Numerical experiments: The climate model used is the fast air sea coupling model (FAMOUS) jointly developed by the British Meteorological Office and British universities The horizontal resolution of the atmospheric model in the FAMOUS model is 5 ° × 7.5 °, 11 layers in vertical direction; The horizontal resolution of the ocean model is 2.5 ° × 3.75 °, 20 layers in vertical direction The atmosphere and ocean are coupled once a day without flux adjustment The tests included the Middle Paleocene (MP,~60Ma BP, test name flat_60ma_1xCO2_sea_3d_ * * 100yr_mean. nc) and the Late Oligocene (LO,~25Ma BP, test name orog_25ma_1xCO2_sea_3d_ * * 100yr_mean. nc) The sea land distribution data is mainly taken from the global coastline basic data set (abbreviated as Gplates, website: http://www.gplates.org/ ）Considering that the initial uplift of Cenozoic terrains such as the Qinghai Tibet Plateau started at about 50~55 Ma (Searle et al., 1987), the global terrain height was set to 0 in the MP test to omit the role of plateau terrain. At 25 Ma, Greenland (Zachos et al., 2001) and the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (for example, Wang et al., 2014; Ding et al., 2014; Rowley and Currie, 2006; DeCells et al., 2007; Polisar et al., 2009) were revised The change of ancient latitude is also considered when reconstructing the ancient topography of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (Besse et al., 1984; Chatterjee et al., 2013; Wei et al., 2013) At the same time, referring to the change of Cenozoic atmospheric CO2 (Beerling and Royer, 2011), the atmospheric CO2 concentration in the two periods of experiments was 280 ppmv (1 ppmv=1 mg L – 1) before the industrial revolution For simplicity, all land vegetation and soil properties are set to globally uniform values, that is, various land surface properties on each land grid point except Antarctica are assigned to the global average value of non glacial land surface before the industrial revolution, which is also convenient for highlighting the impact of land sea distribution and topographic changes In addition, since we mainly discuss the average climate state and its change in the characteristic geological period on the scale of millions of years, we can omit the influence of orbital forcing, that is, the Earth's orbital parameters are set to their modern values in all experiments Output time: All tests were integrated for 1000 years, using the average results of the last 100 years of each test. This data is helpful to explore the formation and evolution mechanism of the Cenozoic monsoon and drought.
The global reach-level 3-hourly river flood reanalysis (GRFR) dataset includes 1) global 0.05 degree, 3-hourly/daily runoff data, 2) 3hourly/daily naturalized river discharge at 2.94 million river reaches, 3) global 3-hourly river flood events from 1980 to 2019, 4) underlying hydrography MERIT-Basins. Grounded on recent breakthroughs in global runoff hydrology, river modeling, high-resolution hydrography, and climate reanalysis, the 3-hourly river discharge record globally for 2.94 million river reaches during the 40-yr period of 1980–2019 was developed. The underlying modeling chain consists of the VIC land surface model (0.05°, 3-hourly) that is well calibrated and bias-corrected and the RAPID routing model (2.94 million river and catchment vectors), with precipitation input from MSWEP and other meteorological fields downscaled from ERA5. Flood events (above 2-yr return) and their characteristics (number, spatial distribution, and seasonality) were extracted and studied. Validations against 3-hourly flow records from 6,000+ gauges in CONUS and daily records from 14,000+ gauges globally show good modeling performance across all flow ranges, good skills in reconstructing flood events (high extremes), and the benefit of (and need for) sub-daily modeling. The GRFR database represents a pioneering effort on global reach-level flood reanalysis and may offer new opportunities for global flood studies in terms of baseline data and potential research pathways. Also, it can better help river-observing satellite missions to develop their discharge algorithms.
YANG Yuan , PAN Ming , LIN Peirong
Natural runoff simulation data products of 2.94 million river sections in the world, unit: m3/s. This data is based on the simulation of VIC hydrological process model and RAPID vector river network concentration model. The spatial resolution of the land surface hydrological process model is 0.25 °, and the river network data in the vector concentration model is extracted based on the 90-m MERIT Hydro hydrological correction terrain data product. The runoff generation part is calibrated based on the runoff characteristic values obtained by machine learning, and the grid scale runoff generation deviation correction is carried out based on the multi quantile runoff characteristic values. The data products are verified by 14000 runoff observation stations around the world, and have better verification accuracy.
LIN Peirong , PAN Ming , YANG Yuan
This data is the simulation of Antarctic sea ice density data from 2020 to 2100 under the medium emission scenario (ssp245) of the 6th International Coupled Model Comparison Program (CMIP6). The 25 mode data of CMIP6 were uniformly interpolated and then aggregated averaged. The size of sea ice density data is 0-1, the data time range is from January 2020 to December 2100, the time resolution is month, the spatial range is south of 45 ° S, and the spatial resolution is 1 ° × 1°。 This data provides the status and evolution of Antarctic sea ice under the medium emission scenario, and can provide reference for future changes in Antarctica.
LI Shuanglin, WANG Hui
Based on ESA's CCI-LC Maps data, we mapped the agricultural landscape of Central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan, for sustainable agricultural development in the five Central Asian countries, and classified the existing agricultural land into six categories: rainfed cropland, rainfed cropland (herbaceous cover), rainfed cropland (forest cover), irrigated cropland, cropland (>50%)/natural vegetation (<50%), and cropland (<50%)/natural vegetation (>50%). 50%)/natural vegetation (<50%) and arable land (<50%)/natural vegetation (>50%). The data year is 2020 and the spatial resolution of the data is 300m × 300m, i.e., about 0.003° × 0.003°. The dataset can provide basic data support for future land resource development and utilization and agricultural development of the five Central Asian countries.
ZHANG Junjun , JIANG Xiaohui
Facing the sustainable agricultural development of the five Central Asian countries, with the goal of land resources, in order to explore the land resources evaluation in Central Asia under the climate change in the past 20 years and the land resources situation in Central Asia under the climate change in the next 30 years, we collected the land resources evaluation elements in Central Asia, including: soil elements (soil salinization degree, soil texture, soil organic matter content, soil pH value, soil total nitrogen), terrain elements (elevation, slope) Climatic elements (rainfall, temperature, solar radiation). Topographic elements and soil elements are based on 2020. Climate elements include 2000, 2010, 2020, and the average precipitation and temperature in 2030 and 2050 under the future SSP5-8.5 scenarios estimated by the ESM1 climate model in CMIP6, with a spatial resolution of 0.01 ° × 0.01°。 The data set can provide basic data support for the future development and utilization of land resources and agricultural development of the five Central Asian countries.
ZHANG Junjun , JIANG Xiaohui
Soil moisture (SM) plays a vital role in regulating the water and energy exchange between land surfaces and the atmosphere and is declared an essential climate variable by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). Vegetation optical depth (VOD) is a crucial parameter describing vegetation attenuation properties in microwave radiative transfer equation, and it has been proven to be a promising ecological indicator for studying plant hydraulics, carbon stocks, and vegetation phenology. A long-term SM and polarization-, frequency-dependent VODs (C/X/Ku) product was derived from the inter-calibrated AMSR-E/2 multi-frequency brightness temperature, using the multi-channel collaborative algorithm (MCCA). The MCCA comprehensively considers the physical relationship between multiple microwave channels and could simultaneously retrieve frequency- and polarization-dependent VODs and SM. The new MCCA AMSR-E/2 SM dataset was validated over 25 dense soil moisture networks from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) and United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) watersheds. The results showed that MCCA performs best in terms of ubRMSE among the current publicly available SM datasets related to AMSR-E/2. In addition, polarization-, frequency-dependent VODs from MCCA may provide new insights for better understanding the water fluxes in plant physiology.
HU Lu, ZHAO Tianjie, JU Weimin , PENG Zhiqing , YAO Panpan, SHI Jiancheng
This dataset includes the concentration and distribution data of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the Yarlung Tsangpo River and three major rivers in Hengduan Mountain region. The samples were collected in 2020 and 2021 from 83 locations in four major rivers, including the Yarlung Tsangpo, Nu, Lancang and Jinsha Rivers. The water samples were prepared by solid phase extraction, purification, concentration steps, and then determined by HPLC (ThermoFisher Scientific, USA) coupled to a TSQ Quantiva triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The target compounds included 10 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 3 perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs). Specifically, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA),perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrA), perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). In the process of sample pretreatment, isotope labeled recovery standards were added, and the sample recovery was calculated to be between 53% and 96%. Conventional water quality test parameters include temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, salinity, and dissolved organic carbon. The accuracy of the parameters were 0.1℃, 0.01mg/L, 0.01, 0.1μS/cm, 0.01ppt and 0.01mg/L, respectively. Among them, the dissolved organic carbon was measured by TOC analyzer, and the other water quality parameters were measured by YSI ProPlus portable multi-parameter water quality instrument. This dataset can provide a scientific basis for mapping the spatial distribution of organic pollution over the Tibetan Plateau and assessing the water quality safety of water towers in Asia.
REN Jiao , WANG Xiaoping
The basic data of hydrometeorology, land use and DEM were collected through the National Meteorological Information Center, the Hydrological Yearbook, the China Statistical Yearbook and the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Resources of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The distributed time-varying gain hydrological model with independent intellectual property rights is used for modeling, and the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is divided into 10937 sub basins with a threshold of 100 square kilometers. In Heihe River, Yarlung Zangbo River, the source of Yangtze River, the source of Yellow River, Yalong River, Minjiang River and Lancang River basins, 14 flow stations were selected to observe the daily flow data to develop and verify the model. The daily scale Naxi efficiency coefficient is above 0.7, and the correlation coefficient is above 0.8. The precipitation and temperature data output from 13 models and 4 scenarios provided by CMIP6 are used to post process the future precipitation and temperature data. The post processed precipitation and temperature driven hydrological model simulates the water cycle process from 2046 to 2065, and gives the possible future spatial and temporal distribution of 0.1 degree daily scale runoff across the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
Based on the CMIP6 model data (see Table 1 for the model list), the distribution and thickness of frozen soil in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and the circum Arctic region, as well as the terrestrial ecosystem carbon flux (total primary productivity GPP and ecosystem carbon source sink NEP) data in the frozen soil area under different climate change scenarios (including SSP126, SSP245 and SSP585) in the historical period (1990-2014) and the future (2046-2065) are estimated, with a spatial resolution of 1 ° × 1°。 Among them, the distribution of frozen soil is estimated under the future climate warming scenario by using the spatial constraint method (Chadburn et al., 2017), based on the probability of frozen soil occurrence under different temperature gradients at the current stage, and combined with the future temperature change simulated by the Earth system model. For the change of active layer thickness, the sensitivity of active layer thickness to temperature change estimated by remote sensing at this stage is used to constrain the change of active layer thickness simulated by the Earth System Model, so as to correct the error of the model in simulating the thickness of frozen soil active layer. The future permafrost carbon flux is the multi model ensemble average of the Earth system model simulation results. The simulation results show that the permafrost in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau will be significantly degraded under the future climate change scenario. With the future temperature rise, the continuous permafrost regions will be shown as carbon sources, but the temperature rise will promote the growth of vegetation, and the carbon sink capacity in the discontinuous permafrost regions will be enhanced. Similar to the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, the permafrost around the Arctic will also be generally degraded in the future, and the future climate warming will promote the growth of vegetation in the Arctic, thus enhancing regional carbon sinks.
WANG Tao, LIU Dan , WEI Jianjun
Wind speed data is widely used in many sciences, management, and policy fields to assess renewable energy potential, address wind hazards, investigate biological phenomena, and explore climate change/variability, among other applications. The challenge is obtaining complete and accurate wind datasets, as observations are limited in distribution. Global-scale weather stations suffer from spatial and temporal discontinuities that limit their utility. While reanalysis products and climate model simulations achieve data continuity, they often fail to reproduce significant wind speed trends because few of them assimilate in-situ wind observations on land. Data interpolation helps fill gaps, but the high variability of wind speed data, combined with a low distribution of observations worldwide, prevents standard statistical interpolation methods such as kriging or principal component analysis from being accurate for areas with sparse data. As a result, wind speed data has been the bottleneck in related studies. Here, based on the partial convolutional neural network, we reconstructed the global near-surface wind speed data during 1973-2021 by assimilating simulation outputs from 34 climate models and the HadISD dataset, which the Met Office Hadley Center creates. Our dataset has a spatial resolution of 1.25°×2.5° and containers observed wind speed trends.
ZHOU Lihong , ZENG Zhenzhong , JIANG Xin
Three different data sources are used, including maps of the early Republic of China in 1920s, digital topographic maps in 1960 and Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+/OLI images from 1970 to 2020. In 1920s, the maps were scanned, geometrically corrected and georeferenced. In the 1960s, 1:250000 topographic maps were used. All maps are georeferenced by Albers Equivalent Conical Projection, and the root mean square (RMS) error is less than 1.5 pixels. For the early maps, visual interpretation and manual digitization were chosen to vectorize the lake boundaries. Since 1990, the semi-automatic water body classification method has been used to distinguish water body and non water body information from Landsat images, and then the lake boundary has been extracted, and visual inspection and manual editing have been carried out by comparing with the original Landsat images.
ZHANG Guoqing, RAN Youhua
Based on the 33rd Antarctic Scientific Expedition in China, the data set of temporal and spatial distribution of metal element concentrations in snow and ice obtained on the section from Zhongshan Station to Dome A in East Antarctica mainly includes: 1. A shallow ice core obtained 202 km away from Zhongshan Station. The ice core covers the period from 1990 to 2017 with a resolution of years, including metal element iron, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes and other data. 2. Collect a sample every 10km along the Zhongshan Station Dome A section in East Antarctica. The metal elements include rare earth elements, barium and other elements. The data can be used to study the pollution and contribution of natural sources and human activities to Antarctic snow and ice.
Based on the monthly precipitation data of 262 rain gauges, WRF and ERA5 precipitation data in the Yarlung Zangbo River basin, the daily precipitation data with a resolution of 10km from 1951 to 2020 in the Yarlung Zangbo River basin and seven sub basins are reconstructed using random forest learning algorithm. This data has been verified by the single point of the station and performs well in terms of annual and seasonal changes. And the data has been reverse evaluated by the hydrological model, which is used to drive the VIC hydrological model to simulate the runoff change of Yajiang River basin and each sub basin, and verified by the measured runoff, MODIS and glacier cataloging data. On the basis of the original first edition, this data has considered the spatial distribution characteristics of precipitation, which can better describe the precipitation characteristics in alpine regions.
Based on the data of GF-1 and GF-2 in China, the freeze-thaw disaster distribution data of Qinghai Tibet project corridor is produced by using the deep learning classification method and manual visual interpretation and correction. The geographical range of the data is 40km along the Xidatan Anduo section of Qinghai Tibet highway. The data include the distribution data of thermokast lakes and the distribution data of thermal melting landslides. The dataset can provide data basis for the research of freeze-thaw disaster and engineering disaster prevention and reduction in Qinghai Tibet engineering corridor. The spatial distribution of freezing and thawing disasters within 40km along the Xidatan-Anduo section of Qinghai Tibet highway is self-made based on the domestic GF-2 image data. Firstly, the deep learning method is used to extract the mud flow terrace block from GF-2 data; Then, ArcGIS is used for manual editing.
NIU Fujun, LUO Jing
This data is generated based on meteorological observation data, hydrological station data, combined with various assimilation data and remote sensing data, through the preparation of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau multi-level hydrological model system WEB-DHM (distributed hydrological model based on water and energy balance) coupling snow, glacier and frozen soil physical processes. The time resolution is monthly, the spatial resolution is 5km, and the original data format is ASCII text format, Data types include grid runoff and evaporation (if evaporation is less than 0, it means condensation; if runoff is less than 0, it means precipitation is less than evaporation in the month). If the asc cannot be opened normally in arcmap, please top the first 5 lines of the asc file.
WANG Lei, CHAI Chenhao
There are 396 temperature-sensitive proxy data for the past millennium over the Northern Hemisphere, including 370 tree rings, 15 ice cores, 9 lake sediments and 2 historical documents; This data is derived from the global temperature proxy dataset released by PAGES2k Consortum in 2017; During the process of temperature assimilation in the past millennium (1000-2000 AD) in the Northern Hemisphere, the data were further screened, and only the data with annual resolution were retained; The proxy data contained in the dataset have passed strict quality inspection and temperature signal verification; The data set can be used to reconstruct the temperature of the Northern Hemisphere at the hemispherical and regional scales for the past millennium.
This data is a 5km monthly hydrological data set, including grid runoff and evaporation (if evaporation is less than 0, it means condensation; if runoff is less than 0, it means precipitation is less than evaporation), simulated and output through the WEB-DHM distributed hydrological model of the Indus River basin, with temperature, precipitation, barometric pressure, etc. as input data.
WANG Lei, LIU Hu
The ground-based observation dataset of aerosol optical properties over the Tibetan Plateau was obtained by continuous observation with a Cimel 318 sunphotometer, involving two stations: Qomolangma Station and Nam Co Station. These products have taken the process of cloud detection. The data cover the period from January 1, 2021 to December 31, 2021, and the time resolution is daily. The sunphotometer has eight observation channels from visible light to near infrared, and the central wavelengths are 340, 380, 440, 500, 670, 870, 940 and 1120 nm, respectively. The field of view angle of the instrument is 1.2°, and the sun tracking accuracy is 0.1°. Six bands of aerosol optical thickness can be obtained from direct solar radiation, and the accuracy is estimated to be 0.01-0.02. Finally, AERONET unified inversion algorithm was used to obtain the aerosol optical thickness, Ångström index, aerosol particle size distribution, single scattering albedo, phase function, complex refraction index and asymmetry factor.
210Bi (t1/2=5.01 d) is theoretically a radionuclide for tracing the particle cycle over a timescale of hours to days. However, it has been rarely investigated in marine environments due to its very short half-life and low activity. Here, 210Bi and 210Pb were examined in the water column on the shelf/slope of the northern South China Sea (SCS), as well as their atmospheric deposition. In rainwater, the 210Bi/210Pb ratio averaged 0.54±0.28, indicating the influence of atmospheric deposition on the disequilibrium between 210Bi and 210Pb in surface seawater. On the shelf, 210Bi/210Pb averaged 0.73±0.10 in the euphotic zone and 1.25±0.10 below, supporting a quick removal of 210Bi from the euphotic zone and regeneration in the twilight zone. On the slope, deficits in 210Bi (210Bi/210Pb of 0.81±0.07) were also observed in the productive low euphotic zone. The concurrence of 210Bi deficits and higher particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations implied that POC largely dominates the deficit and excess of 210Bi. Based on a simple model, the removal fluxes of 210Bi at the euphotic base were 728±73 dpm m-2 d-1 and 216±89 dpm m-2 d-1 on the shelf and slope. The residence time of particulate 210Bi was 14±2 d. The 210Bi-derived export flux of POC was 1.7±0.7 mmol-C m-2 d-1 out of the euphotic zone over the slope. These results lay the foundation for 210Bi/210Pb to quantify the sinking and remineralization of particulate organic matter in coastal seas.