HiWATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with TerraSAR-X satellite overpassing in the Daman Superstation (June 15, 2012)

On June 15, 2012, the satellite transit ground synchronous observation was carried out in the TerraSAR-X sample near the super station in the dense observation area of Daman. TerraSAR-X satellite carries X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The daily transit image is HH / VV polarized, with a nominal resolution of 3 m, an incidence angle of 22-24 ° and a transit time of 19:03 (Beijing time), which mainly covers the ecological and hydrological experimental area of the middle reaches artificial oasis. The local synchronous data set can provide the basic ground data set for the development and verification of active microwave remote sensing soil moisture retrieval algorithm. Quadrat and sampling strategy: Six natural blocks are selected in the southeast of the super station, with an area of about 100 m × 100 m. One plot in the northwest corner of the sample plot is watermelon field, others are corn. The basis of sample selection is: (1) considering different vegetation types, i.e. watermelon and corn; (2) considering the visible light pixel, the sample size of 100m square can guarantee at least 4 30 M-pixel is located in the sample; (3) the location of the sample is near the super station, with convenient transportation. The observation of the super station is in the north, and there is a water net node on both sides of the East and the west, which makes it possible to integrate these observations in the future; (4) in addition, there are some obvious points around the sample, which can ensure that the geometric correction of the SAR image is more accurate in the future. Considering the resolution of the image, 21 splines (distributed from east to West) are collected at 5 m intervals. Each line has 23 points (north-south direction) at 5 m intervals. Four hydroprobe data acquisition systems (HDAS, reference 2) are used to measure at the same time. The sampling interval is controlled by the scale and moving splines on the measuring line to make up for the lack of using hand-held GPS. Measurement content: About 500 points on the quadrat were obtained, and each point was observed twice, i.e. in each sampling point, once in the film (marked a in the data record) and once out of the film (marked b in the data record); although the watermelon land was also covered with film, considering that it was not laid horizontally, only the soil moisture at the non covered position was measured (marked b in both data records). As the HDAS system uses pogo portable soil sensor, the soil temperature, soil moisture (volume moisture content), loss tangent, soil conductivity, real part and imaginary part of soil complex dielectric are observed. The vegetation team completed the measurement of biomass, Lai, vegetation water content, plant height, row ridge distance, chlorophyll, etc. Data: This data set includes two parts: soil moisture observation and vegetation observation. The former saves the data format as a vector file, the spatial location is the location of each sampling point (WGS84 + UTM 47N), and the measurement information of soil moisture is recorded in the attribute file; the vegetation sampling information is recorded in the excel table.

0 2020-03-13

HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (large aperture scintillometer of Daman superstation, 2017)

The data set contains the flux observation data of large aperture scintillator from daman station in the middle reaches of heihe hydrometeorological observation network.Large aperture scintillators of BLS450 and BLS900 models were installed at daman station in the middle reaches of China. The north tower was the receiving end of BLS900 and the transmitting end of BLS450, and the south tower was the transmitting end and the receiving end of BLS900.The observation period is from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2017.The station is located in dazman irrigation district, zhangye city, gansu province.The latitude and longitude of the north tower is 100.3785 E, 38.8607 N, and the latitude and longitude of the south tower is 100.3685 E, 38.8468 N, with an altitude of about 1556m.The effective height of the large aperture scintillator is 22.45m, the optical diameter length is 1854m, and the sampling frequency is 1min. Large aperture flicker meter raw observation data for 1 min, data released for after processing and quality control of data, including sensible heat flux is mainly combined with the automatic meteorological station observation data, based on similarity theory alonzo mourning - Mr. Hoff is obtained by iterative calculation, the quality control of the main steps include: (1) excluding Cn2 reach saturation data (Cn2 e-13 > 1.43);(2) data with weak demodulation signal strength (Average X Intensity<1000) were eliminated;(3) data at the time of precipitation were excluded;(4) data of weak turbulence under stable conditions were excluded (u* < 0.1m/s).In the iterative calculation process, the stability universal function of Thiermann and Grassl(1992) was selected. Please refer to Liu et al(2011, 2013) for detailed introduction.Due to instrument failure, data of large aperture scintillator was missing from June 6 to July 2, 2017. Some notes on the released data :(1) the middle LAS data is mainly BLS900, the missing time is supplemented by BLS450 observation, and the missing time of both is marked with -6999.(2) data table head: Date/Time: Date/Time (format: yyyy/m/d h:mm), Cn2: structural parameters of air refraction index (unit: m-2/3), H_LAS: sensible heat flux (unit: W/m2).The meaning of data time, such as 0:30 represents the average between 0:00 and 0:30;The data is stored in *.xls format. Please refer to Li et al. (2013) for hydrometeorological network or site information, and Liu et al. (2011) for observation data processing.

0 2020-03-05

HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (large aperture scintillometer of Daman Superstation, 2015)

The data set contains the flux observation data of large aperture scintillator from daman station in the middle reaches of heihe hydrometeorological observation network.Large aperture scintillators of BLS450 and BLS900 models were installed at daman station in the middle reaches of China. The north tower was the receiving end of BLS900 and the transmitting end of BLS450, and the south tower was the transmitting end and the receiving end of BLS900.The initial observation time of BLS450 is from January 1, 2015 to April 14, 2015, and the observation time of another BLS450 is from June 12, 2015 to December 31, 2015.BLS900 was observed from May 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015.The station is located in dazman irrigation district, zhangye city, gansu province.The latitude and longitude of the north tower is 100.379 E, 38.861 N, and the latitude and longitude of the south tower is 100.369 E, 38.847 N, with an altitude of about 1556m.The effective height of the large aperture scintillator is 22.45m, the optical diameter length is 1854m, and the sampling frequency is 1min. Large aperture flicker meter raw observation data for 1 min, data released for after processing and quality control of data, including sensible heat flux is mainly combined with the automatic meteorological station observation data, based on similarity theory alonzo mourning - Mr. Hoff is obtained by iterative calculation, the quality control of the main steps include: (1) excluding Cn2 reach saturation data (Cn2 e-13 > 1.43);(2) data with weak demodulation signal strength (BLS450: Mininum X Intensity< 50 (2015.1.1-2015.4.14) and Average X Intensity<1000 (2015.6.12-2015.12.31) were excluded.BLS900: Average X Intensity<1000);(3) data at the time of precipitation were excluded;(4) data of weak turbulence under stable conditions were excluded (u* < 0.1m/s).In the iterative calculation process, the stability universal function of Thiermann and Grassl(1992) was selected. Please refer to Liu et al(2011, 2013) for detailed introduction. Some notes on the released data :(1) the middle LAS data is mainly BLS900, the missing time is supplemented by BLS450 observation, and the missing time of both is marked with -6999.4.14-5.1 due to instrument deployment, data is missing.(2) data table head: Date/Time: Date/Time (format: yyyy/m/d h:mm), Cn2: structural parameters of air refraction index (unit: m-2/3), H_LAS: sensible heat flux (unit: W/m2).The meaning of data time, such as 0:30 represents the average between 0:00 and 0:30;The data is stored in *.xls format. Please refer to Li et al. (2013) for hydrometeorological network or site information, and Liu et al. (2011) for observation data processing.

0 2020-03-05

HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (large aperture scintillometer of Daman Superstation, 2014)

The data set contains the flux observation data of large aperture scintillator from daman station in the middle reaches of heihe hydrometeorological observation network.The large aperture scintiometer of German BLS450_NQ and Dutch Kipp&zonen models has been installed at the dameng station in the middle reaches. The north tower is the receiving end of Kipp&zonen and the transmitting end of BLS450_NQ, and the south tower is the transmitting end of Kipp&zonen and the receiving end of BLS450_NQ.The observation period of BLS450_NQ is from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014, and the observation period of Kipp&zonen is from January 1, 2014 to March 1, 2014.The station is located in dazman irrigation district, zhangye city, gansu province. The underlying surface involves corn, orchards and greenhouses, but mainly corn.The latitude and longitude of the north tower is 100.379 E, 38.861 N, and the latitude and longitude of the south tower is 100.369 E, 38.847 N, with an altitude of about 1556m.The effective height of the large aperture scintillator is 22.45m, the optical diameter length is 1854m, and the sampling frequency is 1min. Large aperture flicker meter raw observation data for 1 min, data released for 30 min after processing and quality control of data, including sensible heat flux is mainly combined with the automatic meteorological station observation data, based on similarity theory alonzo mourning - Mr. Hoff is obtained by iterative calculation, the quality control of the main steps include: (1) excluding Cn2 reach saturation data (BLS450_NQ: Cn2 > 1.43 e-13, Kipp&zonen: Cn2 e-13 > 1.54);(2) data with weak demodulation signal strength were eliminated (BLS450_NQ: Mininum X<50, Kipp&zonen: Demod>-20mv);(3) data at the time of precipitation were excluded;(4) data of weak turbulence under stable conditions were excluded (u* < 0.1m/s).In the iterative calculation process, for BLS450_NQ, the stability universal function of Thiermann and Grassl, 1992 was selected.For Kipp&zonen, take Andreas 1988's stability universal function.Please refer to Liu et al.(2011, 2013) for detailed introduction. Some notes on the released data :(1) the data of mid-range LAS is mainly BLS450_NQ, the missing moment is supplemented by Kipp&zonen observation, and the missing of both is marked by -6999.(2) missing period: on June 21, 2014, solstice, 27, due to the lack of data from the automatic meteorological station, the sensible heat flux H_LAS observed at LAS during this period could not be calculated;On June 29, 2014, solstice on July 2, July 21, solstice 22, September 24, solstice 25, and December 21, solstice 30, data was missing due to LAS instrument failure.(3) data table head: Date/Time: Date/Time (format: yyyy-m-d h:mm), Cn2: structural parameters of air refraction index (unit: m-2/3), H_LAS: sensible heat flux (unit: W/m2).The meaning of data time, such as 0:30 represents the average between 0:00 and 0:30;The data is stored in *.xls format. Please refer to Li et al.(2013) for hydrometeorological network or site information, and Liu et al.(2011) for observation data processing.

0 2020-03-05

HiWATER: Dataset of the spectral reflectance in the middle of Heihe River Basin

This dataset contains the spectra of white cloth and black cloth obtained in the simultaneous time during the airborn remote sensing which supports the airboren data preprocessing as CASI, SASI and TASI , and the spetra of the typical targets in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin. Instruments: SVC-HR1024 from IRSA, ASD Field Spec 3 from CEODE, Reference board Measurement method: the spectra radiance of the targets are vertically measured by the SVC or ASD; before and after the target, the spectra radiance of the reference board is measured as the reference. This dataset contains the spectra recorded by the SVC-HR1024 ( in the format of .sig which can be opened by the SVC-HR1024 software or by the notepad ) and the ASD (in the format of .asd), the observation log (in the format of word or excel), and the photos of the measured targets. Observation time: 15-6-2012, the spectra of typical targets in the EC matrix using SVC 16-6-2012, the spectra of typical targets in the wetland by SVC 29-6-2012, the spectra of typical vegetation and soil in Daman site and Gobi site by ASD 29-6-2012, the spectra of white cloth and black cloth by ASD which is simultaneous with the airborne CASI data 30-6-2012, the spectra of vegetation and soil in the desert by ASD 5-7-2012, the spectra of white cloth and black cloth by ASD which is simultaneous with the airborne CASI data 7-7-2012, the spectra of corn in the Daman site for the research of daily speral variation. 8-7-2012, the spectra of white cloth and black cloth by ASD which is simultaneous with the airborne CASI data 8-7-2012, the spectra of corn in the Daman site by ASD for the research of daily speral variation 9-7-2012, the spectra of corn in the Daman site by ASD for the research of daily speral variation 10-7-2012, the spectra of corn in the Daman site by ASD for the research of daily speral variation 11-7-2012, the spectra of corn in the Daman site by ASD for the research of daily speral variation. The time used in this dataset is in UTC+8 Time.

0 2019-09-15

HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (large aperture scintillometer of Daman superstation, 2013)

This dataset contains the flux measurements from the large aperture scintillometer (LAS) at Daman Superstation in the hydrometeorological observation network of Heihe River Basin between 15 September, 2012, and 31 December, 2013. There were two types of LASs at Daman Superstation: German BLS450 (labeled as NQ and AR) and Netherlands Kipp&zonen. The north tower was set up with the Kipp&zonen/BLS450_AR receiver and the BLS450_NQ transmitter, and the south tower was equipped with the Kipp&zonen/BLS450_AR transmitter and the BLS450_NQ receiver. BLS450_NQ has been in use since 26 September, 2012, Kipp&zonen has been in use since 23 September, 2013, and the observation period of BLS450_AR was from 15 September, 2012, to 25 July, 2013. The site (north: 100.379° E, 38.861° N; south: 100.369° E, 38.847° N) was located in Daman irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The underlying surfaces between the two towers were corn, orchard, and greenhouse. The elevation is 1556 m. The effective height of the LASs was 22.45 m, and the path length was 1854 m. The data were sampled at 5 Hz and 1 Hz intervals for BLS450 and Kipp&zonen, respectively, then averaged to 1 minute. The raw data acquired at 1 min intervals were processed and quality controlled. The data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods, in which sensible heat flux was iteratively calculated by combining Cn2 with meteorological data according to the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The main quality control steps were as follows: (1) The data were rejected when Cn2 exceeded the saturated criterion (BLS450: Cn2>1.43E-13, Kipp&zonen: Cn2>1.54E-13). (2) The data were rejected when the demodulation signal was small (BLS450: Average X Intensity<1000; Kipp&zonen: Demod>-20mv). (3) The data were rejected when collected during precipitation. (4) The data were rejected if collected at night when weak turbulence occurred (u* was less than 0.1 m/s). In the iteration process, the universal functions of Thiermann and Grassl, 1992 and Andreas, 1988 were selected for BLS450 and Kipp&zonen, respectively. Several instructions were included with the released data. (1) The data were primarily obtained from BLS450_NQ measurements, and missing flux measurements from the BLS450_NQ instrument were substituted with measurements from the BLS450_AR and Kipp&zonen instrument. The missing data were denoted by -6999. Due to the problems of BLS450_NQ SPU storing and wireless transmission, large amount of data from 11 August to 17 August, 18 August to 20 August, 22 August to 24 August, 27 August to 30 August, 2013, and 1 September to 3 September, 19 September to 23 September, 2013, were not collected. (2) The dataset contained the following variables: data/time (yyyy-m-d h:mm), the structural parameter of the air refractive index (Cn2, m-2/3), and the sensible heat flux (H_LAS, W/m^2). In this dataset, a time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30, and the data were stored in *.xls format. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Li et al. (2013) (for hydrometeorological observation network or sites information), Liu et al. (2011) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2019-09-15

HiWATER: Dataset of fractional vegetation cover and biomass observed in the middle of Heihe River Basin (2013)

The dataset includes the fractional vegetation cover data generated from the stations of crop land, wetland, Gebi desert and desert steppe in Yingke Oasis and biomass data generated from the stations of crop land (corn) and wetland. The observations lasted for a vegetation growth cycle from 19 May, 2012 to 15 September, 2012. 1. Fractional vegetation cover observation 1.1 Observation time 1.1.1 Station of the crop land: The observations lasted from 20 May, 2012 to 15 September, 2012, and in five-day periods for each observation before 31 July and in ten-day periods for each observation after 31 July. The observation time for the station of crop land (corn) are 2013-5-20, 2013-5-25, 2013-5-30, 2013-6-5, 2013-6-10, 2013-6-16, 2013-6-22, 2013-6-27, 2013-7-2, 2013-7-7, 2013-7-12, 2013-7-17, 2013-7-27, 2013-8-3, 2013-8-13, 2013-8-25, 2013-9-5 and 2013-9-15. 1.1.2 The other four stations: The observations lasted from 20 May, 2012 to 15 September, 2012 and in ten-day periods for each observation. The observation time for the crop land are 2013-5-20, 2013-6-5, 2013-6-16, 2013-6-27, 2013-7-7, 2013-7-17, 2013-7-27, 2013-8-3, 2013-8-13, 2013-8-25, 2013-9-5 and 2013-9-15. 1.2 method 1.2.1 Instruments and measurement method Digital photography measurement is implemented to measure the FVC. Plot positions, photographic method and data processing method are dedicatedly designed. In field measurements, a long stick with the camera mounted on one end is beneficial to conveniently measure various species of vegetation, enabling a larger area to be photographed with a smaller field of view. The stick can be used to change the camera height; a fixed-focus camera can be placed at the end of the instrument platform at the front end of the support bar, and the camera can be operated by remote control. 1.2.2 Design of the samples Three and two plots with the area of 10×10 m^2 were measured for the station of the crop land and wetland, respectively. One plot with the area of 10×10 m^2 was measured for the other three stations. Shoot 9 times along two perpendicularly crossed rectangular-belt transects. The picture generated of each time is used to calculate a FVC value. “True FVC” of the plot is then acquired as the average of these 9 FVC values. 1.2.3 Photographic method The photographic method used depends on the species of vegetation and planting pattern. A long stick with the camera mounted on one end is used for the stations of crop land and wetland. For the station of the crop land, rows of more than two cycles should be included in the field of view (<30), and the side length of the image should be parallel to the row. If there are no more than two complete cycles, then information regarding row spacing and plant spacing are required. The FVC of the entire cycle, that is, the FVC of the quadrat, can be obtained from the number of rows included in the field of view. For other three stations, the photos of FVC were obtained by directly photographing for the lower heights of the vegetation. 1.2.4 Method for calculating the FVC The FVC calculation was implemented by the Beijing Normal University. The detail method can be found in the reference below. Many methods are available to extract the FVC from digital images, and the degree of automation and the precision of identification are important factors that affect the efficiency of field measurements. This method, which is proposed by the authors, has the advantages of a simple algorithm, a high degree of automation and high precision, as well as ease of operation (see the reference). 2. Biomass observation 2.1. Observation time 2.1.1 Station of the crop land: The observations lasted from 20 May 2012 to 15 September 2012, and in five-day periods for each observation before 31 July and in ten-day periods for each observation after 31 July. The observation time for the crop land are 2013-5-25, 2013-5-30, 2013-6-5, 2013-6-10, 2013-6-16, 2013-6-22, 2013-6-27, 2013-7-2, 2013-7-7, 2013-7-12, 2013-7-17, 2013-7-27, 2013-8-3, 2013-8-13, 2013-8-25, 2013-9-5 and 2013-9-15. 2.1.2 The station of wetland: The observations lasted from 20 May 2012 to 15 September 2012, and in ten-day periods for each observation. The observation time for the crop land are 2013-6-5, 2013-6-16, 2013-6-27, 2013-7-7, 2013-7-17, 2013-7-27, 2013-8-3, 2013-8-13, 2013-8-25, 2013-9-5 and 2013-9-15. 2.2. Method Station of the crop land: Three plots were selected and three strains of corn for each observation were random selected for each plot to measure the fresh weight (the aboveground biomass and underground biomass) and dry weight. Per unit biomass can be obtained according to the planting structure. Station of the wetland: Two plots of reed with the area of 0.5 m × 0.5 m were random selected for each observation. The reed of the two plots was cut to measure the fresh weight (the aboveground biomass) and dry weight. 2.3. Instruments Balance (accuracy 0.01 g); drying oven 3. Data storage All observation data were stored in excel. Other data including plant spacing, row spacing, seeding time, irrigation time, the time of cutting male parent and the harvest time of the corn for the station of cropland were also stored in the excel.

0 2019-09-15

HiWATER: Dataset of vegetation type and plant structure investigation in the middle of Heihe River Basin form Jun to Aug, 2012

The dataset contains vegetation type and plant structure in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin, which was used to validate products from remote sensing. It was generated from investigating the land cover strips of CASI and SASI the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin between 25 June and 6 August in 2012. Instruments: High-precision handheld GPS (2-3 m) and digital camera were used as main tools in the survey. Measurement method: Vegetation range in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin and survey route could be decided with the help of Google Earth. Wuxing village in Xiaoman town was selected to survey detailed and other places were investigated as far to reach as possible. Main methods were to write down the longitude and latitude, phenology of the plant structure, take photos for the vegetation. Dataset contains: longitude and latitude, vegetation type, area and phenology. Observation Place: CASI flight area in artificial oasis in the middle reaches, CASI stripe flight area in the middle reaches and Zhangye district. Date: From 25 June and 6 August in 2012.

0 2019-09-14

HiWATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with TerraSAR-X satellite overpassing in the Daman Superstation on June 4, 2012

The first dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with TerraSAR-X was obtained in the Daman foci experimental area on 4 June, 2012. The satellite image was in StripMap mode and HH/VV polarization with an incidence angle of 22-24°, and the overpass time was approximately at 19:00 UTC+8. The second dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with TerraSAR-X was obtained in the Daman foci experimental area on 15 June, 2012. The satellite image was in StripMap mode and HH/VV polarization with an incidence angle of 22-24°, and the overpass time was approximately at 19:00 UTC+8. The third dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with TerraSAR-X was obtained in the Daman foci experimental area on 26 June, 2012. The satellite image was in StripMap mode and HH/VV polarization with an incidence angle of 22-24°, and the overpass time was approximately at 19:00 UTC+8. The measurements were conducted at a sampling plot southeast to the Daman Superstation with an area of around 100 m × 100 m, which was dominantly planted with maize. Steven Hydro probes were used to collect soil moisture and other measurements with an interval of 5 m. For each sampling point, two measurements were acquired within an area of 1 m2, with one for the soil covered by plastic film (point name was tagged as LXPXXA) and the other for exposed soil (point name was tagged as LXPXXB). Concurrently with soil moisture sampling, vegetation properties were measured at around 10 locations within this sampling plot. Observation items included: Soil parameters: volumetric soil moisture (inherently converted from measured soil dielectric constant), soil temperature, soil dielectric constant, soil electric conductivity. Vegetation parameters: biomass, LAI, vegetation water content, canopy height, row distance and leaf chlorophyll content. Data and data format: This dataset includes two parts of measurements, i.e. soil and vegetation parameters. The former is as shapefile, with measured items stored in its attribute table. The measured vegetation parameters are recorded in an Excel file.

0 2019-09-13

HiWATER: Dataset of scintec flat array sodar in the villiage of Wuxing, Xiaoman Town

This mesurement aims to obtain the wind direction, wind speed, and disturbance characteristics of the lower atmosphere. The observation period is from 25 June to 17 Septemper, 2012 (UTC+8). Measurement instruments: Germany Scintec MFAS Flat Array Sodar Measurement position: 60 meters northwest of Daman Super Station Measurement period: 25 June to 17 Septemper, 2012. 24 hours of uninterrupted obeservation. Automatically Recorded Data every half hour. Data contents: We obtain one data file every day. The data contents include observation height, wind speed, wind direction, wind speed in east – west direction, wind speed in south – north direction, vertical wind speed, standard deviation of vertical wind speed, backscatter intensity. Remarks: The prectical obsevation height changes with the air water vapor content. Our obsevation point is located in the arid region. The air water vapor content is very low. Therefore the maximum obsevation height is about 300 meters. When it rains or very windy and dusty, the backscatter intensity is very high. Then the data would be miss or only has the vertical wind speed and backscatter intensity.

0 2019-09-13