The occurrence and diversification of the skeletal fossils during the latest Ediacaran and early Cambrian (Terreneuvian) witness the significant evolutionary event, “Cambrian explosion”, in earth history. These skeletal fossils were collectively termed as “small shelly fossils (SSFs)” for their micro-size and mineralization in normal. They represent the earliest metazoan records, and are crucial for studying the origins and early evolution of many animal clades. Due to their worldwide distribution and rapid biodiversification, the SSFs have been taken as an important tool for the early Cambrian stratigraphical correlation (especially for the Terreneuvian) and paleobiogeographical reconstruction. The North Pakistan locating the western Himalaya is one of the adjoining areas of Tibet Plateau. For the lack of basic stratigraphic and palaeontological studies, it’s hard to confirm the exact age of the Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian strata assigned by the previous studies. Few SSFs had been reported in the early Cambrian Hazira Formation at Salhad section in the eastern Hazara Basin, however, the studies of these fossils are quite preliminary and problematic. Therefore, it’s urgent to carry on new detailed research to clarify the genus and species of these fossils which is fundamental for the biostratigraphical studies. Herein, basing on the expedition of the Salhad section in eastern Hazara Basin, we have systematically collected and done the lab process of the fossil samples, and tentatively recognized 24 genus, 18 species and 3 unidentified species.
This data is zircon U-Pb age data of Yanshanian intermediate acid rocks in the northern margin of North China and its adjacent areas. Zircon U-Pb dating was completed using cameca ims-1280hr in the ion probe Laboratory of Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The U-Th-Pb isotope ratio was obtained by the calibration of standard zircon Pl e sovice. Simultaneous interpreting of the standard deviations obtained from the long-term monitoring of standard samples and the accuracy of the single point test were used to obtain the sample single point error, taking the standard sample Qinghu as the accuracy of the unknown sample monitoring data. The measured 204Pb value is used for ordinary Pb correction. The isotopic ratio and age error are all 1 σ。 Harmonic age and mean age were calculated using isoplot software. Through the obtained data, we can find out the temporal and spatial distribution of magmatism in the study area, establish the chronological framework of the northern margin of North China and its adjacent areas, and provide chronological basis for further study of geodynamic mechanism in this area.
This data is the Hf isotopic geochemical data of zircon microregions of Yanshanian intermediate acid rocks in the northern margin of the North China Craton and its adjacent areas. The experimental instrument is multi receiver inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC - ICP - MS), and the testing unit is Tianjin geological survey center of China Geological Survey. Some data have been published in high-level SCI journals, and the data are true and reliable. Through the obtained data, the variation law of zircon Hf isotopic composition in the study area can be found out, which can provide deterministic evidence for identifying the magmatic source area and specific magmatic process in the study area, and then provide new constraints on the Yanshanian tectonomagmatic evolution in the area.
The data are the typical landscape, geomorphology and sedimentary strata photos obtained by the thematic group in the lower reaches of Yajiang River and Niyang River Basin from July to August 2019, as well as the physical and chemical indexes of loess and river sediments, mainly including: (1) 14C sample sampling and age in the lower reaches of Niyang River; (2) Chronological results of OSL in the lower reaches of Niyang River; (3) XRF of lacustrine sediments and Langou loess in the lower reaches of Niyang River; (4) Magnetic susceptibility of Lamawan lacustrine sediments and Langou loess in the lower reaches of Niyang River; (5) Grain size of Langou loess in the lower reaches of Niyang River; (6) Elements in the lower reaches of Yarlung Zangbo River and Niyang River Basin. The photos mainly show glaciers, rivers, lakes and other landscapes, as well as landslide surface, glacier shear surface and sedimentation.
This data is SR Nd isotopic geochemical data of Yanshanian intermediate acid rocks in the northern margin of North China and its adjacent areas. SR Nd isotope data were obtained by MC-ICP-MS analysis. Some data have been published in high-level SCI journals, and the data are true and reliable. SR Nd isotopic data can find out the variation law of isotopic composition in the study area. It is an important part of Geochemistry and geochronology. It is one of the most important tracing means to explore rock genesis and crust mantle evolution. This data can provide a trace of the magma source area in the northern margin of North China and its adjacent areas. It is an effective way to explore the genesis of intermediate acid rocks in this area, and provide support and help for the further study of regional geodynamic mechanism.
The data are the whole rock mg isotopic geochemical data of Yanshanian intermediate acid rocks in the northern margin of North China and its adjacent areas. The whole rock mg isotope data were obtained by MC-ICP-MS analysis. During the whole test period, the indoor standard samples were analyzed and tested, and the results were consistent with the previous reported data of the same standard sample within the error range, which showed that the Mg chemical composition process of the sample did not produce fractionation caused by improper manual operation. In addition, the test results of international standard samples mag-1 (mudstone standard sample), bhvo (basalt standard sample), andesite standard sample and rhyolite standard sample are also consistent with the previously published data, which further ensures that the artificially introduced fractionation is generated in the whole set of chemical treatment process including dissolved samples. Finally, the repeated analysis of the same sample has obtained consistent results, which proves the good reproducibility of Mg isotope test. Through the obtained data, the variation law of isotopic composition in the study area can be found out, the properties of rock source area, melting conditions and magmatic evolution process can be analyzed in detail, and the dynamic process of tectonic magmatic process can be traced.
This data is sulfide sulfur isotope data of Yanshanian intermediate acid rocks in the northern margin of North China and its adjacent areas. Sulfide S isotope data were obtained by la-mc-icp-ms analysis. The S isotope data of sulfide has not been published, and the data are true and reliable. The s isotopes of sphalerite and pyrite can define the variation law of S isotopic composition in the study area. A detailed analysis of the properties of rock source area, melting conditions and magmatic evolution process is of limited significance for tracing the dynamic process of tectonic magmatic process
The study of chemical weathering is of great significance to understand how the plateau uplift regulates the mechanism of climate change and the circulation of elements and materials in the sphere. The data set is the seasonal major element concentration and stable isotope data of the river water at the hydrological station of the Yellow River Basin originating from the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. There are two hydrological stations in total: 1. Longmen hydrological station in the middle reaches of the Yellow River is the high-resolution (weekly) sample data collected in 2013, and the element concentrations include K, CA, Na, Mg, SO4, HCO3, Cl, etc. The cation data of collected water samples are tested on ICP-AES of Institute of earth environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the anion data are tested on ion chromatograph (ics1200) of Nanjing Institute of geography and lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The uncertainty is within 5%, and HCO3 is tested by titration. The high-resolution (weekly) Li isotope data of river water was tested in MC-ICP-MS of Institute of earth environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2017, and the test accuracy 2sd is better than 5 ‰; 2. Tangnaihai hydrological station on the Yellow River is the river water (month by month) data set collected from July 2012 to June 2014. The major element concentrations include K, CA, Na, Mg, SO4, HCO3, Cl, etc., and the stable isotope data include s, O and H. The data set can be used to study the modern weathering process under the background of the uplift of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and provides the first-hand reliable data for the study of physical erosion and chemical weathering in the basin.
Paleozoic chronostratigraphic division and correlation are mainly based on biostratigraphy studies. In Tibet, biostratigraphic sequences of major fossil groups, such as conodont and rugose coral, have been briefly summarized by previous research. However, due to its remoteness, high altitude and the geographic extent of this vast mountainous region, most of the paleontological work being conducted in Tibet is of a reconnaissance nature. Collections and identifications of important index fossils are especially significant in improving our understating of Paleozoic stratigraphy in Himalayan, Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes and associated arc-basin systems. Abundant conodont, rugose coral, tabulate coral and stromatoporoid samples from the Pulu Formation in Nyalam (Himalaya terrane, Llandovery to Pridoli Yalai 2 sction, GPS coordinates: 28°24′17″ N, 86°5′48″ E）) and the Dardong Formation in Xainza (Lhasa terrane, Pragian to early Emsian SZ1 and SZ2 sections, GPS coordinates: 31°8′36.63″ N, 88°38′39.22″ E和31°7′56″ N, 88°37′47″ E), Tibet and the Changtanzi Formation in Longmenshan (Songpan-Ganzi terrane, Late Devonian Famennian Longmenshan section, GPS coordinates: 31°54′3.55″ N, 104°42′29.82″ E), Sichuan were collected and identified in this study. This dataset include identification lists from four sections in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its adjacent area, which are named as SZ1, SZ2, Yalai2 and Longmenshan, respectively.
Carbon cycle is controlled by relative changes in carbon fluxes of global atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. During the geological history, carbon isotope excursions usually occur in the critical period. Carbon isotope positive excursions are recognized to be related to abundant organic burial or enhanced primary productivity. Silurian δ13Ccarb curves from Euramerica have been established, but the isotopic patterns in different sections and regions can be quite different. Before the use of δ13Ccarb records to facilitate high resolution correlation, it is necessary to conduct sedimentary facies and diagenesis analyses and compare numerous isotopic records on a global scale, in order to learn the global versus local contribution in a δ13C record. 43 geochemical samples were collected from the Wenlock to Pridoli Pulu Formation for carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses, in order to reveal carbon cycling process in northern margin of Gondwana continent and alternation of carbon isotopic records during diagenesis. At the Yalai 2 section, δ13C values show a major positive shift in the Ludlow, which could be recognized in other sections around the world, indicating that major carbon cycling perturbation occurred during this time interval. This dataset include 43 carbon and oxygen isotopic records.