenario. The original data include parameters representing carbon flux such as NPP and GPP in the permafrost region of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The data format is netcdf4 format, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 ° and a temporal resolution of years. Through data format conversion, spatial interpolation and other post-processing operations, the NPP and GPP data in permafrost region in netcdf4 format are generated. The spatial resolution is 0.1 °, the time resolution is years, the time range is 2046-2065, and the data unit is gc/m2yr.
The original thickness data of the active layer of the three pole permafrost are generated by GCM model simulation, and the original data are from http://www.cryosphere.csdb.cn/portal/metadata/5abef388-3f3f-4802-b3de-f4d233cb333b 。 This data set contains the prediction of future scenarios under different representative concentration paths (RCPs) in the next 2046-2065 years, including rcp2.6 scenario, rcp4.5 scenario and rcp8.5 scenario. The content of the original data is the thickness of the active layer in the permafrost area of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The data format is netcdf4, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 ° and a temporal resolution of years. Through data format conversion, spatial interpolation and other post-processing operations, the active layer thickness in permafrost area in netcdf4 format is generated, with a spatial resolution of 0.1 °, a time resolution of years, a time range of 2046-2065, and the unit is cm.
The original data of the three pole permafrost range are generated by GCM model simulation, and the original data are from http://www.cryosphere.csdb.cn/portal/metadata/5abef388-3f3f-4802-b3de-f4d233cb333b 。 This data set contains the prediction of future scenarios under different representative concentration paths (RCPs) in the next 2046-2065 years, including rcp2.6 scenario, rcp4.5 scenario and rcp8.5 scenario. The original data content is the spatial range of permafrost and seasonal frozen soil in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The data format is netcdf4 format, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 ° and a temporal resolution of years. Through data format conversion, spatial interpolation and other post-processing operations, this research work generates the permafrost range data in netcdf4 format, with a spatial resolution of 0.1 °, a time resolution of years, and a time range of 2046-2065. Permafrost is represented by 1, and seasonal permafrost is represented by 0.
As an important part of the global carbon pool, Arctic permafrost is one of the most sensitive regions to global climate change. The rate of warming in the Arctic is twice the global average, causing rapid changes in Arctic permafrost. The NDVI change data set of different types of permafrost regions in the Northern Hemisphere from 1982 to 2015 has a temporal resolution of every five years, covers the entire Arctic Rim countries, and a spatial resolution of 8km. Based on multi-source remote sensing, simulation, statistics and measured data, GIS method and ecological method are used to quantify the regulation and service function of permafrost in the northern hemisphere to the ecosystem, and all the data are subject to quality control.
This data provides the data on carbon dioxide emissions on the Tibetan Plateau during 2014-2101, and the data is derived from the CMIP6 ScenarioMIP Comparison Plan. We provided three future socio-economic sharing pathways of carbon dioxide emissions: SSP126, SSP370, SSP585. The data from 2014 to 2101 were extracted for the grid points on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the data accuracy was 0.9x1.25 degrees. The txt file contains three columns, the first column is latitude, the second column is longitude, and the third column is the annual carbon dioxide flux in kg m-2 s-1. The carbon dioxide emissions under different future scenarios of the Tibetan Plateau provided in this datasets can provide reference for site observation and numerical simulations.
Soil freezing depth (SFD) is necessary to evaluate the balance of water resources, surface energy exchange and biogeochemical cycle change in frozen soil area. It is an important indicator of climate change in the cryosphere and is very important to seasonal frozen soil and permafrost. This data is based on Stefan equation, using the daily temperature prediction data and E-factor data of canems2 (rcp45 and rcp85), gfdl-esm2m (rcp26, rcp45, rcp60 and rcp85), hadgem2-es (rcp26, rcp45 and rcp85), ipsl-cm5a-lr (rcp26, rcp45, rcp60 and rcp85), miroc5 (rcp26, rcp45, rcp60 and rcp85) and noresm1-m (rcp26, rcp45, rcp60 and rcp85), The data set of annual average soil freezing depth in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau with a spatial resolution of 0.25 degrees from 2007 to 2065 was obtained.
PAN Xiaoduo, LI Hu
Freezing (thawing) index refers to the sum of all temperatures less than (greater than) 0 ℃ in a year. Surface freezing (thawing) index is an important parameter to measure the time and capacity of surface freezing (thawing), which can reflect the characteristics of regional freezing and thawing environment. Based on the modis-lst data product, which comes from the national Qinghai Tibet Plateau science data center, the data in the Sanjiang River Basin are read by MATLAB language, and combined with the calculation of freezing (thawing index) formula, the spatial distribution data set of surface freezing and thawing index of dynamic environmental factors outside the Sanjiang River basin (average from 2003 to 2015) is obtained. This data set can better reflect the ability of surface freezing and thawing in the Sanjiang River Basin, so as to reflect the characteristics of regional freezing and thawing environment, It provides important external dynamic environmental factors for the development of freeze-thaw landslide.
This data set takes the freezing index calculated by the long-time scale (1901-2016) temperature provided by UEA-CRU and UDEL as the input data, calculates the soil freezing depth of Yarlung Zangbo River Basin through Stefan empirical formula, and interpolates the 30-year scale average soil freezing depth data set output by simulation. This data set takes the freezing index calculated by the long-time scale (1901-2016) temperature provided by UEA-CRU and UDEL as the input data, calculates the soil freezing depth of Yarlung Zangbo River Basin through Stefan empirical formula, and interpolates the 30-year scale average soil freezing depth data set output by simulation.
LIU Lei , LUO Dongliang , WANG Lei
The vegetation type map was created by the random forest (RF) classification approach, based on 319 ground-truth samples, combined with a set of input variables derived from the visible, infrared, and thermal Landsat-8 images. According to vegetation characteristics, four types include alpine swamp meadow (ASM), alpine meadow (AM), alpine steppe (AS), and alpine desert (AD) were classified in this map. Based on a spatial resolution of 30 m, the map can provide more detailed vegetation information.
ZHOU Defu, ZOU Defu, ZOU Defu, Zhao Lin, ZHAO Lin, Liu Guangyue, LIU Guangyue, Du Erji, DU Erji, LI Zhibin , LI Zhibin, Wu Tonghua, WU Xiaodong, CHEN Jie CHEN Jie
The monitoring section is located in the high plain of chumar River (dk1043 + 500-dk1067 + 022). The frozen soil under the subgrade at the section is mainly multi frozen soil, ice saturated frozen soil and thick underground ice, belonging to the low-temperature basically stable multi-year frozen soil subregion (zone III). A total of 5 monitoring sections are arranged in this section, including 2 plain soil subgrade sections, 1 block stone subgrade, 1 block stone slope protection subgrade and 1 U-shaped block stone subgrade section respectively. 4-5 test holes are arranged in each section, with a test depth of 15 ~ 20m, and the deepest hole in the section is 40m. The main element of monitoring is permafrost ground temperature, and the monitoring period is from 2003 to 2021. This data is based on Permafrost Engineering The temperature measuring probe made by the State Key Laboratory was obtained through field monitoring. Every year, the monitoring data of each monitoring section is collected on site through cr3000 data acquisition instrument. Through certain quality control, including eliminating the data when the sensor does not fully adapt to the soil environment and the systematic error caused by sensor failure. The corrected final data is stored in Excel file. The field data obtained has been reviewed by many people, and the data integrity and accuracy have reached more than 95%. The data can provide a reference for the long-term stability evaluation of block stone subgrade.
The data set mainly includes the investigation data set of geological disasters, pavement diseases and bridge and culvert diseases along Qinghai Tibet highway g109, Qinghai Tibet railway and Xinzang highway G219. The investigation time is August 12, 2020 - August 19, 2020, and July 26, 2021 - August 15, 2021. The survey objects are South Asia channel and Himalayan Mountain project. The types of diseases investigated mainly include geological disasters induced by freeze-thaw (rockfall, dangerous rock mass, debris flow gully and debris slope), pavement crack diseases, loose diseases, pit diseases, subgrade deformation diseases, bridge and culvert diseases, etc. The method of manual investigation shall be adopted to observe the damage of various diseases, and the quantity (range), damage degree and location of various damage types of pavement, bridge and culvert and geological disasters shall be recorded in detail as required. The data set can provide a basis for a comprehensive understanding of the freeze-thaw diseases of South Asia channel and Himalayan mountain projects and related research.
The maximum freezing depth is an important index of the thermal state of seasonal frozen ground. Due to global warming, the maximum freezing depth of seasonal frozen ground continues to decline. The maximum freezing depth data set of five provinces in Northwest China, Tibet and surrounding areas from 1961 to 2020 was released, with a spatial resolution of 1 km. The data set is a support vector regression (SVR) model based on the measured data of maximum freezing depth from 2001 to 2010 and spatial environmental variables, which simulates the maximum freezing depth in Northwest China, Tibet and surrounding areas from 1961 to 2020. The validation results show that the SVR model has good spatial generalization ability, and there is a high consistency between the predicted value and the observed value of the maximum soil freezing depth. The determination coefficients of the simulation results in the four periods of 1980s, 1990s, 2000s and 2010s are 0.77, 0.83, 0.73 and 0.71 respectively. The percentile range of the prediction results shows that the simulation results have good stability. Based on this data set, it is found that the maximum soil freezing depth in Northwest China continues to decline, among which Qinghai has the fastest decline rate, with an average decline of 0.53 cm every decade. The data set provides data support for the study of seasonal frozen soil in Northwest China, High Mountain Asia and the Third Pole.
WANG Bingquan, RAN Youhua
This biophysical permafrost zonation map was produced using a rule-based GIS model that integrated a new permafrost extent, climate conditions, vegetation structure, soil and topographic conditions, as well as a yedoma map. Different from the previous maps, permafrost in this map is classified into five types: climate-driven, climate-driven/ecosystem-modified, climate-driven/ecosystem protected, ecosystem-driven, and ecosystem-protected. Excluding glaciers and lakes, the areas of these five types in the Northern Hemisphere are 3.66×106 km2, 8.06×106 km2, 0.62×106 km2, 5.79×106 km2, and 1.63×106 km2, respectively. 81% of the permafrost regions in the Northern Hemisphere are modified, driven, or protected by ecosystems, indicating the dominant role of ecosystems in permafrost stability in the Northern Hemisphere. Permafrost driven solely by climate occupies 19% of permafrost regions, mainly in High Arctic and high mountains areas, such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
RAN Youhua, M. Torre Jorgenson, LI Xin, JIN Huijun, Wu Tonghua, Li Ren, CHENG Guodong
Based on gipl1.0 permafrost spatial distribution model, combined with the existing basic data, including climate change, soil types, and vegetation data, the permafrost and seasonal permafrost characteristics of Sichuan Tibet railway are simulated. The data result is 500m spatial resolution grid, including the maximum depth of permafrost and the maximum freezing depth of seasonal permafrost. The results are verified by drilling data. The data date is 2001-20192041-20602081-2100 (20-year average), in which the water body and glacier area are excluded from the calculation range through the mask (null value). The climate data is monthly mean, other data remain unchanged in the process of simulation, and the spatial resolution is 500m. Data sources and "woeldc" lim:https :// www.worldclim.org/ , DEM and vegetation soil: https://data.tpdc.ac.cn/zh-hans/ ”According to the characteristics of different data sources, the authenticity and consistency of the original data are checked and standardized; The permafrost model is used to simulate the permafrost and seasonal frozen soil. The output results are ground temperature and active layer (maximum frozen depth). The simulation results are verified with the borehole ground temperature. Finally, the spatial data set is mapped by ArcGIS. Make digital processing operation standard. In the process of processing, the operators are required to strictly abide by the operation specifications, and the special person is responsible for the quality review. The data integrity, logical consistency, position accuracy, attribute accuracy, edge connection accuracy and current situation are all in line with the requirements of relevant technical regulations and standards formulated by the State Bureau of Surveying and mapping. The data can provide necessary data support for the later research on the freezing (thawing) depth of the corridor of Sichuan Tibet project.
This data includes the soil microbial composition data in permafrost of different ages in Barrow area of the Arctic. It can be used to explore the response of soil microorganisms to the thawing in permafrost of different ages. This data is generated by high through-put sequencing using the earth microbiome project primers are 515f – 806r. The region amplified is the V4 hypervariable region, and the sequencing platform is Illumina hiseq PE250; This data is used in the articles published in cryosphere, Permafrost thawing exhibits a greater influence on bacterial richness and community structure than permafrost age in Arctic permafrost soils. The Cryosphere, 2020, 14, 3907–3916, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-14-3907-2020https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-14-3907-2020 . This data can also be used for the comparative analysis of soil microorganisms across the three poles.
The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), the largest high-altitude and low-latitude permafrost zone in the world, has experienced rapid permafrost degradation in recent decades, and one of the most remarkable resulting characteristics is the formation of thermokarst lakes. Such lakes have attracted significant attention because of their ability to regulate carbon cycle, water, and energy fluxes. However, the distribution of thermokarst lakes in this area remains largely unknown, hindering our understanding of the response of permafrost and its carbon feedback to climate change.Based on more than 200 sentinel-2A images and combined with ArcGIS, NDWI and Google Earth Engine platform, this data set extracted the boundary of thermokarst lakes in permafrost regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau through GEE automatic extraction and manual visual interpretation.In 2018, there were 121,758 thermokarst lakes in the permafrost area of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, covering an area of 0.0004-0.5km², with a total area of 1,730.34km² respectively.The cataloging data set of Thermokarst Lakes provides basic data for water resources evaluation, permafrost degradation evaluation and thermal karst study on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
CHEN Xu, MU Cuicui, JIA Lin, LI Zhilong, FAN Chengyan, MU Mei, PENG Xiaoqing, WU Xiaodong
A comprehensive understanding of the permafrost changes in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, including the changes of annual mean ground temperature (Magt) and active layer thickness (ALT), is of great significance to the implementation of the permafrost change project caused by climate change. Based on the CMFD reanalysis data from 2000 to 2015, meteorological observation data of China Meteorological Administration, 1 km digital elevation model, geo spatial environment prediction factors, glacier and ice lake data, drilling data and so on, this paper uses statistics and machine learning (ML) method to simulate the current changes of permafrost flux and magnetic flux in Qinghai Tibet Plateau The range data of mean ground temperature (Magt) and active layer thickness (ALT) from 2000 to 2015 and 2061 to 2080 under rcp2.6, rcp4.5 and rcp8.5 concentration scenarios were obtained, with the resolution of 0.1 * 0.1 degree. The simulation results show that the combination of statistics and ML method needs less parameters and input variables to simulate the thermal state of frozen soil, which can effectively understand the response of frozen soil on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau to climate change.
Ni Jie, Wu Tonghua
These datasets include mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) at the depth of zero annual amplitude (approximately 3 m to 25 m), active layer thickness (ALT), the probability of the permafrost occurrence, and the new permafrost zonation based on hydrothermal condition for the period of 2000-2016 in the Northern Hemisphere with an 1-km resolution by integrate unprecedentedly large amounts of field data (1,002 boreholes for MAGT and 452 sites for ALT) and multisource geospatial data, especially remote sensing data, using statistical learning modelling with an ensemble strategy, and thus more accurate than previous circumpolar maps.
RAN Youhua, LI Xin, CHENG Guodong, CHE Jinxing, Juha Aalto, Olli Karjalainen, Jan Hjort, Miska Luoto, JIN Huijun, Jaroslav Obu, Masahiro Hori, YU Qihao, CHANG Xiaoli
The Qinghai Tibet Plateau is known as "the third pole of the Earth". The long-term and large-scale observation data of permafrost is of great significance to understand the changes and effects of Permafrost on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QXP). Especially in such a cold and anoxic area, the extreme shortage of data resources greatly limits the development, improvement and validation of various remote sensing inversion algorithms, as well as the earth system simulation and scientific research of the QXP. In the past few decades, our research team has established a synthesis network in the permafrost region of the QXP. For the first time, the database systematically integrates the long-time series observation data of 6 automatic meteorological stations, 12 active layer sites and 84 boreholes. In the process of data collection and processing, all observation data have been strictly controlled. The data set will be released to scientists with multi-disciplinary backgrounds (e.g., cryosphere, hydrology, ecology and meteorology), which will greatly promote the validation, development and improvement of hydrological model, land surface process model and climate model of the QXP.
Zhao Lin, ZHAO Lin, ZHOU Defu, ZOU Defu, ZOU Defu, Wu Tonghua, Du Erji, DU Erji, Liu Guangyue, LIU Guangyue, Xiao Yao, Li Ren, Pang Qiangqiang, Qiao Yongping, WU Xiaodong, SUN Zhe, Xing Zangping, Zhao Yonghua, Shi Jianzong, Xie Changwei, Wang Lingxiao, Wang Chong, CHENG Guodong