The occurrence and diversification of the skeletal fossils during the latest Ediacaran and early Cambrian (Terreneuvian) witness the significant evolutionary event, “Cambrian explosion”, in earth history. These skeletal fossils were collectively termed as “small shelly fossils (SSFs)” for their micro-size and mineralization in normal. They represent the earliest metazoan records, and are crucial for studying the origins and early evolution of many animal clades. Due to their worldwide distribution and rapid biodiversification, the SSFs have been taken as an important tool for the early Cambrian stratigraphical correlation (especially for the Terreneuvian) and paleobiogeographical reconstruction. The North Pakistan locating the western Himalaya is one of the adjoining areas of Tibet Plateau. For the lack of basic stratigraphic and palaeontological studies, it’s hard to confirm the exact age of the Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian strata assigned by the previous studies. Few SSFs had been reported in the early Cambrian Hazira Formation at Salhad section in the eastern Hazara Basin, however, the studies of these fossils are quite preliminary and problematic. Therefore, it’s urgent to carry on new detailed research to clarify the genus and species of these fossils which is fundamental for the biostratigraphical studies. Herein, basing on the expedition of the Salhad section in eastern Hazara Basin, we have systematically collected and done the lab process of the fossil samples, and tentatively recognized 24 genus, 18 species and 3 unidentified species.
Paleozoic strata are well developed and widely outcropped around the Xainza area of central Tibet. Among them, the Devonian succession was first introduced during the geological survey in the late 1970s, and was suggested to comprise the Middle Devonian Dardong Group (including the Lower and Upper formations) and the Upper Devonian Chaguoluoma Formation. However, high-resolution stratigraphic framework and palaeontological research are still lacking for the Lower Devonian in study area. This investigation focus on the Dardong Formation in this area, and detailed geological survey and detailed sampling were carried out in order to improve stratigraphic correlation in central Tibet. The Dardong Formation mainly consists of carbonate and siliciclastic sediments, yielding abundant fossils such as brachiopods, corals, cephalopods, conodonts, tentaculites, etc. The Xainza II section is exposed along the cliff of a mountain. The studied Dardong Formation can be divided into five lithological units in ascending order: 1) light grey to grey medium- to thick-bedded limestone with cross-bedding in the middle part, yielding fragments of brachiopods and crinoid stems; 2) grayish white thin- to medium- bedded siltstone; 3) light grey to grey thin- to medium-bedded limestone, containing colonial corals and crinoid stems; 4) grey medium- to thick-bedded limestone; 5) light grey medium-bedded limestone with fragments of crinoid stems, partially covered in the upper part. This dataset includes the stratigraphic column of the SZ2 section and outcrop photos in the Xainza area, central Tibet.
Paleozoic strata are well developed and widely outcropped around the Xainza area of central Tibet. Among them, the Devonian succession was first introduced during the geological survey in the late 1970s, and was suggested to comprise the Middle Devonian Dardong Group (including the Lower and Upper formations) and the Upper Devonian Chaguoluoma Formation. However, high-resolution stratigraphic framework and palaeontological research are still lacking for the Lower Devonian in study area. This investigation focus on the Dardong Formation in this area, and detailed geological survey and detailed sampling were carried out in order to improve stratigraphic correlation in central Tibet. The Dardong Formation mainly consists of carbonate and siliciclastic sediments, yielding abundant fossils such as brachiopods, corals, cephalopods, conodonts, tentaculites, etc. This dataset includes the stratigraphic column of the SZ1 section and outcrop photos in the Xainza area, central Tibet.
The Nyalam region of southern Tibet, China, is one of the best locations to study Wenlock to Pridoli conodonts in China, due to the relatively continuous strata. The Yalai West II section is located on the mountain west of the Yalai Town. The Pulu Formation is composed of bioclastic wackestones with some interbeds of lim-mudstones, packstones and calcisiltites. Abundant cephalopods and conodonts, as well as rare bivalves and corals were reported from the Pulu Formation. The Pulu Formation represents a shallow-water marine environment with slow depositional rates. Five conodont biozones are established, i.e., the Ozarkodina sagitta sagitta Biozone, the Kockelella crassa Biozone, the Kockelella variabilis variabilis Interaval Biozone, the Polygnathoides siluricus Biozone, and the “Ozarkodina” eosteinhornensis s.l. Interval Biozone from the Homerian of Wenlock to Pridoli are recognized from the Pulu Formation, which is assigned to the late Telychian of Llandovery to Pridoli based on the conodonts, as well as the graptolites from the underlying strata. Among the conodont fauna in the Nyalam region, Wurmiella alternata has only been recognized from the Gondwana and peri-Gondwana, but others are widespread, which might be an indication of the cosmopolitan character of the Wenlock to Pridoli conodonts.
GUO Wen, CHEN Zhongyang
In southern Tibet, Paleozoic strata are well developed and widely outcropped in the Himalaya area. The early stratigraphical divisions and palaeontological investigations of the Mt. Jolmo Lungma area were conducted by pioneer expedition teams in the 1920s, which originally assigned a Carboniferous or Permian age to the limestone from the Summit. The discovery of Ordovician strata in the region was mainly based on finding of index fossils from the Jiacun and other sections in the vicinity of Mt. Jolmo Lungma. However, detailed palaeontological research is still lacking for the Late Ordovician in study area. Our research focus on ostracods fauna from the Jiaqu Formation, which are described for the first time from the Upper Ordovician in Nyalam, southern Xizang (Tibet). Thirty species belonging to sixteen genera are described and figured from the Yalai Waterworks section. The ostracod fauna suggests a probable Sandbian-Katian age for the Jiaqu Formation. The ecological assemblage of ostracods fauna belongs to the Eifelian Ecotype, which implies deposition in an environment of nearshore when the Jiaqu Formation was being laid down. Many cosmopolitan or provincial genera were present in diversified ostracod fauna of the Jiaqu Formation, suggesting close biogeographic relationships among Himalaya terranes, Tarim and South China plates. This dataset includes the stratigraphic column of the Jiaqu Formation section and outcrop photos in the Himalaya area, southern Tibet.
Paleozoic chronostratigraphic division and correlation are mainly based on biostratigraphy studies. In Tibet, biostratigraphic sequences of major fossil groups, such as conodont and rugose coral, have been briefly summarized by previous research. However, due to its remoteness, high altitude and the geographic extent of this vast mountainous region, most of the paleontological work being conducted in Tibet is of a reconnaissance nature. Collections and identifications of important index fossils are especially significant in improving our understating of Paleozoic stratigraphy in Himalayan, Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes and associated arc-basin systems. Abundant conodont, rugose coral, tabulate coral and stromatoporoid samples from the Pulu Formation in Nyalam (Himalaya terrane, Llandovery to Pridoli Yalai 2 sction, GPS coordinates: 28°24′17″ N, 86°5′48″ E）) and the Dardong Formation in Xainza (Lhasa terrane, Pragian to early Emsian SZ1 and SZ2 sections, GPS coordinates: 31°8′36.63″ N, 88°38′39.22″ E和31°7′56″ N, 88°37′47″ E), Tibet and the Changtanzi Formation in Longmenshan (Songpan-Ganzi terrane, Late Devonian Famennian Longmenshan section, GPS coordinates: 31°54′3.55″ N, 104°42′29.82″ E), Sichuan were collected and identified in this study. This dataset include identification lists from four sections in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its adjacent area, which are named as SZ1, SZ2, Yalai2 and Longmenshan, respectively.
GUO Wen, LIANG Kun, CHEN Zhongyang
Carbon cycle is controlled by relative changes in carbon fluxes of global atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. During the geological history, carbon isotope excursions usually occur in the critical period. Carbon isotope positive excursions are recognized to be related to abundant organic burial or enhanced primary productivity. Silurian δ13Ccarb curves from Euramerica have been established, but the isotopic patterns in different sections and regions can be quite different. Before the use of δ13Ccarb records to facilitate high resolution correlation, it is necessary to conduct sedimentary facies and diagenesis analyses and compare numerous isotopic records on a global scale, in order to learn the global versus local contribution in a δ13C record. 43 geochemical samples were collected from the Wenlock to Pridoli Pulu Formation for carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses, in order to reveal carbon cycling process in northern margin of Gondwana continent and alternation of carbon isotopic records during diagenesis. At the Yalai 2 section, δ13C values show a major positive shift in the Ludlow, which could be recognized in other sections around the world, indicating that major carbon cycling perturbation occurred during this time interval. This dataset include 43 carbon and oxygen isotopic records.
This data is a histogram of red coral stratum in Kunlun mountain area, including the characteristic elements of stratum thickness and lithology change, which is based on detailed field survey and indoor analysis. The specific processing method is as follows: through field investigation, obtain the material of formation lithology composition, formation thickness, structural characteristics, etc., and draw the draft of stratigraphic histogram by hand. Back in the room, the lithology of rock is confirmed by thin section identification, and then the histogram is electronized by CorelDRAW software. This map is about 4MB in size with high resolution. It can be used for stratigraphic investigation, lithological analysis, the highest marine strata in Kunlun Mountain, paleontology and paleogeography.
Cretapodagrion sibelleae gen. et sp. nov., oldest representative and first Mesozoic ‘Megapodagrionidae’, is described on the basis of a complete wing from the Lower Cretaceous of Yixian Formation (ca. 124.6 Ma) in China. It shows some similarities with the three extant genera of the ‘Megapodagrioninae’ and the enigmatic genus Mesopodagrion
Sinothemis difficilis new genus new species, youngest and first accurate Chinese representative of the small family Selenothemistidae, is described and illustrated. It is closely related to the genus Turanothemis, known from the Karatau outcrop in Kazakhstan. The genus Caraphlebia, known from the Middle Jurassic of Antarctica, seems to strongly differ from the other representatives of this family and may belong to another family. The fossil was collected from the Upper Jurassic (157.3 ± 1.5 Ma; near Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian boundary) Guancaishan locality, Jianping County, Western Liaoning, NE China. It belongs to the late assemblage of the Yanliao biota, while the early assemblage is represented by the putatively close damsel-dragonfly Paraliassophlebia from the Jiulongshan Formation of northern Hebei Province
The scorpionfly genus Longiphlebia, with a sole species, is confined to the Middle-Late Jurassic Daohugou biota. Herein, we describe and figure the second species, Longiphlebia incompleta sp. nov., based on one specimen collected from the Upper Jurassic Tiaojishan Formation at Zhuanshanzi, near Nanshimen Village, Gangou Township, Qinglong County, Qinhuangdao City, Hebei Province. It is a new representative insect belonging to the late assemblage of Yanliao biota. Our discovery indicates new evolutionary evidence between the early and late assemblages of the Yanliao biota.
A new campterophlebiid damsel-dragonfly, Hypsothemis sinensis sp. nov., is described from the lowermost Upper Jurassic Haifanggou Formation at the Daohugou locality in the Ningcheng Basin, China. This is the first Chinese representative of this genus, previously known only from the coeval upper Karabastau Formation in Kazakhstan, reflecting strong palaeobiogeographic links between these two entomofaunas.
1) Luanpingia youchongi, a new species of the genus Luanpingia from the Middle to Late Jurassic Daohugou biota is described in this paper. 2) The fossil material comes from Daohugou area, Ningcheng County, Chifeng City, Mongolia in the middle Late Jurassic in China. The images of the fossil is imaged by V16 stereomicroscope, the plate is made by PS software, and the line drawing is drawn by hand by CDR software. 3) The new species is based on a forewing fossil, which is preserved in gray tuffaceous shale. 4) The venation characteristics of three species in Luanping were compared.
1) This paper reports a new genus and three new species of Sinoalidae from the Middle to Late Jurassic Daohugou biota. 2) The fossils are from Daohugou area, Ningcheng County, Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia. The V16 microscope and scanning electron microscope are used to take photos of the fossils. The PS software is used to make plates and the CDR software is used to draw line drawings. 3) Based on 15 fossils, the new genera and species are preserved in tuffaceous shale in the middle layer of Daohugou bed. 4) This study greatly increased the paleobiodiversity of sinoptera in the Daohugou biota of Jurassic, indicating that a large radiation evolution event occurred in the early Jurassic.
Checklists of all described organisms from the Daohugou biota, and insects from the Haifanggou Formation at Haifeng Village (Beipiao City, Liaoning Province) and the ‘Jiulongshan Formation’ at Zhouyingzi Village (Luanping County, Chengde City, Hebei Province), are provided. Fossil insects from the Daohugou biota are summarized, including a total of 760 valid species reported in 396 research papers from 2001 to April, 2021. The heyday of exploration of Daohugou insects has been lasted for a decade from 2006 to 2016 according to the number of published papers.
1) This data is a map of a new species of Cicadellidae. This paper introduces the Lushangfen fauna and discusses the stratigraphic correlation of the early Cretaceous. 2) The fossils are from the Lushangfen Formation of Lower Cretaceous in western Beijing. The fossils are repaired under the microscope and imaged with the V16 microscope. The image data are typeset with PS software, and the line map is drawn with CDR software. 3) The new species is based on a well preserved forewing specimen. The fossil is preserved in grayish yellow flaky shale with clear image. 4) This paper discusses the stratigraphic correlation between the new species of palaeocicadellidae from Lushangfen Formation of Lower Cretaceous in western Beijing and Zaza formation of Lower Cretaceous in Russia, which expands the distribution range of palaeocicadellidae and increases its paleodiversity.
1) In this paper, lichnomesopyche Ren, labandeira, and Shih, 2010, are systematically revised. 2) The fossil material is from the Daohugou layer in Ningcheng County, Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia. The image of the fossil is made with Canon camera and V20 microscope, and PS software. 3) The morphological revision of lichnomesopyche is based on five well preserved fossils from the middle layer of Daohugou bed. 4) The results show that the male genitalia of Chrysopa longicornis is the key feature of species classification.
1) This paper reports a new Middle Jurassic progonocimicid bug from Northeast China, named Cicadocoris parvus. 2) The fossils come from the middle layer of Daohugou bed of Haifanggou Formation in Daohugou area, Ningcheng County, Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia. The images of fossils are obtained by using V16 microscope, the plates are made by using PS software, and the line drawings and maps are drawn by using CDR software. 3) The fossil material consists of 40 in total, including 21 males, 12 females and 7 unknown sex, which are preserved in the gray tuffaceous shale in the middle layer of Daohugou bed、 4) In this paper, the detailed morphological measurements of the new species and show that they are the dominant species in the Jurassic Daohugou biota.
1) This paper reports a new genus and species of Sinoalidae, named Stictocercopis wuhuaensis. 2) The fossils are from Daohugou area, Ningcheng County, Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia. The V16 microscope and scanning electron microscope are used to take photos. The PS software is used to make plates and the CDR software is used to draw line drawings. 3) The new genera and species are based on three fossils and, preserved in tuffaceous shale in the middle layer of Daohugou bed. 4) In this paper, the palaeobiodiversity and morphological diversity of sinoalid in the Jurassic Daohugou biota have been increased. It is suggested that there was a radiation evolution event in the early Jurassic.
1) This paper reports a new fossil assemblage of sinoalid at the top of the Jurassic Daohugou bed, summarizes the distribution and evolution of the froghoppers in the Daohugou biota, and reveals the paleoecological significance. 2) The fossil material comes from the top layer of Daohugou bed. V16 microscope is used to photograph the fossils, PS software is used to make plates, and CDR software is used to draw line drawings and map. 3) A total of 12 fossils of the sinoalids are well preserved in the gray tuffaceous shale. 4) This paper summarizes the assemblage characteristics of sinoalids in different layers from bottom to top of the Jurassic Daohugou biota, and analyzes the distribution, evolution and paleoecological significance of the Cercopoidea.