The “Long-term series of daily global snow depth” was produced using the passive microwave remote sensing data. The temporal range is 1979~2017, and the coverage is the global land. The spatial resolutions is 25,067.53 m and the temporal resolution is daily. A dynamic brightness temperature gradient algorithm was used to derive snow depth. In this algorithm, the spatial and temporal variations of snow characteristics were considered and the spatial and seasonal dynamic relationships between the temperature difference between 18 GHz and 36 GHz and the measured snow depth were established. The long-term sequence of satellite-borne passive microwave brightness temperature data used to derive snow depth came from three sensors (SMMR, SSM/I and SSMI/S), and there is a certain system inconsistency among them. So, the inter-sensor calibration was performed to improve the temporal consistency of these brightness temperature data before snow depth derivation. The accuracy analysis shows that the relative deviation of Eurasia snow depth data is within 30%. The data are stored as a txt file every day, each file is a 1383*586 snow depth matrix, and each snow depth represents a 25,067.53m* 25,067.53m grid. The projection of this data is EASE-Grid, and following is the file header which describes the projection detail. File header: ncols 1383 nrows 586 xllcorner -17334193.54 yllcorner -7344787.75 cellsize 25,067.53 NODATA_value -1
The data set is the meteorological and observational data of hulugou shrub experimental area in the upper reaches of Heihe River, including meteorological data, albedo data and evapotranspiration data under shrubs. 1. Meteorological data: Qilian station longitude: 99 ° 52 ′ E; latitude: 38 ° 15 ′ n; altitude: 3232.3m, scale meteorological data from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013. Observation items include: temperature, humidity, vapor pressure, net radiation, four component radiation, etc. The data are daily scale data, and the calculation period is 0:00-24:00 2. Albedo: daily surface albedo data from January 1, 2012 to July 3, 2014, including snow and non snow periods. The measuring instrument is the radiation instrument on the 10m gradient tower in hulugou watershed. Among them, the data from August 4 to October 2, 2012 was missing due to instrument circuit problems, and the rest data quality was good 3. Evapotranspiration: surface evapotranspiration data of Four Typical Shrub Communities in hulugou watershed. The observation period is from July 18 to August 5, 2014, which is the daily scale data. The data include precipitation data, evaporation and infiltration data observed by lysimeter. The data set can be used to analyze the evapotranspiration data of alpine shrubs and forests. The evapotranspiration of grassland under canopy was measured by a small lysimeter with a diameter of 25 cm and a depth of 30 cm. Two lysimeters were set up in each shrub plot, and one lysimeter was set for each shrub in transplanting experiment. The undisturbed undisturbed soil column with the same height as the barrel is placed in the inner bucket, and the outer bucket is buried in the soil. During the embedding, the outer bucket shall be 0.5-1.0 cm higher than the ground, and the outer edge of the inner barrel shall be designed with a rainproof board about 2.0 cm wide to prevent surface runoff from entering the lysimeter. Lysimeter was set up in the nearby meteorological stations to measure grassland evapotranspiration, and a small lysimeter with an inner diameter of 25 cm and a depth of 30 cm was also set up in the sample plot of Picea crassifolia forest to measure the evaporation under the forest. All lysimeters are weighed at 20:00 every day (the electronic balance has a sensing capacity of 1.0 g, which is equivalent to 0.013 mm evaporation). Wind proof treatment should be taken to ensure the accuracy of measurement. Data processing method: evapotranspiration is mainly calculated by mass conservation in lysimeter method. According to the design principle of lysimeter lysimeter, evapotranspiration is mainly determined by the quality difference in two consecutive days. Since it is weighed every day, it is calculated by water balance.
Chinese Cryospheric Information System is a comprehensive information system for the management and analysis of Chinese cryospheric data. The establishment of Chinese Cryospheric Information System is to meet the needs of earth system science, and provide parameters and verification data for the development of response and feedback models of permafrost, glacier and snow cover to global changes under GIS framework. On the other hand, the system collates and rescues valuable cryospheric data to provide a scientific, efficient and safe management and analysis tool. Chinese Cryospheric Information System contains three basic databases of different research regions. The basic database of Urumqi river basin is one of three basic databases, which covers the Urumqi river basin in tianshan mountain, east longitude 86-89 °, and north latitude 42-45 °, mainly containing the following data: 1. Cryospheric data.Include: Distribution of glacier no. 1 and glacier no. 2; 2. Natural environment and resources.Include: Terrain digital elevation: elevation, slope, slope direction; Hydrology: current situation of water resource utilization;Surface water; Surface characteristics: vegetation type;Soil type;Land resource evaluation map;Land use status map; 3. Social and economic resources: a change map of human action; Please refer to the documents (in Chinese): "Chinese Cryospheric Information System design. Doc" and "Chinese Cryospheric Information System data dictionary. Doc".
From 2013 to 2014, the Glacial Geomorphology of the upper reaches of Heihe River in the late Quaternary was investigated and sampled. Based on the field investigation and remote sensing image, the distribution map of moraine at different levels near the ridge of the upper reaches of the Bailang river was obtained.
Data scarcity is a major obstacle for high-resolution mapping of permafrost on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). This study produces a new permafrost stability distribution map for the 2010s (2005-2015) derived from the predicted mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) at a depth of zero annual amplitude (10 - 25 m) by integrating remotely sensed freezing degree-days and thawing degree-days, snow cover days, leaf area index, soil bulk density, high-accuracy soil moisture data, and in situ MAGT measurements from 237 boreholes on the TP by using an ensemble learning method that employs a support vector regression (SVR) model based on distance-blocked resampling training data with 200 repetitions. Validation of the new permafrost map indicates that it is probably the most accurate of all available maps at present. This map shows that the total area of permafrost on the TP, excluding glaciers and lakes, is approximately 115.02 (105.47-129.59) ✖104 km2. The areas corresponding to the very stable, stable, semi-stable, transitional, and unstable types are 0.86✖104 km2, 9.62✖104 km2, 38.45✖104 km2, 42.29✖104 km2, and 23.80✖104 km2, respectively. This new map is of fundamental importance for engineering planning and design, ecosystem management, and evaluation of the permafrost change in the future on the TP as a baseline.
China's second glacier inventory uses the high-resolution Landsat TM/ETM+ remote sensing satellite data as the main glacier boundary data source and extracts the data source with the latest global digital elevation model, SRTM V4, as the glacier attribute, using the current international ratio threshold segmentation method to extract the glacier boundary in bare ice areas. The ice ridge extraction algorithm is developed to extract the glacier ice ridge, and it is used for the segmentation of a single glacier. At the same time, the international general algorithm is used to calculate the glacier attributes, so that the vector data and attribute data that contain the glacier information of the main glacier regions in west China are obtained. Compared with some field GPS field measurement data and higher resolution remote sensing images (such as from QuickBird and WorldView), the glacial vector data in the second glacier inventory data set of China have higher positioning accuracy and can meet the requirements for glacial data in national land, water conservancy, transportation, environment and other fields. Glacier inventory attributes: Glc_Name, Drng_Code, FCGI_ID, GLIMS_ID, Mtn_Name, Pref_Name, Glc_Long, Glc_Lati, Glc_Area, Abs_Accu, Rel_Accu, Deb_Area, Deb_A_Accu, Deb_R_Accu, Glc_Vol_A, Glc_Vol_B, Max_Elev, Min_Elev, Mean_Elev, MA_Elev, Mean_Slp, Mean_Asp, Prm_Image, Aux_Image, Rep_Date, Elev_Src, Elev_Date, Compiler, Verifier. For a detailed data description, please refer to the second glacier inventory data description.
In the permafrost area of the upper reaches of Heihe River, 11 numbered typical boreholes are selected, and the thickness values of permafrost and seasonal permafrost are calculated by the temperature interpolation of boreholes. The 0 degree isothermal surface is set as the bottom plate of permafrost and seasonal permafrost. The data include borehole number, longitude and latitude, thickness of frozen soil and type of frozen soil.
This data includes the distribution along the height of the blowing snow flux collected during the wind-blown snow event at the big winter tree pass observation station (longitude 100 degrees 14 minutes 28 seconds east and latitude 38 degrees 00 minutes 58 seconds north) on December 17, 2013 at solstice on July 9, 2014.
Glaciers are sensitive to climate change and are important indicators and amplifiers of global change. In inland river regions, river runoff mainly comes from mountain ice and snow melt. Glaciers are very important "solid reservoirs" in these regions, and glacial melt water is an important source of supply for the tributaries of the Heihe River. The inventory of glaciers in the Heihe River Basin was completed from 1979 to 1980. For related information, please refer to "Chinese Glacier Inventory-Qilian Mountains" edited by Wang Zongtai and others. In 2004, the relevant results of the "China Glacier Inventory" were systematically digitized and a database was established. The final results were released through the "China Glacier Information System". However, in the process of coordinate restoration, the accuracy of the reference data was poor, and the glaciers in the Heihe River Basin had obvious position shifts. Therefore, we used the Landsat remote sensing image corrected by ortho-geometric correction. The processed Heihe Glacier distribution data is highly consistent with the existing basic geographic information in China in terms of geometric accuracy, and consistent with the first glacier inventory in terms of attributes.
This data set is extracted from the second Glacier Inventory Data Set of China for Three River Source area. The file is SHP format. The attribute data are as follows: Glc_Name (glacier name), Drng_Code (basin code), FCGI_ID (first glacier catalogue code), GLIMS_ID (GLIMS glacier code), Mtn_Name (mountain system name), Pref_Name (administrative division), Glc_Long (glacier longitude), Glc_Lati (glacier latitude), Glc_Area (glacier area), Abs_Accu (absolute area accuracy), Rel_Accu (relative area accuracy), Deb_Area (surface Moraine Area), Deb_A_Accu (absolute accuracy of surface moraine Area), Deb_R_Accu (relative accuracy of surface moraine area)、Glc_Vol_A (estimation of glacier volume 1)、Glc_Vol_B (estimation of glacier volume 2)、Max_Elev (maximum glacier elevation)、Min_Elev (minimum glacier elevation)、Mean_Elev (average glacier elevation)、MA_Elev (median area height of glacier)、Mean_Slp (average glacier slope)、Mean_Asp (average glacier slope direction)、Prm_Image (major remote sensing data)、Aux_Image (auxiliary remote sensing data)、Rep_Date (glacier catalogue represents date)、Elev_Src (elevation data source)、Elev_Date (elevation represents date)、Compiler (glacier cataloguing editor)、Verifier (glacier cataloguing verifier).