This data set includes daily, annual and multi-year surface mass balance data from Antarctic ice cap poles, ice (snow) cores / snow pits, automatic weather station altimeters and ground penetrating radar observations. The data come from published literature, data reports and international data sharing platform. After quality control, the most perfect data set of daily, annual and multi-year resolution of surface mass balance of Antarctic ice sheet has been formed. Its middle-aged resolution data span the past 1000 years. The data set is mainly used in glaciology, climatology, hydrology and other disciplines, especially in the quantitative analysis of the temporal and spatial changes of Antarctic surface mass balance, climate model validation, driving ice sheet model and snow granulation model, etc.
This dataset includes the Antarctica ice sheet mass balance estimated from satellite gravimetry data, April 2002 to December 2019. The satellite measured gravity data mainly come from the joint NASA/DLR mission, Gravity Recovery And Climate Exepriment (GRACE, April 2002 to June 2017), and its successor, GRACE-FO (June 2018 till present). Considering the ~1-year data gap between GRACE and GRACE-FO, we extra include gravity data estimated from GPS tracking data of ESA's Swarm 3-satellite constellation. The GRACE data used in this study are weighted mean of CSR, GFZ, JPL and OSU produced solutions. The post-processing includes: replacing GRACE degree-1, C20 and C30 spherical harmonic coefficients with SLR estimates, destriping filtering, 300-km Gaussian smoothing, GIA correction using ICE6-G_D (VM5a) model, leakage reduction using forward modeling method and ellipsoidal correction.
Yu Zhang, Shum C.K.
The original data of the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice data set is generated by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) through remote sensing data. The data format is GeoTIFF format and image format. The spatial resolution of the data is 25km and the time resolution is day. The data content is the sea ice range and sea ice density of the north and south poles. In this study, NetCDF format products are generated by post-processing the extent and density of sea ice in the north and south poles. The product data includes the sea ice range and sea ice density data of the north and south poles from 1979 to 2019. The time resolution is day by day, the coverage range is the South Pole and the north pole, and the horizontal spatial resolution is 12.5km. The data value of 1 in the sea ice range matrix indicates that the grid is sea ice, and the sea ice density is expressed by 0-1000. The grid value divided by 10 is the sea ice density value of the grid.
The data of triode ice core mainly comes from NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/ice-core). The original data is mainly in text format, which is provided by relevant units and researchers voluntarily. The data mainly includes the original observation data such as oxygen isotope, greenhouse gas concentration, ice core age, etc., as well as the historical temperature, carbon dioxide concentration and methane concentration produced by the researchers according to the observation data. The data are mainly divided into Antarctic, Arctic, Greenland and the third polar region. The database includes drilling address, time, derivative products, corresponding observation site data, references and other elements. Derivative products include product name, type, time and other elements. The space location is divided into the south pole, the north pole and the third pole, including Alaska, Canada, Russia, Greenland and other regions. After sorting and post-processing the collected data, the ice core database is established by using the access database management system of Microsoft office. According to the Antarctic, Arctic, Greenland and the third pole, it is divided into four sub databases. The first table in each database is readme, which contains information and references of each data table.
Glaciers are very sensitive to regional and global climate change, so they are often regarded as one of the indicators of climate change, and their relevant parameters are also the key indicators of climate change research. Especially in the comparative study of the three polar environmental changes on the earth, the time and space difference ratio of glacial speed is one of the focuses of climate change research. However, because glaciers are basically located in high altitude, high latitude and high cold areas, the natural environment is poor, and people are rarely seen, and it is difficult to carry out the conventional field measurement of large-scale glacial movement. In order to understand the glacial movement in the three polar areas in a timely, efficient, comprehensive and accurate manner, radar interferometry, radar and optical image pixel tracking are used to obtain the three polar areas. The distribution of surface movement of some typical glaciers in some years from 2000 to 2017 provides basic data for the comparative analysis of the movement of the three polar glaciers. The dataset contains 12 grid files named "glacier movement in a certain period of time in a certain region". Each grid map mainly contains the regional velocity distribution of a typical glacier.
The three pole aerosol type data product is an aerosol type result obtained by integrating the data assimilation of Meera 2 and the active satellite CALIPSO product through a series of data preprocessing, quality control, statistical analysis and comparative analysis. The key of this algorithm is to judge the type of CALIPSO aerosol. In the process of aerosol type data fusion, according to the type and quality control of CALIPSO aerosol, and referring to the type of merra 2 aerosol, the final aerosol type data (12 kinds in total) and quality control results in the three pole area are obtained. The data product fully considers the vertical distribution and spatial distribution of aerosols, with high spatial resolution (0.625 ° × 0.5 °) and time resolution (month).
The data set includes: population and GDP data of the arctic (1990-2015) and county-level population and GDP data of the third pole region (gansu, qinghai and Tibet) (1970-2016). Socio-economic statistical attributes include: population (ten thousand), GDP (ten thousand yuan), total industrial and agricultural output (ten thousand yuan), total agricultural output (ten thousand yuan), and total industrial output (ten thousand yuan). The arctic population data are mainly derived from the world populationProspects: 2017 revision by the Department of economic and social affairs, which divides the total population by region and country. The data of the third pole mainly refer to the statistical yearbook of gansu province, qinghai province and Tibet autonomous region.County records of gansu, qinghai and Tibet autonomous regions.
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, National Bureau of Statistics, Qinghai Provincial Bureau of Statistics
This data set provides a 1 km resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Antarctica. The DEM combines measurements from the European Remote Sensing Satellite-1 (ERS-1) Satellite Radar Altimeter (SRA) and the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Geosciences Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). The ERS-1 data are from two long repeat cycles of 168 days initiated in March 1994, and the GLAS data are from 20 February 2003 through 21 March 2008. The data set is approximately 240 MB comprised of two gridded binary files and two Environment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) header files viewable using ENVI or other similar software packages. The data are available via FTP.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
The dataset of Antarctic mountains(1:1000000) includes vector spatial distribution data and some related attribute data: Name, Country name of the mountains , Country abbreviation, Latitude、 Longitude The data comes from the ADC World Map（1:1000000） global dataset, the data is topological, and it is the comprehensive, latest and seamless geographic digital data. The world map coordinate system is the latitude and longitude, WGS84 datum, and the Antarctic data set is the South Pole Stereographic.
Antarctic 1:100,000 airport distribution data set includes vector space data and related attribute data of airports (Antarctic_Airport) and airport runways (Antarctic_Airport_runways)：Airport Name(Name), airport country Name（CNTRY_NAME）, airport country abbreviation（CNTRY_CODE）, LATITUDE, LONGITUDE. The data comes from the 1:100,000 ADC_WorldMap global data set，The data through topology, warehousing and other data quality inspection，Data through the topology, into the library，It's comprehensive, up-to-date and seamless geodigital data. The world map coordinate system is latitude and longitude, WGS84 datum surface，Antarctic specific projection parameters（South_Pole_Stereographic）.
Antarctic administrative boundary datasets consist of the properties of the state boundaries of the Antarctic states (properties properties), and the corresponding names and types of those properties :(CITY_POP), (ENG_NAME), (CNTRY_NAME), (TYPE), (CNTRY_CODE), (YEAR). The data comes from the 1:100,000 ADC_WorldMap global data set，The data through topology, warehousing and other data quality inspection，Data through the topology, into the library，It's comprehensive, up-to-date and seamless geodigital data. The world map coordinate system is latitude and longitude, WGS84 datum surface，Antarctic specific projection parameters（South_Pole_Stereographic）.
The 1:1,000,000 Antarctic settlements data set includes vector spatial data of Antarctic settlements and its related attributes：City name (ENG_NAME), city population (CNTEY_NAME), (CNTRY_CODE), etc. The data comes from the 1:100,000 ADC_WorldMap global data set，The data through topology, warehousing and other data quality inspection，Data through the topology, into the library，It's comprehensive, up-to-date and seamless geodigital data. The world map coordinate system is latitude and longitude, WGS84 datum surface，Antarctic specific projection parameters（South_Pole_Stereographic）.
The data sets include four sets of data obtained from the Scanning Multi-channel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) sensors using passive microwave remote sensing inversion. SMMR was aboard the Nimbus-7 satellite, and its working period was from October 26, 1978 to July 8, 1987. Since July 1987, the data provided by the SSM/I and the SSMIS aboard the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite group have been used. The first three data sets contain sea ice concentration data, covering the Antarctic region with a spatial resolution of 25 km: (1) The data were obtained from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Version 1 by applying the NASA Team algorithm inversion. The temporal coverage is from November 1978 to February 2017, with a temporal resolution of one month. A bin file is stored every month. (2) The data source is the same as the first set. The temporal coverage is from 1978-10-26 to 2017-2-28. The temporal resolution is two days, and the spatial resolution is 25 km. A folder was stored every year, and a bin file was stored every other day. (3) The data were obtained from near-real-time DMSP SSMIS by applying the NASA Team algorithm inversion. The temporal coverage is from 2015-1-1 to 2018-2-3, and the temporal resolution is one day. A bin file is stored every day. Each file consists of a 300-byte file title (data time information, projection pattern, file name) and a 316*332 matrix. The fourth set of data is the sea ice coverage and sea ice area time series. The temporal coverage is from November 1978 to December 2017. This data set is a time series sequence of sea ice coverage and sea ice area in the Antarctic. The temporal resolution is one month, and an ASCII file is stored every month. Each file consists of a file title (time, data type), a 39*1 sea ice cover matrix and a 39*1 sea ice area matrix. For further details on the data, please visit the US Ice and Snow Data Center NSIDC website - Data Description http://nsidc.org/data/NSIDC-0051; http://nsidc.org/data/NSIDC-0081; http://nsidc.org/data/G02135
LI Shuanglin, LIU Na
The Sentinel-1A/B satellite uses a near-polar sun-synchronous orbit with an orbital altitude of 693 km, an orbital inclination of 98.18°, and an orbital period of 99 minutes. It is equipped with a C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) with a designed service life of 7 years (12 years expected). Sentinel-l has a variety of imaging methods that enable different polarization modes such as single-polarization and dual-polarization. Sentinel-1A SAR has four working modes: Strip Map Mode (SM), Extra Wide Swath (EW), Interferometric Wide Swath (IW) and Wave Mode (WV). Satellite A was successfully launched in April 2014. The revisit period of the same region was 12 days. Satellite B successfully operated on orbit in April 2016. The current revisiting period reached 3 to 6 days. After the operation of two satellites, the S1 data acquisition frequency in the Antarctic region increased greatly. This data set comprises the Sentinel-1 SAR data for the Antarctic ice sheet and the Greenland Ice Sheet area. The data band comprises C-band extra wide multiview data with a resolution of 20 m*40 m. The temporal resolution is 12 days and is related to the round-trip period, the width is 400 km, the noise level is -25 dB, and the radiation measurement accuracy is 1.0 dB. The annual temporal coverage of these data is October to the next March in the Antarctic and April to September in Greenland, and the spatial coverage comprises the Antarctic ice sheet ice shelf area and Greenland ice sheet.
The data set of prokaryotic microorganism distribution in the snow and ice of the Arctic Antarctic and the Tibetan Plateau provides the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence collected by the experimental group led by Yongqin Liu from the NCBI database during 2010 to 2018. The keywords for NCBI database search are Antarctic, Arctic Tibetan, and Glacier. The collected sequences were calculated using the DOTOUR software to obtain the similarities between sequences, the sequences with similarities above 97% were clustered into one OTU, and the OTU representative sequence was defined. The OTU representative sequence was compared with the RDP database by the "Classifier" software and was identified as level one when the reliability exceeded 80%. After acquiring the sequence, the GPS coordinates of the sample were obtained by reading the sample information in the sequence file. These data contain the sequence of 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments for each sequence, evolutionary classification, and sample GPS coordinates. Compared with sequences based on high-throughput sequencing, these data have a longer sequence and more accurate classification. It is significant for comparing the evolutionary information of three-pole microorganisms and understanding the evolution of psychrophilic microorganisms.
From 1000 AD to the present, the concentration of methane in the atmosphere has increased significantly in the ice cores of the Antarctic and Arctic. These data came from the Tasmanian laboratory of Australia, where the high resolution data were obtained by using wet extraction of ice core samples, and the same measurement and calibration procedures were applied to all samples. The results are consistent with the results of internationally renowned ice core greenhouse gas laboratories such as the University of Bern, the University of Copenhagen and the University of Ohio. The physical meaning of each variable: First column: time; second column: methane concentration value
The microwave radiometer data set comprises brightness temperature data from SMMR (1978-1987), SSM/I (1987-2009) and SSMIS (2009-2015), with temporal coverage from 1978 to 2015 and a spatial resolution of 25 km. Each Antarctic data file consists of 316*332 grids, and each Arctic freeze-thaw data file consists of 304*448 grids. The microwave scatterometer data set comprises backscattering data from QScat (2000-2009) and ASCAT (2009-2015), with a temporal coverage from 2000 to 2015 and a spatial resolution of 4.45 km. Each Antarctic data file consists of 1940*1940 grids, and each Arctic data file consists of 810*680 grids. The temporal resolution of the data set is one day, and the data cover both Antarctica and Arctic ice sheets.
Li Xinwu, Liang Lei
Using the Modis1B data of 11 scenes from 2003 to 2013 (the ice shelf Modis1B data published on the NSIDC website), the surface velocity of the Antarctic Amery Ice Shelf was extracted by the subpixel cross-correlation method, the ice velocity was extracted by the COSI-Corr software, and then the time sequence of annual average velocities for nearly ten years was obtained. Due to the lack of field observations in the study area, the accuracy of the ice flow results was estimated by using the offset value of the stable region, and the ice flow error was approximately ±50 m/year. The ice velocity data date from 2003 to 2013, the temporal resolution is one year, and the data cover the Amery area with a spatial resolution of 500 m. A GeoTIFF file of velocity data is stored every year. For details regarding the data, please refer to the Amery Ice Flow Field - Data Description.
The Antarctic ice sheet elevation data were generated from radar altimeter data (Envisat RA-2) and lidar data (ICESat/GLAS). To improve the accuracy of the ICESat/GLAS data, five different quality control indicators were used to process the GLAS data, filtering out 8.36% unqualified data. These five quality control indicators were used to eliminate satellite location error, atmospheric forward scattering, saturation and cloud effects. At the same time, dry and wet tropospheric, correction, solid tide and extreme tide corrections were performed on the Envisat RA-2 data. For the two different elevation data, an elevation relative correction method based on the geometric intersection of Envisat RA-2 and GLAS data spot footprints was proposed, which was used to analyze the point pairs of GLAS footprints and Envisat RA-2 data center points, establish the correlation between the height difference of these intersection points (GLAS-RA-2) and the roughness of the terrain relief, and perform the relative correction of the Envisat RA-2 data to the point pairs with stable correlation. By analyzing the altimetry density in different areas of the Antarctic ice sheet, the final DEM resolution was determined to be 1000 meters. Considering the differences between the Prydz Bay and the inland regions of the Antarctic, the Antarctic ice sheet was divided into 16 sections. The best interpolation model and parameters were determined by semivariogram analysis, and the Antarctic ice sheet elevation data with a resolution of 1000 meters were generated by the Kriging interpolation method. The new Antarctic DEM was verified by two kinds of airborne lidar data and GPS data measured by multiple Antarctic expeditions of China. The results showed that the differences between the new DEM and the measured data ranged from 3.21 to 27.84 meters, and the error distribution was closely related to the slope.
A high-resolution remote sensing image mosaic of the entire Antarctic was generated by synthesizing the 1073 images taken by American Landsat 7 during 1999 to 2003 and the medium-resolution MODIS image (taken in 2005) covering south of 82.5°southern latitude. Based on the mosaic, combined with the needs of Antarctic scientific research, Antarctica land cover was divided into six types using the combination method of computer automatic interpretation and artificial assistance. They were blue ice, fissures, bare rocks, water bodies, moraines and firns, and the areas and proportions of the above types were 225,207.29 square kilometers (1.651%), 7153.36 square kilometers (0.052%), 72,958.04 square kilometers (0.535%), 189.43 square kilometers (0.001%), 310.76 square kilometers (0.003%), and 13337392.66 square kilometers (97.758%), respectively. The map is a satellite image map of approximate true color synthesis, and the regions of various cover types are represented by different color blocks. The map mainly provides a reference for popular scientific research, geography education and science popularization.