The mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) and permafrost thermal stability dataset over Tibetan Plateau for 2005-2015

Data scarcity is a major obstacle for high-resolution mapping of permafrost on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). This study produces a new permafrost stability distribution map for the 2010s (2005-2015) derived from the predicted mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) at a depth of zero annual amplitude (10 - 25 m) by integrating remotely sensed freezing degree-days and thawing degree-days, snow cover days, leaf area index, soil bulk density, high-accuracy soil moisture data, and in situ MAGT measurements from 237 boreholes on the TP by using an ensemble learning method that employs a support vector regression (SVR) model based on distance-blocked resampling training data with 200 repetitions. Validation of the new permafrost map indicates that it is probably the most accurate of all available maps at present. This map shows that the total area of permafrost on the TP, excluding glaciers and lakes, is approximately 115.02 (105.47-129.59) ✖104 km2. The areas corresponding to the very stable, stable, semi-stable, transitional, and unstable types are 0.86✖104 km2, 9.62✖104 km2, 38.45✖104 km2, 42.29✖104 km2, and 23.80✖104 km2, respectively. This new map is of fundamental importance for engineering planning and design, ecosystem management, and evaluation of the permafrost change in the future on the TP as a baseline.

0 2020-07-30

Study on the process and effect of surface water and groundwater in permafrost area of the upper reaches of Heihe river (2015)

In the permafrost area of the upper reaches of Heihe River, 11 numbered typical boreholes are selected, and the thickness values of permafrost and seasonal permafrost are calculated by the temperature interpolation of boreholes. The 0 degree isothermal surface is set as the bottom plate of permafrost and seasonal permafrost. The data include borehole number, longitude and latitude, thickness of frozen soil and type of frozen soil.

0 2020-07-28

Map of 1:10000 000 permafrost types in China (2008)

This map was compiled by Li Xin and others in 2008 in order to re-count the permafrost area in China and based on the analysis of the existing permafrost map in China. It consists of three parts, of which the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau part uses the simulated permafrost map of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (Nanzhuo Copper, 2002), the northeast part comes from the "14 million map of China's Glacier, Frozen Soil and Desert" (Institute of Environment and Engineering in Cold and Arid Regions, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2006), and the other part uses the map of China's permafrost zoning and types (1: 10 million) (Zhou Youwu and others, 2000). More Information References (Institute of Environment and Engineering in Cold and Arid Regions, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2006; Nanzhuo Copper, 2002; Zhou Youwu et al., 2000; Li et al, 2008)。

0 2020-07-20

Basic datasets of the Tibetan Plateau in Chinese Cryospheric Information System

Chinese Cryospheric Information System is a comprehensive information system for the management and analysis of Chinese Cryospheric data. The establishment of Chinese Cryospheric Information System is to meet the needs of earth system science, to provide parameters and validation data for the development of response and feedback model of frozen soil, glacier and snow cover to global change under GIS framework; on the other hand, it is to systemically sort out and rescue valuable cryospheric data, to provide a scientific, efficient and safe management and division for it Analysis tools. The basic datasets of the Tibet Plateau mainly takes the Tibetan Plateau as the research region, ranging from longitude 70 -- 105 ° east and latitude 20 -- 40 ° north, containing the following types of data: 1. Cryosphere data. Includes: Permafrost type (Frozengd), (Fromap); Snow depth distribution (Snowdpt) Quatgla (Quatgla) 2. Natural environment and resources. Includes: Terrain: elevation, elevation zoning, slope, slope direction (DEM); Hydrology: surface water (Stram_line), (Lake); Basic geology: Quatgeo, Hydrogeo; Surface properties: Vegetat; 4. Climate data: temperature, surface temperature, and precipitation. 3. Socio-economic resources (Stations) : distribution of meteorological Stations on the Tibetan Plateau and it surrounding areas. 4. Response model of plateau permafrost to global change (named "Fgmodel"): permafrost distribution data in 2009, 2049 and 2099 were projected. Please refer to the following documents (in Chinese): "Design of Chinese Cryospheric Information System.doc", "Datasheet of Chinese Cryospheric Information System.DOC", "Database of the Tibetan Plateau.DOC" and "Database of the Tibetan Plateau 2.DOC".

0 2020-06-23

Basic datasets of the Tibetan highway in Chinese Cryospheric Information System

Chinese Cryospheric Information System is a comprehensive information system for the management and analysis of cryospheric data over China. The establishment of Chinese Cryospheric Information System is to meet the needs of earth system science, and provide parameters and verification data for the development of response and feedback models of permafrost, glacier and snow cover to global changes under GIS framework. On the other hand, the system collates and rescues valuable cryospheric data to provide a scientific, efficient and safe management and analysis tool. Chinese Cryospheric Information System selected three regions with different spatial scales as its main research areas to highlight the research focus. The research area along the Qinghai-Tibet highway is mainly about 700 kilometers long from Xidatan to Naqu, and 20 to 30 kilometers wide on both sides of the highway. The datasets of the Tibetan highway contains the following types of data: 1. Cryosphere data.Including: snow depth distribution. 2. Natural environment and resources.Include: Digital elevation topography (DEM) : elevation elevation, elevation zoning, slope and slope direction; Fundamental geology: Quatgeo 3. Boreholes: drilling data of 200 boreholes along the qinghai-tibet highway. Engineering geological profile (CAD) : lithologic distribution, water content, grain fraction data, etc 4. Model of glacier mass equilibrium distribution along qinghai-tibet highway: prediction of frozen soil grid data. The graphic data along the qinghai-tibet highway includes 13 map scales of 1:250,000.The grid size is 100×100m. For details, please refer to the documents (in Chinese): "Chinese Cryospheric Information System design. Doc", "Chinese Cryospheric Information System data dictionary. Doc", "Database of the Tibetan highway. Doc".

0 2020-06-23

Integrated hydrometeorological – snow – frozen ground observations in the alpine region of the Heihe River Basin, China

Alpine region is an important contributor in riverine and watershed ecosystems, which supplies freshwater and stimulates specific habitats of biodiversity. In parallel, extreme events (such as flood, wildfire, early snowmelt, drought and etc.) and other perturbations may reformat the hydrological processes and eco-functions in the area. It is then critical to advance a predictive understanding of the alpine hydrological processes through data-model integration. However, several formidable challenges, including the cold and harsh climate, high altitude and complex topography, inhibit complete and consistent data collection where/when needed, which hinders the associated development of interdisciplinary research in the alpine region. The current study presents a suite of datasets consisted of long-term hydrometeorological, snow cover and frozen ground data for investigating watershed science and functions from an integrated, distributed and multiscale observation network in the upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin (HRB) in China. Gap-free meteorological and hydrological data were monitored from the observation network connecting a group of automatic meteorological stations (AMSs), wireless sensors network (WSN) and runoff measurement spots. In addition, to capture snow accumulation and ablation processes, with the state-of-the-art techniques and instruments, snow cover properties were collected from a snow observation superstation. High-resolution soil physics datasets were also obtained to capture the freeze-thaw processes from a frozen ground observation superstation. The up-to-date datasets have been released to scientists with multidisciplinary backgrounds (i.e. cryosphere, hydrology, and meteorology) and expected to serve as a testing platform to provide accurate forcing data, validate and evaluate remote sensing data and distributed models to a broader community.

0 2020-06-23

China long-sequence surface freeze-thaw dataset——decision tree algorithm (1987-2009)

China long-sequence surface freeze-thaw dataset——decision tree algorithm (1987-2009), is derived from the decision tree classification using passive microwave remote sensing SSM / I brightness temperature data. This data set uses the EASE-Grid projection method (equal cut cylindrical projection, standard latitude is ± 30 °), with a spatial resolution of 25.067525km, and provides daily classification results of the surface freeze-thaw state of the main part of mainland China. The data set is stored by year and consists of 23 folders, from 1987 to 2009. Each folder contains the day-to-day surface freeze-thaw classification results for the current year. It is an ASCII file with the naming rule: SSMI-frozenYYYY ***. Txt, where YYYY represents the year and *** represents the Julian date (001 ~ 365 / 366). The freeze-thaw classification result txt file can be opened and viewed directly with a text program, and can also be opened with ArcView + Spatial Analyst extension module or Arcinfo's Asciigrid command. The original frozen and thawed surface data was derived from daily passive microwave data processed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) since 1987. This data set uses EASE-Grid (equivalent area expandable earth grid) as a standard format . China's surface freeze-thaw long-term sequence data set-The decision tree algorithm (1987-2009) attributes consist of the spatial-temporal resolution, projection information, and data format of the data set. Spatio-temporal resolution: the time resolution is day by day, the spatial resolution is 25.067525km, the longitude range is 60 ° ~ 140 ° E, and the latitude is 15 ° ~ 55 ° N. Projection information: Global equal-area cylindrical EASE-Grid projection. For more information about EASE-Grid projection, see the description of this projection in data preparation. Data format: The data set consists of 23 folders from 1987 to 2009. Each folder contains the results of the day-to-day surface freeze-thaw classification of the year, and is stored as a txt file on a daily basis. File naming rules: For example, SMI-frozen1994001.txt represents the surface freeze-thaw classification results on the first day of 1994. The ASCII file of the data set is composed of a header file and a body content. The header file consists of 6 lines of description information such as the number of rows, the number of columns, the coordinates of the lower left point of the x-axis, the coordinates of the lower left point of the y-axis, the grid size, and the value of the data-less area. Array, with columns as the priority. The values ​​are integers, from 1 to 4, 1 for frozen, 2 for melting, 3 for desert, and 4 for precipitation. Because the space described by all ASCII files in this data set is nationwide, the header files of these files are unchanged. The header files are extracted as follows (where xllcenter, yllcenter and cellsize are in m): ncols 308 nrows 166 xllcorner 5778060 yllcorner 1880060 cellsize 25067.525 nodata_value 0 All ASCII files in this data set can be opened directly with a text program such as Notepad. Except for the header file, the main content is a numerical representation of the surface freeze-thaw state: 1 for frozen, 2 for melting, 3 for desert, and 4 for precipitation. If you want to display it with an icon, we recommend using ArcView + 3D or Spatial Analyst extension module to read it. During the reading process, a grid format file will be generated. The displayed grid file is the graphic representation of the ASCII code file. Reading method:  [1] Add 3D or Spatial Analyst extension module in ArcView software, and then create a new View;  [2] Activate View, click the File menu, select the Import Data Source option, the Import Data Source selection box pops up, select ASCII Raster in Select import file type: in this box, and a dialog box for selecting the source ASCII file automatically pops up Find any ASCII file in the data set and press OK;  [3] Type the name of the Grid file in the Output Grid dialog box (a meaningful file name is recommended for later viewing), and click the path where the Grid file is stored, press Ok again, and then press Yes (to select an integer) Data), Yes (call the generated grid file into the current view). The generated file can be edited according to the Grid file standard. This completes the process of displaying the ASCII file as a Grid file.  [4] During batch processing, you can use ARCINFO's ASCIIGRID command to write an AML file, and then use the Run command to complete in the Grid module: Usage: ASCIIGRID <in_ascii_file> <out_grid> {INT | FLOAT}

0 2020-06-09

Permafrost map along at the 1:600 000 in the Tibet Highway (1983)

The data are a digitized permafrost map along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway (1:600,000) (Boliang Tong, et al. 1983), which was compiled by Boliang Tong, shude Li, Jueying bu, and Guoqing Qiu from the Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (originally called the Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Cryopedology, Chinese Academy of Sciences) in 1981. The map aims to reflect the basic laws of permafrost distribution along the highway and its relationship with the main natural environmental factors. The basic data for the compilation of the map include hydrogeological and engineering geological survey results and maps along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway(1:200000) (First Hydrogeological Engineering Geological Brigade of Qinghai Province, Institute of Geomechanics of the Academy of Geological Science), the cryopedological research results of the Institute of Glaciology and Cryopedology of Chinese Academy of Sciences since 1960 in nine locations along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway (West Datan, Kunlun pass basin, Qingshuihe, Fenghuohe, Tuotuohe, the Sangma Basin, Buquhe, Tumengela, and Liangdaohe) and drilling data of the Golmud-Lhasa oil pipeline and aerial topographic data of the work area. Taking the 1:200000 topographic map as the working base map, a permafrost map was compiled, which was then downscaled to a 1:600000 map to ensure the accuracy of the map. To make up for the lack of data in a larger area along the line, the characteristics and principles of the frozen soils found in the nine frozen soil research points along the highway were applied to areas with the same geologic and geographical conditions; meanwhile, aerial photographs were used as supplements to the freeze-thaw geology and frozen soil characteristics. The permafrost map along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway (1:600,000) includes the annual average temperature contour map along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway (1:7,200,000) and the permafrost map along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway (1:600,000). The permafrost map along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway also contains information on permafrost types, lithology, frozen soil phenomena, types of through-melting zones, classification of frozen soil engineering, and geological structural fractures. These data contain only digitized permafrost information. The spatial coverage is from Daxitan on the Qinghai-Tibet Highway in the north to Sangxiong in the south and is nearly 800 kilometers long and 40-50 kilometers wide. The data set includes a vectorized and a scanned map of the permafrost map along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway. The attribute information of the map is as follows. A-1; Continuous permafrost; >0°C; remained as a frozen soil layer and isolation layer A-2; Continuous permafrost; 0~-0.5°C; 0-25 m A-3; Continuous permafrost; -0.5~-1.5°C; 25-60 m A-4; Continuous permafrost; -1.5~-3.5°C; 60-120 m A-5;Continuous permafrost;<-3.5°C;>120 m B-1; Island permafrost ground; Seasonal Frozen Ground; B-2; Continuous permafrost; >0°C; remained as a frozen soil layer and isolation layer B-3; Island permafrost extent; 0~-0.5°C; 0-25 m B-4; Island permafrost extent; -0.5~-1.5°C; 25-60 m B-5; Island permafrost extent; -1.5~-3.5°C; 60-120 m

0 2020-06-09

China permafrost map based Circum-Arctic map of permafrost and ground-Ice conditions, Version 2 (1997)

The distribution map of permafrost and ground-ice around the Arctic is the only data map of permafrost compiled by the international permafrost association in collaboration with permafrost research institutes of several countries in 1997. The map describes the distribution and properties of permafrost and subsurface ice conditions in the northern hemisphere (20°N to 90°N). Permafrost was divided into continuous (90-100%), discontinuous (50-90%), sporadic (10-50%), island (<10%) and non-permafrost by continuous division of permafrost scope. The subsurface ice abundance at the top 20 m is divided by the percentage of ice volume (>20%, 10-20%, <10% and 0%). Published ESRI-shape files are based on 1:10 million paper maps (Brown et al. 1997). The map can be used in related research such as global climate change, polar resource development and environmental protection. The China section is shown in thumbnail. See the reference for more information (Heginbottom et al. 1993). The format of the data is the ESRI shapefile, you can download it on the snow and ice data center (http://nsidc.org/data/ggd318.html).

0 2020-06-08

Runoff analysis of the source area of the Yellow River (2014-2016)

The data includes the runoff components of the main stream and four tributaries in the source area of the Yellow River. In 2014-2016, spring, summer and winter, based on the measurement of radon and tritium isotopic contents of river water samples from several permafrost regions in the source area of the Yellow River, and according to the mass conservation model and isotope balance model of river water flow, the runoff component analysis of river flow was carried out, and the proportion of groundwater supply and underground ice melt water in river runoff was preliminarily divided. The quality of the data calculated by the model is good, and the relative error is less than 20%. The data can provide help for the parameter calibration of future hydrological model and the simulation of hydrological runoff process.

0 2020-06-04