1. Glacial lake data sets (1960s−2020) This data set contains glacial lake data for the 1960s, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020, mapped from Korona KH-4, Sentinel-2, and Sentinel-1 imagery. 2. Potential Outburst Flood Hazard level of Bhutanese glacial lakes This data contains the Potential Outburst Flood Hazard level of Bhutanese glacial lakes with an area greater than 0.05 km2 (n=278). The value for each hazard assessment criteria is also provided in the data attributes.
RINZIN Sonam, ZHANG Guoqing
The data include four types: water levels of 244 lakes extracted in CryoSat-2 L1B Baseline D (2010-2020); water levels of 356 lakes extracted in ICESat-2 ATL13 (2018-2020); water levels of 125 lakes extracted in Sentinel-3A SRAL L2 (2016- 2020); water levels in 120 lakes extracted from Sentinel-3B SRAL L2 (2018-2020). Data include date, decimal date, water level, standard deviation, and geographic location of each lake. Please see the paper for detailed data processing procedures.
XU Fenglin, ZHANG Guoqing
The data contains the grid-scale future water resources forecast data (2010-2100) of the five South Asian countries (Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and Cambodia). The data comes from the output of the DBH model in the Inter-Domain International Impact Model Comparison Program (ISIMIP), which takes meteorological data from multiple climate models as input, and finally obtains the average value of each model under the high emission scenario (RCP8.5) . The spatial interpolation method is used to downscale the 0.5 degree water resource data to 0.25 degree water resource estimate data. The data provided by ISIMIP has undergone good data quality testing and control, and there is no further verification after data interpolation. The data can be used for water resource assessment in five countries in South Asia.
Surface melting is the primary reason that affects the mass balance of Greenland ice sheet. At the same time, ice and snow have high albedo, and ice sheet surface melting will cause the difference of radiation energy budget, and then affects the energy exchange between sea-land-air. The high-resolution ice sheet surface melting product provides important information support for the study of Greenland ice sheet surface melting and its response to global climate change. This dataset combined microwave radiometer product and optical albedo product, the daily, winter (June-August) averages and July averages of the former are used for layer-stacking, then Gram-Schmidt Spectral Sharpening was adapted to fuse the layer-stacking results with MODIS GLASS albedo product. The spatial resolution of fusion-results has been downscaled from 25 km to 0.05˚. By employing a threshold-based melt detection approach for each fusion-results pixel, Greenland ice sheet surface melt daily product for 1985, 2000, 2015 (DSSMIS) was generated. The spatial resolution of DSSMIS is higher than that of published data sets at home and abroad. Combined with the advantages of radiometer and albedo data, the spatial details characteristics are enhanced and consistent with the extraction range of the original radiometer products, effectively reducing the noise of the radiometer. DSSMIS’s data type is integer, where 1 is melted, 0 is not melted, 255 is masked area besides Greenland ice sheet, and the data set is stored as *.nc.
WEI Siyi, LIU Yan
This data is the U-Pb ages of zircon and niobium tantalite. Five samples (T-5 is gneissic syenogranite, T-1 is orthogneiss, T-3 and T-5 are biotite monzogranite, and T-9 is Li be mineralized pegmatite) were collected. After crushing, heavy sand minerals were separated by manual elutriation. After magnetic and electromagnetic separation, columbite-tantalite (about 500 grains) and zircon (more than 1000 grains) were picked out under binocular lens. After selecting representative columbite-tantalite and zircon as targets, the internal structure of columbite-tantalite was studied by BSE through microscope transmission light and reflection light photography. Zircon U-Pb chronology was conducted on the 193 nm laser ablation system (new wave) and multi receiver inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in Xi'an Geological Survey Center. The U-Pb geochronology test of columbite-tantalite was conducted on the s155 laser ablation system and multi receiver inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences. The weighted average age of 15 spots of T-5 zircon is 900 ± 9 Ma; The weighted average age of 20 spots of T-1 zircon is 899 ± 7 Ma; The weighted average ages of zircon 21 and 14 spots of T-3 and T-5 samples are 482 ± 5 and 475 ± 5 Ma, respectively. The weighted average age of 12 spots of T-9 columbite-tantalite is 472 ± 8 ma. The data clarify the metallogenic age of Li-Be in Altun orogenic belt and provide direction for Li-Be prospecting in this area in the next step.
GAO Yongbao, GAO Yongbao, ZHANG Jiangwei ZHANG Jiangwei
1) Data content: this data is the carbon and nitrogen isotope data generated from the study of human bone collagen in Jiangxi tomb site, Jiyi Town, Wuding County, Yunnan Province. It can be used to preliminarily analyze the human diet structure of Jiangxi tomb site, Wuding county and reveal the life and career patterns of local ancient people. 2) Data source and processing method: provided by the environmental archaeology team of Lanzhou University and obtained by acid alkali acid experimental process and gas stable isotope mass spectrometer (Finnigan Deltaplus isotope ratio mass spectrometer). 3) Data quality: 9.38kb. 4) Data application achievements and prospects: the data are used to explore the research potential of stable isotopes of human bones at sites in revealing the development process of prehistoric career model in Yunnan.
MA Minmin MA Minmin
Soil is the basis of human survival and development. Many United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are directly related to the utilization and management of soil resources. However, most of the existing soil information in the world and China comes from historical soil survey, which is coarse and out-of-date, and can not meet the needs of dealing with global and regional problems such as food security, water shortage, land degradation and climate change. China has a vast territory with complex and diverse soil landscape and strong human activities. The establishment of high-precision soil information grid is of great significance in scientific frontier breakthrough and has broad prospects in applications. Here, we adopted predictive soil mapping paradigm and developed adaptive depth function fitting method and integrated it with state-of-the-art ensemble machine learning in a high performance parallel computing environment to generate 90-m resolution national gridded maps of soil properties (soil organic carbon, pH value, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, cation exchange capacity, coarse fragments (> 2mm), sand, silt, clay, soil texture classes, bulk density, soil thickness, etc.) at multiple depths across China. Their uncertainty in soil predictions is also estimated in a spatial way. This was based on more than 5000 representative soil profile samples obtained from the "project of National Soil Series Survey and Compilation of Soil Series of China" in recent years and a suite of detailed covariates to characterize soil-forming environments using geographical information and remote sensing techniques. Compared with previous soil maps, we achieved significantly more detailed and accurate predictions which could well represent soil variations across the territory. This work has constructed China's first version of high-resolution National Soil Information Grids, which is also a significant contribution to the GlobalSoilMap.net project. It is expected to have a wide application prospect in the fields of soil resources, agriculture, hydrology, ecology, climate, environment and so on, such as soil monitoring and management, soil function evaluation, land surface process modelling and forensic soil evidence provenance.
LIU Feng, ZHANG Ganlin
This data set contains zircon U-Pb dating, zircon Hf isotope, whole-rock principal, and trace element data of diorite granite and andesite dacite in Xinjiang area, south of bango, Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The data results are from the Zhai Qingguo research team, Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences. The data are of good quality and can be used to study the ocean closure process of Bangong Lake Nujiang suture in the central Qinghai Tibet Plateau, the subsequent collision process of Lhasa Qiangtang block, magmatism, and the Cretaceous crustal regeneration and reconstruction of Lhasa block in the central and Northern Qinghai Tibet Plateau. At the same time, this data also provides zircon CL images and reflection photos of all samples, zircon location for reference and comparison, and also provides a basis for the chronology of magmatic rocks and zircon genesis in the study area at the same time. Zircon U-Pb age instrument: obtained from laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), zircon Hf isotope instrument: Neptune multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC – ICP – MS), connected by a goals-193 laser ablation system. The main and trace elements of the whole rock are measured by the National Experimental Center (Academy of Geosciences), Major elements: (XRF; Axios – pw4400), trace elements: ICP-MS; PerkinElmer NexION 300D。
This data is the U-Pb age of cassiterite. The samples were collected from cassiterite minerals in skarn type and quartz vein type ores in Songshan tin mine, western Yunnan. The U-Pb geochronology of cassiterite was studied by laser denudation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The 207Pb / 206Pb - 238U / 206Pb harmonic ages of the two cassiterite samples were 76.6 ± 1.5 Ma and 79.6 ± 3.6 Ma respectively, It shows that the tin mineralization of the Songshan tin deposit mainly occurred in the Late Cretaceous, which is obviously different from the emplacement time of Lincang granite (Triassic). Combined with geological characteristics and previous chronological results, this paper believes that there is an obvious tin mineralization event in the Late Cretaceous in this area. The next prospecting work in this area should focus on the contact zone between rock mass and surrounding rock, as well as the faults in the rock mass and surrounding rock.
This data set includes whole-rock major trace and isotopic geochemical data, monazite, and zircon radioisotope dating data. The samples were collected from the Laguigangri dome of the Himalayan orogenic belt in southern Tibet. The geochemical data of major elements in the whole rock are obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, the trace elements are obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, and the radioisotope dating of monazite and zircon is obtained by laser denudation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The data quality is high. These data show that the leucogranitic magma in the Himalayan orogenic belt was formed in multiple stages and came from different homologous areas, which provides a key limit for the magmatic formation mechanism.
This data includes main and micro geochemical data of the whole rock, 40Ar / 39Ar dating data of phlogopite, and Sr-Nd isotope data of the whole rock. The samples were collected from the edge of the Ramba dome in eastern Tibet. The argon isotope of phlogopite uses the stage heating method, and the plateau age and isochron age are calculated by ArArCALC software; The major elements in the whole rock were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF); Trace elements in the whole rock were measured by Quadrupole Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Q-ICPMS); Sr-Nd isotopic composition was obtained by MC-ICP-MS. The data obtained show that the age of the phlogopite plateau is 13.1 ± 0.18 Ma, which is consistent with the inverse isochron age; The ultrapotassic melt comes from the partial melting of lithospheric mantle in the Indian continent, and the source depth is shallow, so it should be a spinel stable area.
This data includes whole-rock major and trace geochemical data, zircon major elements data, and whole-rock Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic composition data. The samples were collected from the Kangba dome in southern Tibet. The major elements in the whole rock were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) glass melting sheet method; The trace elements in the whole rock were dissolved by mixed acid dissolution method and tested by Quadrupole Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Q-ICPMS); The major elements of zircon were analyzed by electron microprobe; For the analysis of Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic composition of the whole rock, the accurate content of three elements is determined by quadrupole ICP-MS, and then the isotopic ratio is determined by MC-ICP-MS. The data obtained show that Kangba leucogranite is crystallized from highly evolved magma that has experienced strong crystallization differentiation. Strong hydrothermal exsolution has occurred in the diagenetic process, and the isotopes of the magmatic system have migrated to varying degrees in the process of hydrothermal fluid. It is also obviously contaminated by the surrounding rock.
This data includes whole-rock major and trace geochemical data, plagioclase major element data, alkali feldspar major element data, muscovite major element data, tourmaline major element data, and monazite trace element data. The samples were collected from the Gaowu rock mass in the Yadong area, southern Tibet. The major elements in the whole rock were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) glass melting sheet method; The trace elements in the whole rock were dissolved by mixed acid dissolution method and tested by Quadrupole Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Q-ICPMS); The major mineral elements were analyzed by electron microprobe; The mineral trace elements were obtained by ArF excimer laser ablation system and quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The data obtained show that the Gaowu tourmaline muscovite granite shows the characteristics of high evolution magma.
The data are monazite and zircon U-Pb ages. Three samples of carbonatite and pegmatite were collected (2018kl06 is carbonatite, 2018kl101 is tourmaline bearing pegmatite near carbonatite, 2018kl08-2 is beryl bearing pegmatite). After crushing, heavy sand minerals were separated by manual elutriation. After magnetic and electromagnetic separation, monazite (about 500 grains) and zircon (more than 1000 grains) were picked out under binocular lens. After selecting representative monazite as target, the internal structure of monazite was studied by BSE through microscope transmission light and reflection light photography. U-Pb chronology was completed on the 193 nm laser ablation system (new wave) and multi receiver inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in the laboratory of Tianjin Institute of Geology and mineral resources. In 2018kl06 carbonatite, the intersection age of the reverse inconsistency line of 17 test points is 18.2 ± 0.3 Ma, while the average age of 9 test points with complete harmony is 18.15 ± 0.22 Ma; The monazite of sample 2018kl101 obtained 15 measuring points with concordance greater than 90%, and the average age is 19.39 ± 0.36 Ma; The average age of 20 zircon sites of sample 2018kl08-2 is 197.5 ± 1.4 ma. They are Cenozoic and Mesozoic (19 ~ 18 Ma and 200 MA), respectively. The early beryl bearing pegmatite was formed in the extension stage after the closure of the paleoTethys ocean, while the Cenozoic bastnaesite carbonatite pegmatite assemblage is related to the Cenozoic intracontinental strike slip extension event, indicating that the extension strike slip of Pamir structural junction may start at 19 ma. Combined with the characteristics of regional geochemical anomalies, it shows that a breakthrough in rare and light rare earth prospecting is expected in Pamir area.
This data is monazite U-Pb age. The samples are collected from the light colored veins closely associated with the lead-zinc ore. after crushing, the heavy sand minerals are separated by manual elutriation. After magnetic separation and electromagnetic separation, monazite (about 500 grains) are picked out under binocular lens. After selecting representative monazite as target, the internal structure of monazite was studied by BSE through microscope transmission light and reflection light photography. U-Pb chronology was completed on 193 nm laser ablation system (new wave) and multi receiver inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS, Neptune) in the laboratory of Tianjin Institute of Geology and mineral resources. The average 206Pb / 238U surface age obtained from 21 survey points is 99.25 ± 0.78 MA (mswd = 1.60). This age represents the crystallization age of light vein closely related to lead-zinc mineralization. It is determined that the formation of the deposit is related to the hydrothermal solution in the late evolution of Cretaceous magmatic rocks. According to the comprehensive analysis of regional geochemical exploration and regional geological background, it is considered that the giant lead-zinc ore belt distributed in Tianshuihai Karakoram is controlled by Jurassic Cretaceous volcanic sedimentary basin and Cretaceous magmatic rocks. This metallogenic belt has great prospecting potential.
This data includes the main trace geochemical data of the whole rock. The samples were collected from lalitoushan rock mass at the north end of the Changning-Menglian junction zone in western Yunnan. The main geochemical data of the whole rock are obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, and the trace elements are obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Based on the obtained data, it is considered that the initial magma is mainly composed of continental crust and the addition of mantle-derived components. The rock mass belongs to S-type granite, which originates from the partial melting of ancient crustal materials and is mixed with mantle-derived magma. It represents the product under the dynamic background of transformation from compression to extension in the post continental collision stage of Baoshan Simao block and has the material basis for mineralization, It has certain prospecting potential.
This data includes the main trace geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope data of the whole rock. The samples were collected from four rock bodies in the West Kunlun Pamir area. The main geochemical data of the whole rock are obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, the trace elements are obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, and the Sr-Nd isotopic data of the whole rock are obtained by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Through the obtained data, the magma source areas are defined as the mixing of Mesoproterozoic ancient basement rocks and juvenile crustal materials, the mixing of meta-igneous rocks, and meta-sedimentary rocks, and Mesoproterozoic ancient basement rocks, which help understand regional magmatism and tectonic evolution.
This data set is the data set of drought index AI from 1948 to 2018, with spatial coverage of 60s-60n, 180e-180w, spatial resolution of 0.5 °, and temporal resolution of year. The potential evapotranspiration (PET) is calculated based on penman Monteith model, in which the wind speed, relative humidity, sensible heat, latent heat, soil heat flux and surface pressure data are from GLDAS, air temperature data are from CPC, and precipitation data are also from CPC. GLDAS data is divided into two sections. The first section is from GLDAS_ NOAH10_ M v2.0 series, covering the period from 1948 to 2015; The second paragraph is from GLDAS_ NOAH10_ M v2.1, covering the period from 2000 to now, we spliced the overlapping data segments from 2000 to 2014, subtracted the average values of wind speed, relative humidity, sensible heat, latent heat, soil heat flux and surface air pressure of the two sets of data in this period, obtained the difference, and added the difference to the data set of v2.1 to calculate pet.
YU Haipeng YU Haipeng
The mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet has been the main contributor to global sea level rise in recent decades. Under the trend of global warming, the Greenland ice sheet is melting faster. It is of great scientific significance to explore the causes of mass loss and its response to climate change. Based on the MEaSUREs Greenland groundingline and the basin boundaries, we discretize the groundingline, combine the MEaSUREs annual ice velocity data from 1985 to 2015 with the BedMachine v3 ice thickness data, and vectorially calculate the ice discharge at each flux gate of the groundingline. We use the surface mass balance data of RACMO2.3p2 model to spatially calculate the surface mass balance of each basin, and combined it with the ice discharge results to obtain the Greenland ice sheet mass balance data set (1985-2015). The data set includes the mass balance results of each basin of the Greenland ice sheet in the year 1985, 2000 and 2015, and the annual ice velocity data, ice thickness and annual ice discharge corresponding to the location of each flux gate. The data set realizes the fine evaluation of ice flux at the groundingline, and reflect the changes and spatial distribution characteristics of the mass balance of each basin of the Greenland ice sheet in recent 30 years. It provides basic data for the subsequent fine change evaluation and prediction of the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet and the exploration of the mechanism of ice sheet loss.
LIN Yijing, LIU Yan, CHENG Xiao
The Antarctic ice sheet is one of the largest potential sources of global sea level rise. Accurately determining the mass budget of the ice sheet is the key to understand the dynamic changes of the Antarctic ice sheet. It is very important to understand the evolution process of the ice sheet and accurately predict the future global sea level rise. Based on the MEaSUREs Antarctic groundingline and the basin boundaries, we discretize the groundingline, combine the MEaSUREs and RAMP annual ice velocity data from 1985 to 2015 with the BedMachine ice thickness data, and vectorially calculate the ice discharge at each flux gate of the groundingline. We use the surface mass balance data of RACMO2.3p2 model to spatially calculate the surface mass balance of each basin, and combined it with the ice discharge results to obtain the Antarctic ice sheet mass balance data set (1985-2015). The data set includes the mass balance results of each basin of the Antarctic ice sheet in the year 1985, 2000 and 2015, and the annual ice velocity data, ice thickness and annual ice discharge corresponding to the location of each flux gate. The data set realizes the fine evaluation of ice flux at the groundingline, and reflect the changes and spatial distribution characteristics of the mass balance of each basin of the Antarctic ice sheet in recent 30 years. It provides basic data for the subsequent fine change evaluation and prediction of the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet and the exploration of the mechanism of ice sheet loss.
LIN Yijing, LIU Yan, CHENG Xiao