WATER: Dataset of airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission in the Biandukou flight zone on Mar. 21, 2008

The dataset of airborne microwave radiometers (L&K) mission was obtained in the Biandukou flight zone on Mar. 21, 2008. The frequency of L bands was 1.4 GHz with back sight of 35 degree and dual polarization (H&V) was acquired; and the frequency of K band was 18.7 GHz at the nadir view angle without polarization. The plane took off at Zhangye airport at 8:00 (BJT) and landed at 11:40, from north to south along the scheduled lines at the altitude about 4100m (400m for the low flight) and speed about 290km/hr . The raw data include microwave radiometer (L&K) data and GPS data; the former were instantaneous non-imaging observation recorded in text, which could be converted into brightness temperatures according to the calibration coefficients (filed with raw data together), and the latter were aircraft longitude, latitude and attitude. Moreover, based on the respective real-time clock log, observations by the microwave radiometer and GPS can be integrated to offer coordinates matching for the former. Yaw, flip, and pitch motions of aircraft were ignored due to the low resolution of microwave radiometer observations. Observation information can also be rasterized, as required, after calibration and coordinates matching. L&K bands resolution (x) and footprint can be approximately estimated as x=0.3H (H is relative flight height) for L and x=0.24H for K.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission in the Biandukou foci experimental area on Jul. 4, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission was obtained in the Biandukou foci experimental area on Jul. 4, 2008. Observation items included: (1) the soil temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer from L1 to L8 (1km from one another) in Biandukou and soil moisture by ML2X; nine samples were collected every 200 m along each line (1.6km). (2) 5 quadrates (50cm×50cm) investigations including GPS, the vegetation cover types and the height, the actual numbering, the valve bag numbering, wet weight+the refuse bag (g), dry weight+the envelope (g), the envelope (g) and the photo numbering. The data were archived as Excel files.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission in the Biandukou foci experimental area on May 25, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission was obtained in the Biandukou foci experimental area on May 25, 2008. Observation items included: (1) the soil temperature in L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6 and L7; (2) roughness measured by the roughness grid board and collected by the digital camera. Files with "result" field were processed data, in which the first row was RMS height (cm; one value), the second row was distance (cm), and the third row was correlation function (cm; changed into correlation length when it is 1/e). (3) GPR and TDR data. Five files were included, roughness photos and preprocessed data, the soil temperature, coordinates of quadrates and sampling lines, GPR and microwave radiometer data. All were archived as Excel and .txt files. Those provide reliable ground data for development and validation of soil moisture and freeze/thaw algorithms from active remote sensing approaches.

0 2019-05-23

HiWATER: Dataset of airborne microwave radiometers (L bands) mission in the upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin on 1 August, 2012

The dataset of airborne Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometers (PLMR) was acquired on 1 August, 2012, located in the upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin. The aircraft took off at 8:30 am (UTC+8) from Zhangye airport and landed at 12:30 pm, with the flight time of 4 hours. The flight was performed in the altitude of about 1000 m and at the speed of about 220-250 km during the observation, corresponding to an expected ground resolution of about 300 m. The PLMR instrument flown on a small aircraft operates at 1.413 GHz (L-band), with both H- and V-polarizations at incidence angles of ±7.5°, ±21.5° and ±38.5°. PLMR ‘warm’ and ‘cold’ calibrations were performed before and after each flight. The processed PLMR data include 2 DAT files (v-pol and h-pol separately) and 1 KMZ file for each flying day. The DAT file contains all the TB values together with their corresponding beam ID, incidence angle, location, time stamp (in UTC) and other flight attitude information as per headings. The KMZ file shows the gridded 1-km TB values corrected to 38.5 degrees together with flight lines. Cautions should be taken when using these data, as the RFI contaminations are often higher than expected at v-polarization.

0 2019-05-23

HiWATER: Dataset of airborne microwave radiometers (L bands) mission along the riverway of Heihe River in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin on 3 July, 2012

The dataset of airborne Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometers (PLMR) was acquired on 3 July, 2012, located along the riverway of Heihe River in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin. The aircraft took off at 11:40 am (UTC+8) from Zhangye airport and landed at 14:10 pm, with the flight time of 2.5 hours. The flight was performed in the altitude of about 350 m and at the speed of about 220-250 km during the observation, corresponding to an expected ground resolution of about 100 m. The PLMR instrument flown on a small aircraft operates at 1.413 GHz (L-band), with both H- and V-polarizations at incidence angles of ±7.5°, ±21.5° and ±38.5°. PLMR ‘warm’ and ‘cold’ calibrations were performed before and after each flight. The processed PLMR data include 2 DAT files (v-pol and h-pol separately) and 1 KMZ file for each flying day. The DAT file contains all the TB values together with their corresponding beam ID, incidence angle, location, time stamp (in UTC) and other flight attitude information as per headings. The KMZ file shows the gridded 1-km TB values corrected to 38.5 degrees together with flight lines. Cautions should be taken when using these data, as the RFI contaminations are often higher than expected at v-polarization.

0 2019-05-23

HiWATER: Dataset of airborne microwave radiometers (L bands) mission in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin on 5 July, 2012

The dataset of airborne Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometers (PLMR) was acquired on 5 July, 2012, located in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin. The aircraft took off at 10:50 am (UTC+8) from Zhangye airport and landed at 12:20 pm, with the flight time of 1.5 hours. The flight was performed in the altitude of about 2000 m and at the speed of about 220-250 km during the observation, corresponding to an expected ground resolution of about 600 m. The PLMR instrument flown on a small aircraft operates at 1.413 GHz (L-band), with both H- and V-polarizations at incidence angles of ±7.5°, ±21.5° and ±38.5°. PLMR ‘warm’ and ‘cold’ calibrations were performed before and after each flight. The processed PLMR data include 2 DAT files (v-pol and h-pol separately) and 1 KMZ file for each flying day. The DAT file contains all the TB values together with their corresponding beam ID, incidence angle, location, time stamp (in UTC) and other flight attitude information as per headings. The KMZ file shows the gridded 1-km TB values corrected to 38.5 degrees together with flight lines. Cautions should be taken when using these data, as the RFI contaminations are often higher than expected at v-polarization.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of airborne L-band microwave radiometer and thermal imager mission in the Binggou-A'rou flight zone in the afternoon of Apr. 1, 2008

The dataset of airborne L-band microwave radiometer and thermal imager mission was obtained in the Binggou-A'rou flight zone in the afternoon of Apr. 1, 2008. The frequency of L bands was 1.4 GHz with back sight of 35 degree and dual polarization (H&V) was acquired. The plane took off at Zhangye airport at 12:48 (BJT) and landed at 16:35 along the scheduled lines at the altitude about 5000m and speed about 260km/hr.. The raw data include microwave radiometer (L) data, thermal imager data (7.5-13 um; FOV: 24×18º) and GPS data; the first were instantaneous non-imaging observation recorded in text, which could be converted into brightness temperatures according to the caliberation coefficients (filed with raw data together), and the third are aircraft longitude, latitude and attitude. Moreover, based on the respective real-time clock log, observations by the microwave radiometer and GPS can be integrated to offer coordinates matching for the former. Yaw, flip, and pitch motions of aircraft were ignored due to the low resolution of microwave radiometer observations. Observation information can also be rasterized, as required, after calibration and coordinates matching. L band resolution (x) and footprint can be approximately estimated as x=0.3H (H is relative flight height). The thermal imager was 320*240 pixels and with FOV of 24×18º. The thermal imager data were stored in binary format with a text header file. The recorded value was brightness temperature at sensor with scale and gain parameter recorded in the header file. And the thermal images were not geometrically corrected because there were gaps between sequential images.

0 2019-05-23