One of the key steps of river provenance analysis is to analyze and identify sand and sediment components. The traditional statistical processes are not only time-consuming and laborious, but yield data of uneven quality. Generated by different laboratories using different processing standards, these data more often lack value of contrast or comparison. While automatic identification through machine learning can potentially relieve geologists from such tedious and time-consuming work, a large number of microscopic images will be required for machine training. To facilitate data disclosure and sharing, the authors hereby publish a photomicrograph dataset of sand grains obtained from the Yarlung Tsangpo, Tibet, China. The dataset consists of 8,734 tagged clastic particle images and corresponding coordinate information files, 1,878 sand microscope images, 120 numbered base maps and two tables for sand composition identification, which we hope can provide good bases for the machine training of automatic sand component identification. It also provides references for identification of other river sand detrital components.
This data includes whole rock major and trace geochemical data, major and trace element data of spodumene, major element data of lithium permeable feldspar and niobium iron group minerals, and radioisotope dating data of niobium iron group minerals and cassiterite. The samples were collected from the pushla leucogranite in central Tibet. The whole rock principal geochemical data are obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, trace elements are obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, mineral principal element data are obtained by electron probe analysis, mineral trace element data and radioisotope dating of niobium iron group minerals and cassiterite are obtained by laser denudation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Based on the obtained data, the lithium metallogenic characteristics of pushla leucogranite can be determined, which occurs in Spodumene (- lithium permeable feldspar) pegmatite; In addition, the data can define the formation age of lithium metallogenic pegmatite as Miocene (~ 25 – 23 MA).
The data set is the original observation data of electrical source transient electromagnetic method collected by the project team in Yangbajing Geothermal field, Dangxiong County, Tibet. The data format is excel and contains 6 files in total. The observation instrument is V8 multifunctional electrical method workstation produced by Phoenix company of Canada, and the field value is vertical induced electromotive force (dBz/dt). The information contained in each excel file includes: measuring point coordinates (geodetic projection coordinates, Beijing 54 Coordinate System), coordinates of transmitter , terrain control points, observation time channel, induced electromotive force and error bar. Through the preprocessing and inversion of the data set, the electrical structure in the depth of 2km in Yangbajing Geothermal field can be obtained, which provides a basis for investigating the location and scale of heat control and heat conduction structures in the investigation area.
The Qaidam Basin is located in the northern margin of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. It is one of the most representative sedimentary basins in Qinghai Tibet Plateau. Tertiary red sandstones, Jurassic coal stara and Cretaceous conglomerates are developed in the basin, The paleoclimate, paleogeography and paleotectonic information recorded in the study are of great significance to the study of the uplift and evolution of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The field stratigraphic investigation of Qaidam Basin is not only beneficial to the reconstruction of paleoclimate, paleogeography and paleostructure of Mesozoic terrestrial system, but also to the exploration, development and utilization of coal, oil and gas resources in Qinghai Tibet region. It is also beneficial to the scientific investigation of Qinghai Tibet region and is expected to contribute to the major national development strategy Make a contribution. This field exploration and sampling were finished in multiple sections in the Qaidam Basin, and details of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata in these sections and field photos were provided. All data are from our field measurements.
This data is the U-Pb ages of zircon and niobium tantalite. Five samples (T-5 is gneissic syenogranite, T-1 is orthogneiss, T-3 and T-5 are biotite monzogranite, and T-9 is Li be mineralized pegmatite) were collected. After crushing, heavy sand minerals were separated by manual elutriation. After magnetic and electromagnetic separation, columbite-tantalite (about 500 grains) and zircon (more than 1000 grains) were picked out under binocular lens. After selecting representative columbite-tantalite and zircon as targets, the internal structure of columbite-tantalite was studied by BSE through microscope transmission light and reflection light photography. Zircon U-Pb chronology was conducted on the 193 nm laser ablation system (new wave) and multi receiver inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in Xi'an Geological Survey Center. The U-Pb geochronology test of columbite-tantalite was conducted on the s155 laser ablation system and multi receiver inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences. The weighted average age of 15 spots of T-5 zircon is 900 ± 9 Ma; The weighted average age of 20 spots of T-1 zircon is 899 ± 7 Ma; The weighted average ages of zircon 21 and 14 spots of T-3 and T-5 samples are 482 ± 5 and 475 ± 5 Ma, respectively. The weighted average age of 12 spots of T-9 columbite-tantalite is 472 ± 8 ma. The data clarify the metallogenic age of Li-Be in Altun orogenic belt and provide direction for Li-Be prospecting in this area in the next step.
The age constraints for Cenozoic exhumation history of the northern Tibetan Plateau provides evidence for growth process of the plateau and interaction process of tectonics-climate-erosion in this region. Apatite fission track thermochronology has a relative lower closure temperature of ~100 °C, thus is capable of recording the exhumation process of upper crust. We collected 26 sedimentary samples in the Hongliugou section in northern Qaidam Basin, which consist of strata from the Lulehe Formation to Shizigou Formation. These samples were fission track dated using the external detector method in the Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The result shows fission track central age of these samples range in 36.4 ± 2.0 Ma to 78.0 ± 2.8 Ma. Most of our sample failed the chi-square test, indicating a mixture of multiple sources with different cooling ages. We use the binomial fitting method to decompose the mixture single-grain ages and obtained 55 age components. Decomposed component age of these detrital samples ranges in 21.2 ± 2.9 Ma to 102.8 ± 9.0 Ma. Integrated analysis of the fission track ages and confined track length indicates that samples in the upper 2500 m of the section had not affected by burial annealing after deposition, while that in the lower 2500 m were partial annealed after deposition. Unannealed fission track ages showing “static peaks” in ~60-50 Ma and ~40-36 Ma, which indicates the source of these detritus, the Qilian Shan, have experienced significant rock exhumation in these two stages in respective. This study suggests that tectonic deformation initiated in the northern Tibetan Plateau in early Cenozoic, which synchronous with India-Asia collision. Thus we suggest the Qilian Shan serves as the northern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau since the early Cenozoic.
The global rare metal granitic pegmatites are mainly concentrated in the major period of continental amalgamation and disintegration. This data statistics the typical niobium tantalum zirconium hafnium deposits in China. Using niobium iron ore or related cassiterite and monazite instead of zircon in these deposits as U-Pb dating minerals, 45 metallogenic age data statistics are obtained. The first metallogenic period is Proterozoic. The niobium mineralization associated with Bayan Obo and rare earth occurred in Mesoproterozoic (1.4 ~ 1.3 Ga). The niobium tantalum mineralization found in Yuanbaoshan in northern Guangxi and Fanjingshan in eastern Guizhou was formed in the late Neoproterozoic (about 820 Ma), which is the earliest niobium tantalum mineralization in South China; There are few Paleozoic Nb-Ta deposits, but their scale is large. The Paleozoic rare metal pegmatites (about 400 ~ 380 Ma) in South China represented by Nanping, Fujian Province represent the products of Caledonian intracontinental tectonic movement; The early Mesozoic Triassic mineralization related to the paleoTethys tectonic movement and the post-collision of the Central Asian orogenic belt is widely distributed (about 250 ~ 200 Ma), and directly reflects the diagenesis and mineralization of a large number of granite pegmatites in China; The late Mesozoic niobium tantalum mineralization represents the most important large-scale niobium tantalum mineralization period in China, which is concentrated from the Late Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous (about 160 ~ 120 Ma, up to 90 Ma at the latest). It is the main component of the "Yanshanian ore-forming explosion" in South China; The Cenozoic (mainly Oligocene to Miocene) large-scale leucogranite magmatism occurred high-resolution crystallization, resulting in the mineralization of rare metals such as niobium and tantalum. With the deepening of research, the niobium and tantalum resources in this period will become more and more significant in China. It is very significant that nearly half of China's tantalum resources are formed in Triassic (mainly granite pegmatites), while nearly 60% of niobium resources are the product of crystallization and differentiation of Late Mesozoic (Jurassic Cretaceous) granite except Bayan Obo.
The data are monazite and zircon U-Pb ages. Three samples of carbonatite and pegmatite were collected (2018kl06 is carbonatite, 2018kl101 is tourmaline bearing pegmatite near carbonatite, 2018kl08-2 is beryl bearing pegmatite). After crushing, heavy sand minerals were separated by manual elutriation. After magnetic and electromagnetic separation, monazite (about 500 grains) and zircon (more than 1000 grains) were picked out under binocular lens. After selecting representative monazite as target, the internal structure of monazite was studied by BSE through microscope transmission light and reflection light photography. U-Pb chronology was completed on the 193 nm laser ablation system (new wave) and multi receiver inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in the laboratory of Tianjin Institute of Geology and mineral resources. In 2018kl06 carbonatite, the intersection age of the reverse inconsistency line of 17 test points is 18.2 ± 0.3 Ma, while the average age of 9 test points with complete harmony is 18.15 ± 0.22 Ma; The monazite of sample 2018kl101 obtained 15 measuring points with concordance greater than 90%, and the average age is 19.39 ± 0.36 Ma; The average age of 20 zircon sites of sample 2018kl08-2 is 197.5 ± 1.4 ma. They are Cenozoic and Mesozoic (19 ~ 18 Ma and 200 MA), respectively. The early beryl bearing pegmatite was formed in the extension stage after the closure of the paleoTethys ocean, while the Cenozoic bastnaesite carbonatite pegmatite assemblage is related to the Cenozoic intracontinental strike slip extension event, indicating that the extension strike slip of Pamir structural junction may start at 19 ma. Combined with the characteristics of regional geochemical anomalies, it shows that a breakthrough in rare and light rare earth prospecting is expected in Pamir area.
This data is monazite U-Pb age. The samples are collected from the light colored veins closely associated with the lead-zinc ore. after crushing, the heavy sand minerals are separated by manual elutriation. After magnetic separation and electromagnetic separation, monazite (about 500 grains) are picked out under binocular lens. After selecting representative monazite as target, the internal structure of monazite was studied by BSE through microscope transmission light and reflection light photography. U-Pb chronology was completed on 193 nm laser ablation system (new wave) and multi receiver inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS, Neptune) in the laboratory of Tianjin Institute of Geology and mineral resources. The average 206Pb / 238U surface age obtained from 21 survey points is 99.25 ± 0.78 MA (mswd = 1.60). This age represents the crystallization age of light vein closely related to lead-zinc mineralization. It is determined that the formation of the deposit is related to the hydrothermal solution in the late evolution of Cretaceous magmatic rocks. According to the comprehensive analysis of regional geochemical exploration and regional geological background, it is considered that the giant lead-zinc ore belt distributed in Tianshuihai Karakoram is controlled by Jurassic Cretaceous volcanic sedimentary basin and Cretaceous magmatic rocks. This metallogenic belt has great prospecting potential.