The data was directly clipped from China's 1:100,000 land-use data.China 1:100000 data of land use is a major application in the Chinese Academy of Sciences "five-year" project "the national resources and environment remote sensing macroscopic investigation and study of dynamic organized 19 Chinese Academy of Sciences institute of remote sensing science and technology team, by means of satellite remote sensing, in three years based on Landsat MSS, TM and ETM remote sensing data established China 1:100000 images and vector of land use database.A hierarchical land cover classification system was adopted for the land use data of heihe basin of 1:100,000, and the whole basin was divided into 6 primary categories (arable land, forest land, grassland, water area, urban and rural areas, industrial and mining areas, residential land and unused land) and 26 secondary categories.The data type is vector polygon, which is stored in Shape format.There are two types of data projection: WGS84/ALBERS;Data coverage covers the new heihe watershed boundary (lack of outer Mongolia data).
LIU Jiyuan WANG Jianhua
The marine- and terrestrial-facies sediments from the southern piedmont of the Himalayan margin recorded the tectonic deformation and environmental evolution of the front edge of continental collision. To better understand the deformation mechanism of the southern Himalayan margin and constrain the continental collision age, we selected the three well exposed outcrop profiles from late Cretaceous to middle Eocene strata in the western Nepal and carried on rock magnetism. All the samples for the Palpa section with depth of 120 m had been performed on mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (χlf), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM). Meanwhile, the isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and the hysteresis loops was acquired from the fine sediments, and several important magnetic parameters were determined, including the saturation magnetization (Ms) and saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs).
The development of the southern piedmont of the Himalayan margin and its depositional setting have changed since the tectonic uplift of the Himalaya due to the continental collision of India with Asia, in which the marine- and terrestrial-facies sediments recorded the tectonic deformation and environmental evolution of the front edge of continental collision. To better understand the deformation mechanism of the southern Himalayan margin and constrain the continental collision age, we selected the well an exposed outcrop profile from late Cretaceous to middle Eocene strata in the western Nepal and carried on detailed paleomagnetic studies. At present, all the samples for the Butwal section with depth of 315 m had been performed on the stepwise alternating field demagnetization (AFD) with high-resolution declination and inclination.
The China Meteorological Forcing Dataset (CMFD) is a high spatial-temporal resolution gridded near-surface meteorological dataset that was developed specifically for studies of land surface processes in China. The dataset was made through fusion of remote sensing products, reanalysis dataset and in-situ observation data at weather stations. Its record starts from January 1979 and keeps extending (currently up to December 2018) with a temporal resolution of three hours and a spatial resolution of 0.1°. Seven near-surface meteorological elements are provided in CMFD, including 2-meter air temperature, surface pressure, specific humidity, 10-meter wind speed, downward shortwave radiation, downward longwave radiation and precipitation rate.
YANG Kun HE Jie
This dataset includes data recorded by the Heihe integrated observatory network obtained from the automatic weather station (AWS) at the observation system of Heihe remote sensing station from January 1 to December 31, 2019. The site (100.4756° E, 38.8270° N) was located on artificial grassland in Dangzhai Town of Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1560 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (1.5 m, north), wind speed and direction (10 m, north), air pressure (2 m), rain gauge (0.7 m), four-component radiometer (1.5 m, south), two infrared temperature sensors (1.5 m, south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (3 duplicates, -0.06 m), soil temperature profile (0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, -1.6 m), soil moisture profile (-0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, -1.6 m), and two photosynthetically active radiation (1.5 m, south, one vertically downward and one vertically upward). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_1.5, RH_1.5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_10 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, and Gs_3) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_80 cm, Ts_120 cm, Ts_160 cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_80 cm, Ms_120 cm, Ms_160 cm) (℃),on the plants photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_U_up and PAR_U_down) (μmol/ (s m^-2)). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2019-6-10 10:30. (6) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) for data processing) in the Citation section.
LIU Shaomin CHE Tao XU Ziwei REN Zhiguo TAN Junlei ZHANG Yang
Based on the long-term observation data of the field stations in the alpine network and the overseas stations in the pan third polar region, a series of data sets of meteorological, hydrological and ecological elements in the pan third polar region are established; through the intensive observation and sample plot and sample point verification in key areas, the inversion of meteorological elements, lake water and water quality, aboveground vegetation biomass, glacier and frozen soil change and other data products are completed; based on the Internet of things, the data products are retrieved Network technology, research and establish meteorological, hydrological, ecological data management platform of multi station networking, to achieve real-time data acquisition and remote control and sharing. The hydrological data set of the surface process and environment observation network in China's alpine regions in 2019 mainly collects the measured hydrological (runoff, water level, water temperature, etc.) data at six stations, including Southeast Tibet station, Zhufeng station, Yulong Snow Mountain station, Namco station, Ali station and Tianshan station. Southeast Tibet station: flow data, including 4 times of using M9 to measure flow in 2019, including average velocity, flow and maximum water depth; relative water level data is measured by hobo pressure water level meter, including daily average relative water level and water temperature data in 2019. Namco station: discharge data, including the data measured by domestic ls-1206b hand-held current meter for 4 times in 2019, including river width and flow data. The water level data is measured by hobo pressure water level meter, including the water pressure, water temperature and electricity of the original 1 hour in 2019. The relative water level can be calculated by water pressure; Everest station: rongbuhe river discharge, including river width and discharge data measured by domestic ls-1206b hand-held current meter 13 times from June to September 2019; Ali station: flow data: including 22 times of irregular measurement data by river anchor M9 in 2019, and relative water level data measured by hobo pressure water level meter, including hourly water level and water temperature data of the whole year in 2019; Tianshan station: water level data: including daily average water level of 3 points in 2019 Yulong Xueshan station: including mujiaqiao flow data from January to October in 2019
ZHU Liping PENG Ping
"Disaster data for countries along the belt and road, mainly from the global disaster database.The records information of disaster database are from the United Nations, government and non-governmental organizations, research institutions and the media. It's documented in detail such as the country where the disaster occurred, the type of disaster, the date of the disaster, the number of deaths and the estimated economic losses. This study extracts the natural disaster records of the countries along the One Belt And One Road line one by one from the database, and finally forms the disaster database of 9 major disasters of the 65 countries. The natural disaster records collected can be roughly divided into nine categories, including: floods, landslides, extreme temperatures, storms, droughts, forest fires, earthquakes, mass movements and volcanic activities. From 1900 to 2018, a total of 5,479 disaster records were recorded in countries along the One Belt And One Road. From 2000 to 2015, there were 2,673 disaster records. On this basis, the natural disasters of the countries along the belt and road are investigated from four aspects, including disaster frequency, death toll, disaster-affected population and economic loss assessment. Overall, since 1900, a total of 5479 natural disasters have occurred in countries along the One Belt And One Road, resulting in about 19 million deaths and economic losses of about 950 billion us dollars. Among them, the most frequent occurrence is flood and storm; the biggest economic losses are floods and earthquakes; the most affected people are flood and drought; drought and flooding are the leading causes of death
This data is a 5km monthly hydrological data set, including grid runoff and evaporation (if evaporation is less than 0, it means condensation; if runoff is less than 0, it means precipitation is less than evaporation). This data is a 5km monthly hydrological data set, including grid runoff and evaporation (if evaporation is less than 0, it means condensation; if runoff is less than 0, it means precipitation is less than evaporation).
This data set describes the temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation in the Upper Brahmaputra River Basin. We integrate (CMA, GLDAS, ITP-Forcing, MERRA2, TRMM) five sets of reanalysis precipitation products and satellite precipitation products, and combine the observation precipitation of 9 national meteorological stations from China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and 166 rain gauges of the Ministry of Water Resources (MWR) in the basin. The time range is 1981-2016, the time resolution is 3 hours, the spatial resolution is 5 km, and the unit is mm/h. The data will provide better data support for the study of Upper Brahmaputra River Basin, and can be used to study the response of hydrological process to climate change. Please refer to the instruction document uploaded with the data for specific usage information.
WANG Yuanwei WANG Lei LI Xiuping ZHOU Jing
Runoff is formed by atmospheric precipitation and flows into rivers, lakes or oceans through different paths in the basin. It is also used to refer to the amount of water passing through a certain section of the river in a certain period of time, i.e. runoff. Runoff data plays an important role in the study of hydrology and water resources, which affects the development of social economy in central Adam. This data is the flow of five Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan), which comes from the hydrometeorological bureaus of Central Asian countries. The time scale is the average annual data of 2015. This data provides basic data for the project, which is convenient to analyze the situation of eco hydrological water resources in Central Asia, and provides data support for project data analysis.
ET (ET) monitoring is crucial to agricultural water resource management, regional water resource utilization planning and socio-economic sustainable development.The limitations of traditional ET monitoring methods mainly lie in that they cannot observe a large area at the same time and can only be limited to observation points. Therefore, the cost of personnel and equipment is relatively high, and they can neither provide surface ET data, nor provide ET data of different land use types and crop types. Quantitative monitoring of ET can be achieved by using remote sensing. The characteristics of remote sensing information are that it can not only reflect the macroscopic structure characteristics of the earth surface, but also reflect the microscopic local differences. Version 2.0 (second edition) of the surface evapotranspiration data set of the heihe river basin from 2000 to 2013 is based on multi-source remote sensing data and the latest ETWatch model is adopted to estimate the raster image data. Its temporal resolution is monthly scale and the spatial resolution is 1km scale. The data covers the whole basin in millimeters.Data types include monthly, quarterly, and annual data. The projection information of the data is as follows: Albers equal-area cone projection, Central longitude: 110 degrees, First secant: 25 degrees, Second secant: 47 degrees, Coordinates by west: 4000000 meter. File naming rules are as follows: Monthly cumulative ET value file name: heihe-1km_2013m01_eta.tif Heihe represents the heihe river basin, 1km represents the resolution of 1km, 2013 represents the year of 2013, m01 represents the month of January, eta represents the actual evapotranspiration data, and tif represents the data in tif format. Name of quarterly cumulative ET value file: heihe-1km_2013s01_eta.tif Heihe refers to heihe river basin, 1km refers to the resolution of 1km, 2013 refers to 2013, s01 refers to january-march, is the first quarter, eta refers to the actual evapotranspiration data, and tif refers to the data in tif format. Annual cumulative value file name: heihe-1km_2013y_eta.tif Among them, heihe represents heihe river basin, 1km represents the resolution of 1km, 2013 represents the year of 2013, y represents the year, eta represents the actual evapotranspiration data, and tif represents the data in tif format.
The Qinghai Tibet Plateau belongs to the plateau mountain climate. The precipitation, its seasonal distribution and the change of precipitation forms have been one of the hot spots in the global climate change research. The data includes precipitation data of Qinghai Tibet Plateau, with spatial resolution of 1km * 1km, temporal resolution of month and year, and time coverage of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015. The data are obtained by Kring interpolation of meteorological data of National Meteorological Science Information Center. The data can be used to analyze the temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation over the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. In addition, the data can also be used to analyze the temporal and spatial variation of precipitation over the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, which is of great significance to the study of the ecological environment of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
"China's surface climate data daily value data set (V3.0)" contains 699 benchmarks and basic weather stations in China. Since January 1951, the station's air pressure, temperature, precipitation, evaporation, relative humidity, wind direction and wind speed, and sunshine hours. The number and the daily value data of the 0cm geothermal element. After the quality control of the data, the quality and integrity of each factor data from 1951 to 2010 is significantly improved compared with the similar data products released in the past. The actual rate of each factor data is generally above 99%, and the accuracy of the data is close. 100%. China Earth International Exchange Station Climate Data Daily Value Dataset (V3.0), mainly based on the ground-based meteorological data construction project archived "1951-2010 China National Ground Station data corrected monthly report data file (A0/A1/ A) The basic data set was developed. This data can provide a variety of basic drive data for other scientific research.
National Meteorological Information Center
Kara batkak glacier meteorological station in Western Tianshan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan (42 ° 9'46 ″ n, 78 ° 16'21 ″ e, 3280m). The observation data include hourly meteorological elements (temperature (℃), maximum temperature (℃), time of maximum temperature occurrence, minimum temperature (℃), minimum temperature occurrence time, 0.1mm hourly rainfall (mm), 0.5mm hourly rainfall (mm), instantaneous wind direction (°), instantaneous wind speed (M / S), 2-minute wind direction (°), 2-minute wind speed (M / s), 10 minute wind speed (M / s), maximum wind direction (°), maximum wind speed (°), maximum wind speed (°) Major wind speed (M / s), maximum wind speed time, wind direction (°), maximum wind speed (M / s), maximum wind speed time, maximum instantaneous wind speed and direction (°), maximum instantaneous wind speed (M / s), relative humidity (%), minimum relative humidity (%), occurrence time of minimum relative humidity, water pressure (HPA), dew point temperature (℃), air pressure (HPA), sea level pressure (HPA), maximum pressure (HPA) The time of the highest air pressure, the lowest pressure (HPA) and the lowest air pressure (time). Meteorological observation elements are processed into climatic data after accumulation and statistics, providing important data for planning, design and research of agriculture, forestry, industry, transportation, military, hydrology, medical and health care and environmental protection departments.
The remote sensing monitoring database of China's land use status is a multi temporal land use status database covering the land area of China after years of accumulation under the support of national science and technology support plan, important direction project of knowledge innovation project of Chinese Academy of Sciences. The data set includes seven periods: the end of 1980s, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015. The data production is based on the Landsat TM / ETM Remote Sensing Images of each period as the main data source, which is generated by manual visual interpretation. Data are missing from some islands in the South China Sea. Spatial resolution: 30m, projection parameters: Albers_ Conic_ Equal_ Area central meridian 105, standard weft 1: 25, standard weft 2: 47. The remote sensing monitoring database of China's land use status is a relatively high precision land use monitoring data product in China, which has played an important role in the national land resources survey, hydrology and ecological research. The land use types include six first-class types of cultivated land, woodland, grassland, water area, residential land and unused land, and 25 second-class types.
Chinese Academy of Sciences Resource and Environmental Science Data Center(http://www.resdc.cn/)
The "Meteorological observation dataset of the standard meteorological station in the Irtysh River basin" contains the temperature and precipitation observation data at the monthly scale of the Habahe meteorological station, Jimunai meteorological station, Buerjin meteorological station, Fuhai meteorological station, Altay meteorological station and Fuyun meteorological station of the Irtysh river basin. The time scale of the data is month. The data set started in January 1961 (data of Fuyun station was missing from January to May 1961) and ended in December 2015. The special work of ground basic data re-examined the quality of historical informatization documents and revised the site documents with problems and differences. The data set does not revise the homogeneity of data, but segments the stations with obvious heterogeneity.
The data set records the proportion of male and female data of 1960-2017 countries along 65 countries along the belt and road. Data sources: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects: 2017 Revision. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Reprot (various years), (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme. The data set contains 4 tables：(1)Population, male;(2)Population, male (% of total);(3)Population, female;(4)Population, female (% of total).
Leaf area index (leaf area index), also known as leaf area coefficient, refers to the multiple of total plant leaf area in land area per unit land area, which is a better dynamic index to reflect the size of crop population. Leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural parameter of forest ecosystem. It represents the density of leaves and canopy structure characteristics, and affects the physiological and biochemical processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration in the canopy. It is a key parameter to describe the material and energy exchange between soil, vegetation and atmosphere, and is also an important variable for estimating various ecological processes and functions. Based on MODIS leaf area index data from 2000 to 2016, the mcd15a3h product data of Pan third pole key node area were trimmed, and the 4-day leaf area index data of key node area from 2002 to 2016 were obtained. Data projection: sinusoidal projection The data area is 34 key nodes of Pan third pole (Abbas, Astana, Colombo, Gwadar, Mengba, Teheran, Vientiane, etc.).
"Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship. The values shown are midyear estimates.This dataset includes demographic data of 22 countries from 1960 to 2018, including Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, Maldives, etc. Data fields include: country, year, population ratio, male ratio, female ratio, population density (km). Source: ( 1 ) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects: 2019 Revision. ( 2 ) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, ( 3 ) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, ( 4 ) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Reprot ( various years ), ( 5 ) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and ( 6 ) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme. Periodicity: Annual Statistical Concept and Methodology: Population estimates are usually based on national population censuses. Estimates for the years before and after the census are interpolations or extrapolations based on demographic models. Errors and undercounting occur even in high-income countries. In developing countries errors may be substantial because of limits in the transport, communications, and other resources required to conduct and analyze a full census. The quality and reliability of official demographic data are also affected by public trust in the government, government commitment to full and accurate enumeration, confidentiality and protection against misuse of census data, and census agencies' independence from political influence. Moreover, comparability of population indicators is limited by differences in the concepts, definitions, collection procedures, and estimation methods used by national statistical agencies and other organizations that collect the data. The currentness of a census and the availability of complementary data from surveys or registration systems are objective ways to judge demographic data quality. Some European countries' registration systems offer complete information on population in the absence of a census. The United Nations Statistics Division monitors the completeness of vital registration systems. Some developing countries have made progress over the last 60 years, but others still have deficiencies in civil registration systems. International migration is the only other factor besides birth and death rates that directly determines a country's population growth. Estimating migration is difficult. At any time many people are located outside their home country as tourists, workers, or refugees or for other reasons. Standards for the duration and purpose of international moves that qualify as migration vary, and estimates require information on flows into and out of countries that is difficult to collect. Population projections, starting from a base year are projected forward using assumptions of mortality, fertility, and migration by age and sex through 2050, based on the UN Population Division's World Population Prospects database medium variant."
The data was obtained from the 30-second global elevation dataset developed by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and completed in 1996. Downloaded the data from the NCAR and UCAR Joint Data Download Center (https://rda.ucar.edu/datasets/ds758.0/) and redistributed it through this data center. GTOPO30 divides the world into 33 blocks. The sampling interval is 30 arc seconds, which is 0.00833333333333333 degrees. The coordinate reference is WGS84. The DEM is the distance from the sea level in the vertical direction, ie the altitude, in m, the altitude range from -407 to 8752, the ocean depth information is not included here, the negative value is the altitude of the continental shelf; the ocean is marked as -9999, the elevation above the coastline is at least 1; the island less than 1 square kilometer is not considered. In order to facilitate the user's convenience, on the basis of the block data, splice 10 blocks in -10S-90N and 20W-180E without any resampling processing. This data file is DEM_ptpe_Gtopo30.nc
United States Geological Survey (USGS) UitedStateGeologicalSurvey UitedStateGeologicalSurvey HE Yongli