Data set of spatial and temporal distribution of water resources in Indus from 2001 to 2017

This data is a 5km monthly hydrological data set, including grid runoff and evaporation (if evaporation is less than 0, it means condensation; if runoff is less than 0, it means precipitation is less than evaporation), simulated and output through the WEB-DHM distributed hydrological model of the Indus River basin, with temperature, precipitation, barometric pressure, etc. as input data.

0 2022-11-21

Multi-scale surface flux and meteorological elements observation dataset in the Hai River Basin (Huailai station-large aperture scintillometer, 2021)

This dataset contains the flux measurements from the large aperture scintillometer (LAS) at Huailai station. There were two types of LASs: German BLS450 and zzLAS. The observation periods were from January 1 to December 31, 2021. The site ( (north: 115.7825° E, 40.3522° N; south: 115.7880° E, 40.3491° N) was located in the Donghuahuan town of Huailai city, Hebei Province. The elevation is 480 m. The underlying surface between the two towers contains mainly maize. The effective height of the LASs was 14 m; the path length was 1870 m. Data were sampled at 1 min intervals. Raw data acquired at 1 min intervals were processed and quality-controlled. The data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods. The main quality control steps were as follows. (1) The data were rejected when Cn2 was beyond the saturated criterion. (2) Data were rejected when the demodulation signal was small. (3) Data were rejected within 1 h of precipitation. (4) Data were rejected at night when weak turbulence occurred (u* was less than 0.1 m/s). The sensible heat flux was iteratively calculated by combining with meteorological data and based on Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. There were several instructions for the released data. (1) The data were primarily obtained from BLS450 measurements; missing flux measurements from the BLS450 were filled with measurements from the zzLAS. Missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) The dataset contained the following variables: data/time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss), the structural parameter of the air refractive index (Cn2, m-2/3), and the sensible heat flux (H_LAS, W/m^2). (3) In this dataset, the time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30; the data were stored in *.xls format. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Guo et al. (2020) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2022-11-18

Multi-scale surface flux and meteorological elements observation dataset in the Hai River Basin (Huailai station-eddy covariance system-10m tower, 2021)

This dataset contains the flux measurements from the Huailai station eddy covariance system (EC) from January 1 to December 31 in 2021. The site (115.7880° E, 40.3491°N) was located in the maize surface, near Donghuayuan town of Huailai city in Hebei Province. The elevation is 480 m. The EC was installed at a height of 5 m, and the sampling rate was 10 Hz. The sonic anemometer faced north, and the separation distance between the sonic anemometer and the CO2/H2O gas analyzer (CSAT3&Li7500A) was 0.15 m. The raw data acquired at 10 Hz were processed using the Eddypro post-processing software, including the spike detection, lag correction of H2O/CO2 relative to the vertical wind component, sonic virtual temperature correction, coordinate rotation (2-D rotation), corrections for density fluctuation (Webb-Pearman-Leuning correction), and frequency response correction. The EC data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods. The observation data quality was divided into three classes according to the quality assessment method of stationarity (Δst) and the integral turbulent characteristics test (ITC) (class 1 to 9). In addition to the above processing steps, the half-hourly flux data were screened in a four-step procedure: (1) data from periods of sensor malfunction were rejected; (2) data collected before or after 1 h of precipitation were rejected; (3) incomplete 30 min data were rejected when the missing data constituted more than 10% of the 30 min raw record; and (4) data were rejected at night when the friction velocity (u*) was less than 0.1 m/s. There were 48 records per day, and the missing data were replaced with -6999. The released data contained the following variables: data/time, wind direction (Wdir, °), wind speed (Wnd, m/s), the standard deviation of the lateral wind (Std_Uy, m/s), virtual temperature (Tv, ℃), H2O mass density (H2O, g/m3), CO2 mass density (CO2, mg/m3), friction velocity (ustar, m/s), stability (L), sensible heat flux (Hs, W/m2), latent heat flux (LE, W/m2), carbon dioxide flux (Fc, mg/ (m2s)), quality assessment of the sensible heat flux (QA_Hs), quality assessment of the latent heat flux (QA_LE), and quality assessment of the carbon flux (QA_Fc). In this dataset, the time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30; the data were stored in *.xls format. Detailed information can be found in the suggested references. For more information, please refer to Guo et al. (2020) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2013) for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2022-11-17

Multi-scale surface flux and meteorological elements observation dataset in the Hai River Basin (Huailai station-eddy covariance system-40m tower, 2021)

This dataset contains the flux measurements from the Huailai station eddy covariance system (EC) from April 13 to December 31 in 2021. The site (115.7923° E, 40.3574° N) was located in the maize surface, near Donghuayuan town of Huailai city in Hebei Province. The elevation is 480 m. The EC was installed at a height of 3.5 m, and the sampling rate was 10 Hz. The sonic anemometer faced north, and the separation distance between the sonic anemometer and the CO2/H2O gas analyzer (CSAT3&EC150) was 0 m. The raw data acquired at 10 Hz were processed using the Eddypro post-processing software, including the spike detection, lag correction of H2O/CO2 relative to the vertical wind component, sonic virtual temperature correction, coordinate rotation (2-D rotation), corrections for density fluctuation (Webb-Pearman-Leuning correction), and frequency response correction. The EC data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods. The observation data quality was divided into three classes according to the quality assessment method of stationarity (Δst) and the integral turbulent characteristics test (ITC) (class1-9). In addition to the above processing steps, the half-hourly flux data were screened in a four-step procedure: (1) data from periods of sensor malfunction were rejected; (2) data collected before or after 1 h of precipitation were rejected; (3) incomplete 30 min data were rejected when the missing data constituted more than 10% of the 30 min raw record; and (4) data were rejected at night when the friction velocity (u*) was less than 0.1 m/s. There were 48 records per day, and the missing data were replaced with -6999. Suspicious data were marked in red. There were lots of negative values of H2O density in winter where filling by -6999. The released data contained the following variables: data/time, wind direction (Wdir, °), wind speed (Wnd, m/s), the standard deviation of the lateral wind (Std_Uy, m/s), virtual temperature (Tv, ℃), H2O mass density (H2O, g/m3), CO2 mass density (CO2, mg/m3), friction velocity (ustar, m/s), stability (z/L), sensible heat flux (Hs, W/m2), latent heat flux (LE, W/m2), carbon dioxide flux (Fc, mg/ (m2s)), quality assessment of the sensible heat flux (QA_Hs), quality assessment of the latent heat flux (QA_LE), and quality assessment of the carbon flux (QA_Fc). In this dataset, the time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30; the data were stored in *.xls format. Detailed information can be found in the suggested references. For more information, please refer to Guo et al. (2020) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2013) for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2022-11-17

Multi-scale surface flux and meteorological elements observation dataset in the Hai River Basin(Huailai station-automatic weather station-40m tower, 2021)

This dataset obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Huailai station from January 1 to December 31, 2021. The site (115.7923° E, 40.3574° N) was located on a cropland (maize surface) which is near Donghuayuan town of Huailai city, Hebei Province. The elevation is 480 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 m, towards north), wind speed and direction profile (3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 m, towards north), air pressure (in the box), rain gauge (3 m, south of tower), four-component radiometer (4 m, south of tower), two infrared temperature sensors (4 m, south of tower, vertically downward), photosynthetically active radiation (4 m, south of tower, vertically upward), soil heat flux -0.06 m), a TCAV averaging soil thermocouple probe (-0.02, -0.04 m), soil temperature profile (-0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m), soil moisture profile (-0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_3 m, Ta_10 m, Ta_15 m, Ta_20 m, Ta_30 m, and Ta_40 m; RH_3 m, RH_5 m, RH_10 m, RH_15 m, RH_20 m, RH_30 m, and RH_40 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_3 m, Ws_10 m, Ws_15 m, Ws_20 m, Ws_30 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (μmol/ (s m-2)), average soil temperature (TCAV, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_80 cm, Ts_120 cm, and Ts_160 cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_80 cm, Ms_120 cm, and Ms_160 cm) (%, volumetric water content). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2021-6-10 10:30. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Guo et al. (2020) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2013) for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2022-11-17

Multi-scale surface flux and meteorological elements observation dataset in the Hai River Basin (Huailai station-automatic weather station-10m tower, 2021)

This dataset includes data obtained from the automatic weather station (AWS) at the observation system of Meteorological elements of Huailai station between January 1 and December 31, 2021. The site (115.7880° E, 40.3491° N) was located on a maize surface, which is near Donghuayuan Town of Huailai city in Hebei Province. The elevation is 480 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (5 m, north), wind speed and direction profile (10 m, north), air pressure (in the box), rain gauge (10 m), four-component radiometer (5 m, south), two infrared temperature sensors (5 m, south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (-0.06 m), soil temperature profile (0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m), soil moisture profile (-0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m), and a TCAV averaging soil thermocouple probe (-0.02, -0.04 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m; RH_5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_10 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2 and Gs_3) (W/m2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_80 cm, Ts_120 cm, and Ts_160 cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_80 cm, Ms_120 cm, and Ms_160 cm) (%, volumetric water content), and average soil temperature (TCAV, ℃). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2021-6-10 10:30. (6) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Guo et al. (2020) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2022-11-17

Summer and autumn evaporation data of three typical inland lakes calculated based on the observation data of automatic weather stations (2019-2021)

1) Data content This data set includes lake evaporation data of Bamco, La'angco in the summer and autumn of 2019-2021 and Longmuco in the summer and autumn of 2020-2021. The meteorological data required for the calculation of evaporation data are obtained from the automatic meteorological station set up at the lake side, with the observation height of 1.5m. Lake location: Bamco (90.59 ° E, 31.29 ° N), La'anco (81.24 ° E, 30.72 ° N), Longmucuo (80.47 ° E, 34.60 ° N). Coordinates of automatic weather stations: Bamco AWS (90.65 ° E, 31.30 ° N), La'anco AWS (81.22 ° E, 30.73 ° N), and Longmucuo AWS (80.43 ° E, 34.59 ° N). Time resolution: 1d Spatial resolution:- Unit: mm 2) Data source and processing method Integral conveying method. The calculation formula is as follows: LH=l_ v ρ_ a c_ E U(q_s-q_a ) E=LH/( ρ l_ v ) LH and E are latent heat and evaporation respectively. The automatic weather station erected near the lake is used for meteorological data, and the observation data used include temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, etc. at 1.5m; Lake surface temperature uses ERA5 land hourly data; The momentum roughness, moisture roughness and thermal roughness are obtained by back calculation from the data obtained by the eddy correlation instrument erected by Bamco and Laoncho. 3) Data quality description The evaporation data of Bamco Lake in 2020 obtained by calculation are compared with the evaporation data from August to October obtained by the eddy correlation instrument installed on the central island of Bamco Lake. Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.57, p=2.842E-8. 4) Data application achievements and prospects Water surface evaporation is an important link in the process of water cycle and an important topic in hydrology research. As the main part of lake water loss, it is also the basic reference data for studying land surface evaporation. The evaporation calculated based on the observation data can be used as the accurate evaporation of lakes on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, which is an important basis for studying the water balance of lakes. By obtaining the evaporation of three lakes located in different climatic regions, we can better explore the variation law of lake water surface evaporation in different climatic regions.

0 2022-11-16

Data set of water balance elements in the source of the Yellow River and Qilian Mountains

This data set is a multi-scale data set of water balance elements in the source area of the Yellow River and the Heihe River Basin of Qilian Mountains, which can provide basis and reference for water resources management and water balance analysis. The data are based on the simulation results of SWAT model, and then analyzed and counted by ArcGIS and Excel software. The water balance elements include precipitation, snowfall, evapotranspiration, groundwater, soil water and runoff. The time scale includes annual scale and monthly scale, while the spatial scale includes watershed scale, river reach scale, sub basin scale, altitude zone scale and vegetation type scale. The data has been applied to water resources evaluation, benefit evaluation and operation guidance of artificial precipitation enhancement.

0 2022-10-09

2018-2065 estimation data set of key elements of future water cycle in Arctic main river regions with 10 km resolution

This product provides the monthly runoff, evapotranspiration and soil water of major Arctic river basins in 2018-2065 based on the land surface model Vic. The spatial accuracy is 10km. Major Arctic river basins include Lena, Yenisey, ob, Kolyma, Yukon and Mackenzie basins. According to the rcp2.6 (low emission intensity) and rcp8.5 (high emission intensity) scenario results provided by the ipsl-cm5a-lr model in cmip5 in the fifth assessment report of IPCC, the future climate scenario driving data applicable to the Arctic region of 0.1 ° is obtained through statistical downscaling. Using the calibrated land surface hydrological model Vic on a global scale, based on the future climate scenario driven data of 0.1 °, the monthly time series of runoff, soil water and evapotranspiration of the Arctic River Basin in the middle of this century under future climate change are estimated.

0 2022-09-01

Water resources simulation data of Southeast Asian countries and the Lancang Mekong River Basin (1980-2019)

The water resources simulation data of Southeast Asian countries and the Lancang Mekong River Basin (1980-2019) is the result of using the meteorological data output from the WRF model as the driving data and simulation through the ways model. The data includes evapotranspiration, surface runoff, underground runoff, total runoff, groundwater, infiltration and soil moisture data of Southeast Asia land area from 1980 to 2019. The temporal resolution is daily and the spatial resolution is 3km. The data is generally good, but due to the limitations of the model, there are certain errors in the simulation results of a few variables. It is not recommended to use the research with high requirements for data accuracy. The data can reflect the situation of water resources in Southeast Asia to a certain extent, and provide data support for relevant research.

0 2022-08-16