This data set contains the element content data of a deep drilled formation near the open sea in the middle reaches of Heihe River. The borehole is located at 99.432 E and 39.463 n with a depth of 550m. The element scanning analysis was carried out at 1-3cm intervals for the drilled strata. The scanning was completed in the Key Laboratory of Western Ministry of environmental education, Lanzhou University, and 38705 effective element data were obtained.
This data set contains a deep drilling paleomagnetic age data near the open sea in the middle reaches of Heihe River. The borehole is located at 99.432 E and 39.463 n with a depth of 550m. The samples of paleomagnetic age were taken at the interval of 10-50 cm. The paleomagnetic test was carried out in the Key Laboratory of Western Ministry of environmental education of Lanzhou University. The primary remanence of the samples was obtained by alternating demagnetization and thermal demagnetization, and the whole formation magnetic formation was obtained by using the primary remanence direction of each sample, and then the sedimentary age of the strata was obtained by comparing with the standard polarity column. The results show that the bottom boundary of the borehole is about 7 Ma and the top boundary is 0 ma.
Two shallow drills near Heiquan in the middle reaches of Heihe River are 140 meters and 68.2 meters deep respectively. The physical and chemical indexes of the two boreholes are analyzed, including grain size and heavy mineral analysis.
This data set contains two shallow drilling data near Heiquan in the middle reaches of Heihe River: 140 meters and 68.2 meters deep respectively. Paleomagnetic age samples were taken at 10-50 cm intervals from the two boreholes, and the magnetostratigraphic sequences of the two boreholes were obtained by testing these samples.
This data is derived from the Supplementary Tables of the paper: Chen, F. H., Welker, F., Shen, C. C., Bailey, S. E., Bergmann, I., Davis, S., Xia, H., Wang, H., Fischer, R., Freidline, S. E., Yu, T. L., Skinner, M. M., Stelzer, S., Dong, G. R., Fu, Q. M., Dong, G. H., Wang, J., Zhang, D. J., & Hublin, J. J. (2019). A late Middle Pleistocene Denisovan mandible from the Tibetan Plateau. Nature, 569, 409-412. This research is another breakthrough made by academician Fahu Chen and his team over the years research of human activities and environmental adaptation on the Tibetan Plateau. The research team analyzed the newly discovered hominid mandible fossils in Xiahe County, Gansu Province, China, and identified it belongs to Denisovan of the Tibetan Plateau, which suggested to call Xiahe Denisovan. The team conducted a multidisciplinary analysis of the fossil, including chronology, physique morphology, molecular archaeology, living environment and human adaptation. It is the first Denisovan fossil found outside the Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains and the earliest evidence of human activity on the Tibetan Plateau (160 kyr BP). This study provides key evidence for further study of Denisovans' physical characteristics and distribution in East Asia, it also provides evidence of a deep evolutionary history of these archaic hominins within the challenging environment of the Tibetan Plateau. This data contains 6 tables, table name and contents are as follows: t1: Distances in mm between meshes generated from CT versus photoscans (PS). t2: Measurements of the Xiahe mandible after reconstruction. t3: Comparative Dental metrics. t4: Comparative crown morphology. t5: Uniprot accession numbers for protein sequences of extant primates used in the phylogenetic analyses. t6: Specimen names and numbers.
Natural changes and human impacts of typical karst environments in historical periods: stalagmite recording project is a major research program of "Environmental and Ecological Science in Western China" sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China. The person in charge is Tan Ming, a researcher at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The project runs from January 2002 to December 2009. The temperature data of Beijing hot months (May, June, July and August) in 2650 (665 B.C.-A.D. 1985) are the results of the project. The data are reconstructed according to the correlation between the annual thickness of stalagmites in Shihua Cave in Beijing and meteorological observation data. The temperature signals reflected by soil carbon dioxide and cave dripping are amplified by the soil-organic matter-carbon dioxide system and recorded by the annual sequence of stalagmites. Although the general trend of temperature has decreased in recent thousands of years, the reconstructed temperature reveals that the climate has experienced repeated rapid warming on a century scale. This result is related to other records in the northern hemisphere, indicating that there is a hemispheric influence on the periodic changes of temperature in the sub-millennium scale. The data contains a txt file with attribute fields such as yr.AD, layer number, original thickness (um), maximum error in um (+-), sedimentary trend, detrended thickness (um), reconstructed temperature, maximum error in degree C (+ -), temperature anomaly, temperature anomaly + error, temperature anomaly-error, maximum error in age (yr. +-).
The Southern Tibet Rift System (STRS) is one of the most prominent tectonic and geomorphological features in the southern Tibetan Plateau. The Jilong-Oma and Dati basins are located in the northern Himalaya Mountains. The late Cenozoic sedimentary sequences deposited in these two rift basins have archived abundant information about formation and evolution of the STRS and the uplift process of the Tibetan Plateau. The detailed stratigraphic and sedimentologic investigations were conducted on the late Cenozoic sediments in the Jilong-Oma basins. The late Cenozoic sediments in the Jilong-Oma Basin is over 610 m in thickness, including the lower conglomerate member of the fan delta facies (Danzengzhukang Fm., 400-600 m), the middle mudstone interbedded with sandstone member of fluvio-lacustrine facies (Oma Fm., 200-400 m) and the upper conglomerate intercalated with mudstone member of alluvial fan facies (Gongba Fm., 200-0 m). The Hipparion fossils were previously found at the bottom of the Oma Fm. The late Cenozoic sediments in the Dati Basin have a thickness of ~300 m, iucluding the lower mudstone, sandstone and sandy conglomerate member of fluvio-lacustrine faceis (Dati Fm., 80-305 m), and the upper conglomerate member of alluvial fan facies (Gongba Fm., 80-0 m). The Hipparion fossils were previously found at the upper part of the Dati Fm. By comparing with the Zhada Basin in the west part of the Himalaya orogen, it shows that these rift basins experienced the similar sedimentary evolution history and have the comparable Hipparion fossils. Establishing the precise chronology of these sediments and carrying out comprehensive comparison analyses between the rift basins play important roles in understanding the formation and evolution of the STRS, the uplift and deformation processes of the southern Tibetan Plateau and the climate change in the surrounding areas.
Guided by plate tectonics, palaeogeography, petroleum basin analysis and sedimentary basin dynamics , a large number of data and achievements in recent years of geological and petroleum geology research in Pan-Third Pole have been collected, including basic materials such as strata, sediments, palaeontology, palaeogeography, palaeoenvironments, palaeoclimate, structure, petroleum (sylvine) geology, especially Palaeomagnetism and palaeozoic. On the basis of material, detrital zircon and geochemical data, and combined with the results of typical measured stratigraphic profiles, the lithofacies and climatic palaeogeographic pattern of the Triassic period were restored and reconstructed, and the Palaeogeographic distribution of Early, Middle and Late Triassic lithofacies in Pan-Third Pole area as well as the paleoclimatic distribution maps were obtained, aiming at discussing the control and influence of palaeogeography, palaeostructure and Palaeoclimate on hydrocarbon (potassium-bearing) resources In order to reveal the geological conditions of oil and gas formation and the law of resource distribution, and provide scientific basis and technical support for overseas and domestic oil and gas exploration and deployment in China. The boundary line between different lithofacies and climate is clear, which better reveals the paleogeographic pattern of lithofacies and climate in the Triassic period, which is of certain indicative significance for the study of the control and influence of paleogeography, paleostructure and paleoclimate on oil and gas (including potash) resources, as well as the geological conditions for the formation of oil and gas and the distribution of resources.
This data set comprises pictures of geological sections and landscape of Nima Basin and Lunpola Basin in the north of Tibetan Plateau which produced on achievement of geological survey in these years. The process of section pictures drawing comprises: measurement of different stratas by hand; identify and description of stratas by experienced geological researcher; picture production with software, based on information collected above. Landscape pictures were drew from satellite maps as base map, then added texts with software. All the pictures are clear, detailed and comprehensive. They are very critical for research on geology, geomorphology of the important localities in the north of Tibetan Plateau, such as Nima Basin and Lunpola Basin, and necessary for paleo-altimetry and uplift of Tibetan Plateau.
This dataset includes stable carbon and oxygen isotopes of carbonates in a 180 m-long sediment core retrieved from Lop Nor, Tarim Basin. Sedimentary carbon and oxygen isotopes from carbonates are two of the most commonly used proxies in paleoclimatic studies, as they have the potential to record past variations in hydrology and vegetation. The sediment samples were grounded and sieved through a 100 mesh screen, and then directly analyzed using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (MAT-252) with an automated carbonate preparation device (Kiel Ⅱ). Typical analytical errors are within ±0.06‰ and ±0.08‰ for carbon isotope and oxygen isotope, respectively. Based on the high-resolution stable carbon and oxygen isotope data of core Lop Nor, the evolution history of arid environment in the Taklimakan Desert since the Pleistocene can be reconstructed, allowing further exploring of trends, variability and mechanisms of regional climate change. Field photos dataset of the Tibetan Plateau include photos of the stratigraphic profiles.