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A synthesis dataset of permafrost for the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau, China (2002-2018)

青藏高原是陆地表面中低纬度地区多年冻土分布最为广泛的地区,大量研究表明,青藏高原多年冻土的存在和变化强烈影响着区域乃至全球的水文、生态和气候系统。但由于青藏高原高寒缺氧、生存条件恶劣、交通极不便利,数据资源非常贫乏,尤其是在极高海拔的多年冻土区,这种状态不仅严重地限制了对于该区域气候、环境和冻土等诸多方面的研究和理解,也严重限制了适应于该区域遥感反演算法的研发、各类陆面乃至于地球系统模型的模拟和改进,而且也限制了该区域经济发展和国家战略的规划。过去几十年,我们研究团队在青藏高原多年冻土区建立了综合观测网络,展开了对多年冻土地温、活动层水热以及气象因子的系统监测,形成了能够基本覆盖青藏高原高平面的、与多年冻土有关的多要素观测数据。本数据集包括在这一区域的6个自动气象观测站、12个活动层及84个钻孔长时间序列观测数据,主要观测要素包括气象(气温、降水、风速、比湿等)、土壤水热、活动层厚度及冻土温度等观测数据。各观测数据在收集和处理过程中都已经过了严格的质量控制。本数据集面向多学科背景的科学家发布(如:冰冻圈、水文学、生态学和气象科学等),将进一步促进青藏高原水文模型、陆面过程模型和气候模型的验证、发展和改进。

2021-01-07

Lake sediment-surface pollen dataset for alpine meadow in eastern Tibetan Plateau

现代花粉与植被和气候的关系是利用花粉定性解释和定量重建过去植被和气候的重要参考依据。提取湖泊沉积物中的花粉组合所蕴含的古植被和古气候信号,需要组建一个高质量的湖泊表层沉积物现代孢粉数据集。然而,青藏高原已有的湖泊表层沉积物花粉数据集并不能很好地代表其植被类型和气候梯度,仍存在空白区域,如青藏高原中东部的高寒草甸区尚缺乏现代湖泊花粉数据,影响了重建研究的可靠性。 为了构建高寒草甸区样点空间分布均匀的现代孢粉数据集,作者于2018年7月~8月采集了青藏高原中部和东部117个湖泊的表层沉积物样品。每个样品选取约10克(湿样)采用常规酸碱法和过筛法(7 μm)提取花粉。每个花粉样品至少鉴定、统计500粒陆生植物花粉粒。 本高寒草甸现代花粉数据集花粉组合以莎草科花粉为主(Cyperaceae;平均值68.4%,最大值95.9%),其他草本植物花粉如禾本科(Poaceae;平均值10.3%,最大值87.7%)、毛茛科(Ranunculaceae;平均值4.8%,最大值33.6%)、蒿属(Artemisia;平均值3.7%,最大值24.5%)、菊科(Asteraceae;平均值2.1%,最大值33.6%)等为常见花粉类型。柳属(Salix;平均值0.4%,最大值5.3%)为主要的灌木植物花粉,而乔木植物花粉含量低(平均值0.9%,最大值5.8%),主要包括松属(Pinus;平均值0.3%,最大值1.8%)、桦属(Betula;平均值0.1%,最大值0.9%)和桤木属(Alnus;平均值0.1%,最大值0.7%)。花粉组合尽管受到远源花粉(如乔木花粉)的影响,但仍能很好地代表高寒草甸植物群落组成。 本数据集除包含花粉类型的原始统计数据和百分比数据,也包括每个采样点现代气候数据。每个样点现代气候数据采用中国区域地面气象要素驱动数据集(1979-2018;0.1°空间分辨率)中最近栅格数据代替,并计算样点的年降水量(Pann)、年均气温(Tann)、最冷月均温(Mtco)和最热月均温(Mtwa),用于构建花粉-气候校准集。

2021-02-20
Highlights More

Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3,600 BP

This dataset is collected from the Supplementary Materials part of the paper "Chen, F.H., Dong, G.H., Zhang, D.J., Liu, X.Y., Jia, X., An, C.B., Ma, M.M., Xie, Y.W., Barton, L., Ren, X.Y., Zhao, Z.J., & Wu, X.H. (2015). Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 BP. Science, 347, 248–250.". In this paper, researchers analyzed animal bones, plant remains and other artefacts from 53 sites across the northeastern Tibetan plateau and found that humans began to relocate to the elevations above 4000 masl after the emergence of Barley. According to the study, the prehistoric human expansion into the higher, colder altitudes of the Tibetan plateau took place as the continental temperatures had themselves become colder after 3,600 calendar years before the present, thus, the key impetus of the expansion was agricultural innovation rather than climate change. This dataset contains 4 tables, table names and content are as follows: Data list: The data name list of the rest tables; t1: Calibrated radiocarbon dates and domesticated plant and animal remains from sites investigated on the NETP; t2: Radiocarbon dates of the Paleolithic sites on the Tibetan Plateau; t3: OSL dates of the Paleolithic sites on the Tibetan Plateau. See attachments for data details: Supplementary Materials.pdf, Agriculture Facilitated Permanent Human Occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3,600 BP.pdf.

2020-06-19

A late Middle Pleistocene Denisovan mandible from the Tibetan Plateau

This data is derived from the Supplementary Tables of the paper: Chen, F. H., Welker, F., Shen, C. C., Bailey, S. E., Bergmann, I., Davis, S., Xia, H., Wang, H., Fischer, R., Freidline, S. E., Yu, T. L., Skinner, M. M., Stelzer, S., Dong, G. R., Fu, Q. M., Dong, G. H., Wang, J., Zhang, D. J., & Hublin, J. J. (2019). A late Middle Pleistocene Denisovan mandible from the Tibetan Plateau. Nature, 569, 409-412. This research is another breakthrough made by academician Fahu Chen and his team over the years research of human activities and environmental adaptation on the Tibetan Plateau. The research team analyzed the newly discovered hominid mandible fossils in Xiahe County, Gansu Province, China, and identified it belongs to Denisovan of the Tibetan Plateau, which suggested to call Xiahe Denisovan. The team conducted a multidisciplinary analysis of the fossil, including chronology, physique morphology, molecular archaeology, living environment and human adaptation. It is the first Denisovan fossil found outside the Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains and the earliest evidence of human activity on the Tibetan Plateau (160 kyr BP). This study provides key evidence for further study of Denisovans' physical characteristics and distribution in East Asia, it also provides evidence of a deep evolutionary history of these archaic hominins within the challenging environment of the Tibetan Plateau. This data contains 6 tables, table name and contents are as follows: t1: Distances in mm between meshes generated from CT versus photoscans (PS). t2: Measurements of the Xiahe mandible after reconstruction. t3: Comparative Dental metrics. t4: Comparative crown morphology. t5: Uniprot accession numbers for protein sequences of extant primates used in the phylogenetic analyses. t6: Specimen names and numbers.

2021-07-08

A long-term dataset of integrated land-atmosphere interaction observations on the Tibetan Plateau (2005-2016)

The field observation platform of the Tibetan Plateau is the forefront of scientific observation and research on the Tibetan Plateau. The land surface processes and environmental changes based comprehensive observation of the land-boundary layer in the Tibetan Plateau provides valuable data for the study of the mechanism of the land-atmosphere interaction on the Tibetan Plateau and its effects. This dataset integrates the 2005-2016 hourly atmospheric, soil hydrothermal and turbulent fluxes observations of Qomolangma Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS/CAS), Southeast Tibet Observation and Research Station for the Alpine Environment, CAS (SETORS), the BJ site of Nagqu Station of Plateau Climate and Environment, CAS (NPCE-BJ), Nam Co Monitoring and Research Station for Multisphere Interactions, CAS (NAMORS), Ngari Desert Observation and Research Station, CAS (NADORS), Muztagh Ata Westerly Observation and Research Station, CAS (MAWORS). It contains gradient observation data composed of multi-layer wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, air pressure and precipitation data, four-component radiation data, multi-layer soil temperature and humidity and soil heat flux data, and turbulence data composed of sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and carbon dioxide flux. These data can be widely used in the analysis of the characteristics of meteorological elements on the Tibetan Plaetau, the evaluation of remote sensing products and development of the remote sensing retrieval algorithms, and the evaluation and development of numerical models.

2020-11-24

The mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) and permafrost thermal stability dataset over Tibetan Plateau for 2005-2015

Mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) at a depth of zero annual amplitude and permafrost thermal stability type are fundamental importance for engineering planning and design, ecosystem management in permafrost region. This dataset is produced by integrating remotely sensed freezing degree-days and thawing degree-days, snow cover days, leaf area index, soil bulk density, high-accuracy soil moisture data, and in situ MAGT measurements from 237 boreholes for the 2010s (2005-2015) on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) by using an ensemble learning method that employs a support vector regression (SVR) model based on distance-blocked resampling training data with 200 repetitions. Validation of the new permafrost map indicates that it is probably the most accurate of all available maps at present. The RMSE of MAGT is approximately 0.75 °C and the bias is approximately 0.01 °C. This map shows that the total area of permafrost on the TP is approximately 115.02 (105.47-129.59) *104 km2. The areas corresponding to the very stable, stable, semi-stable, transitional, and unstable types are 0.86*104 km2, 9.62*104 km2, 38.45*104 km2, 42.29*104 km2, and 23.80*104 km2, respectively. This new dataset is available for evaluate the permafrost change in the future on the TP as a baseline. More details can be found in Ran et al., (2020) that published at Science China Earth Sciences.

2021-09-13

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