The dataset of LAS (Large Aperture Scintillometer: BLS450, made in Germany) observations was obtained at the A'rou freeze/thaw observation station from Mar. 11 to Jul. 11, 2008. The transmitter (E100°28′16.4″, N38°03′24.3″, 11.2m) and the receiver (E100°27′25.9″, N38°02′18.1″, 11.5m) were 2390m away from each other and the operating altitude was 9.5m. The observation item was the atmospheric refractive index structural parameters (Cn2). The transmitting frequency was 5HZ and the data were output per minute. The processed data were archived in a 30 minutes cycle. The data were named after WATER_LAS_A'rou_yyyymmdd-yyyymmdd.csv (yyyymmdd-yyyymmdd for observation time). The missing data were marked "None".
ALOS PRISM dataset includes 13 scenes; one covers the A'rou foci experimental area on Mar. 19, 2008, one covers the Haichaoba on Mar. 19, 2008, one covers the Biandukou foci experimental area on Apr. 17, 2008, and one covers the Linze grassland and Linze station foci experimental areas on Apr. 22, 2008. The data version is LB2, which was released after radiometric correction and geometric correction.
This data set was acquired by the L & K band airborne microwave radiometer on the morning of April 1, 2008, in the A'rou flight zone. The frequency of L-band is 1.4GHz, and the backsight is 35 degrees to obtain dual polarization (H and V) information; the frequency of K-band is 18.7ghz, and there is no polarization information. The plane took off from Zhangye airport at 8:06 (Beijing time, the same below) and landed at 11:17. 8: 50-10:13 fly from north to south, observe and reserve 10 routes, flight height is about 4100m, flight speed is about 260km / hr. 10: At 20-10:35, Jiafei 6-8 and 6-9 lines completed the observation. The original data is divided into two parts: microwave radiometer data and GPS data. The L and K bands of microwave radiometer are non imaging observations. The digital values obtained from the instantaneous observation are recorded in the text file, and the longitude and latitude as well as the aircraft attitude parameters are recorded in the GPS data. When using microwave radiometer to observe data, it is necessary to convert the digital value recorded into the bright temperature value according to the calibration coefficient (the calibration coefficient file is filed with the original observation data). At the same time, through the clock records of microwave radiometer and GPS, we can connect the microwave observation with GPS record and match the geographic coordinate information for the microwave observation. Due to the coarse observation resolution of microwave radiometer, the effects of aircraft yaw, roll and pitch are generally ignored in data processing. According to the target and flight relative altitude (H), after calibration and coordinate matching, the observation information can also be gridded. The resolution (x) of L band and K band is consistent with that of observation footprint. The reference resolution is: L band, x = 0.3H; K band, x = 0.24h. After the above steps, we can get the products that users can use directly.
Proba (project for on board autonomy) is the smallest earth observation satellite launched by ESA in 2001. Chris (compact high resolution imaging Spectrometer) is the most important imaging spectrophotometer on the platform of proba. It has five imaging modes. With its excellent spectral spatial resolution and multi angle advantages, it can image land, ocean and inland water respectively for different research purposes. It is the only on-board sensor in the world that can obtain hyperspectral and multi angle data at the same time. It has high spatial resolution, wide spectral range, and can collect rich information in biophysics, biochemistry, etc. At present, there are 23 scenes of proba Chris data in Heihe River Basin. The coverage and acquisition time are as follows: 4 scenes in Arjun dense observation area, 2008-11-18, 2008-12-05, 2009-03-29, 2009-05-22; 1 scene in pingdukou dense observation area, 2009-07-13; 7 scenes in Binggou basin dense observation area, 2008-11-19, 2008-11-26, 2008-12-06, 2009-01-10, 2009-03-04, 2009-03-30, 2009-03-31; dayokou basin dense observation area, 2009-07-13 There are two views in the observation area, 2008-10-23, 2009-06-08; one in Linze area, 2008-06-23; one in Minle area, 2008-10-22; seven in Yingke oasis dense observation area, 2008-04-30, 2008-05-09, 2008-06-04, 2008-07-01, 2008-07-19, 2009-05-31, 2009-08-10. The product level is L1 without geometric correction. Except that there are only four angles for the images of 2009-03-29 and 2009-05-24 in the Arjun encrypted observation area, each image has five different angles. The remote sensing data set of the comprehensive remote sensing joint experiment of Heihe River, proba Chris, was obtained through the "dragon plan" project (Project No.: 5322) (see the data use statement for details).
The phased array type l-land synthetic aperture radar (PALSAR) is a phased array L-band SAR sensor mounted on alos satellite. The sensor has three observation modes: high resolution, scanning synthetic aperture radar and polarization, which make it possible to obtain a wider ground width than the general SAR. At present, there are 13 scenes of ALOS pallsar data in Heihe River Basin. The coverage and acquisition time are as follows: 1 scene in the northeast of Zhangye City, HH / HV polarization, 2008-04-25; 2 scenes in Binggou basin + Arjun encrypted observation area, HH / HV polarization, 2008-05-122008-06-27; 2 scenes in Dayekou basin + Yingke oasis intensified observation area, HH / HV polarization, 2008-05-122008-06-27; observation station encrypted observation area Survey area + Linze station densified observation area + Linze grassland densified observation area 2 scenes, HH / HV polarization, time 2008-05-122008-06-27; Linze station densified observation area 1 scene, HH / HV polarization, time 2008-05-12; Binggou basin densified observation area 1 scene, HH / HV polarization, time 2008-07-14; bindukou densified observation area 4 scenes, 2008-04-25 2 scenes, HH / HV polarization, 2008-06-10 2 scenes, HH pole Change. The product level is L1 without geometric correction. The alos PALSAR remote sensing data set of Heihe comprehensive remote sensing joint experiment was obtained from JAXA by Dr. Takeo tadono, researcher Ye Qinghua and Professor Shi Jiancheng (the cooperation project between Qinghai Tibet Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences and JAXA). (Note: "+" means to overwrite at the same time)
The dataset of automatic meteorological observations was obtained at the A'rou freeze/thaw observation station from Jul. 25, 2008 to Dec. 31, 2009, in Wawangtan pasture (E100°28′/N38°03′, 3032.8), Daban, A'rou. The experimental area, situated in the valley highland of south Babaohe river, an upper stream branch of Heihe river, with a flat and open terrain slightly sloping from southeast to southeast and hills and mountains stretching for 3km is ideal for a horizontal homogeneous underlying surface. Observation items included multilayer (2m and 10m) of the wind speed, the air temperature and air humidity, the air pressure, precipitation, four components of radiation, the multilayer soil temperature (10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 80cm, 120cm and 160cm), soil moisture (10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 80cm, 120cm and 160cm), and soil heat flux (5cm & 15cm). The raw data were level0 and the data after basic processes were level1, in which ambiguous ones were marked; the data after strict quality control were defined as Level2. The data files were named as follows: station+datalevel+AMS+datadate. Level2 or above were strongly recommended to domestic users. As for detailed information, please refer to Meteorological and Hydrological Flux Data Guide.
The dataset of TIR spectral emissivity was obtained in the arid region hydrology experiment area and A'rou foci experiment area. Observations were by: (1) Spectral emissivity obtained from 102F at 2-25um in cooperation with the handheld infrared thermometer (BNU) for the surface radiative temperature and one au-plating board for downward atmospheric radiation. The radiative transfer equation and TES methods were applied to retrieve emissivity. The grassland and the concrete floor were measured on May, 27, 2008, the wheat field and the maize field at ICBC resort on May, 29, 2008, the concrete floor (multiangle measurements) at ICBC resort on Jun. 3, 2008, the bare soil and the maize leaf in Yingke oasis maize field on Jun. 22, 2008, the maize and wheat canopy in Yingke oasis maize field on Jun. 23, 2008, the rape field in Biandukou experimental area on Jun. 24, 2008, the alfalfa, the saline land, the grassland and the barley land on Jun. 26, 2008, the wheat field and the maize field in Yingke oasis maize field on Jun. 29, 2008, the desert bare land and vegetation (Reaumuria soongorica) in No. 2 Huazhaiai desert plot on Jun. 30, 2008, the rape field and the grassland in Biandukou experimental area on Jul. 6, 2008, and the grassland and the bare land (multiangle) in A'rou experimental area on Jul. 14, 2008. The cold blackbody calibration (*.CBX/*.CBB), the warm blackbody calibration (*.WBX/*.WBB), the ground objects measurements (*.SAX), au-plating board measurements, and the downward atmospheric radiation (*.DWX) were all needed during observation. Moreover, the spectral radiance and emissivity were also archived. The response function of various bands could be acquired by 102F. And then emissivity of 2-25um could be retrieved. Two results of emissivity were developed: one was direct from 102F and the other was retrieved by ISSTES (Iterative spectrally smooth temperature-emissivity separation). Spectral resolution for raw data and proprecessed data was 4cm-1. (2) Spectral emissivity obtained from BOMAN at 2 -13μm in cooperation with the blackbody barrel and the blackbody from Institute of Remote Sensing Applications and the blackbody (BNU). The desert was measured on Jun. 30 and Jul. 1, 2008, A'rou foci experimental area on Jul. 14, 2008, indoor observations on the deep and shallow layer soil, vegetation, small stones, two maize plants from Yingke No.2 (YKYZYMD02) field and one maize plant and bare land from No. 3 (YKYZYMD03)field on on Jul. 16, 2008, Linze experimental area on Jul. 17, 2008, and gobi on Jul. 18, 2008. The sample site, coordinates, time and photos were all archived. During each observation, BOMAN was preheated and the blackbody was set at the predicted target temperature, which would be changed after the infrared radiation of the blackbody was measured by BOMAN. And then the target infrared radiation, the downward atmospheric radiation (reflected by the au-plating board) and the infrared radiation of the blackbody would be measured one by one. Raw data were archived in Igm, and after processed by FTSW500, the result was Rad (radiation). Finally, Rad would be changed into txt files by Matlab programs.
The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission was obtained in L2, L4 and L5 of the A'rou foci experimental area on Mar. 19, 2008. The samples were collected every 100 m along the strip from south to north. In L2, the soil temperature, soil volumetric moisture, the loss tangent, soil conductivity, and the real part and the imaginary part of soil complex permittivity were acquired by the POGO soil sensor, the mean soil temperature from 0-5cm by the probe thermometer, and soil gravimetric moisture, volumetric moisture, and soil bulk density after drying by the cutting ring (100cm^3). In L4, the soil temperature, soil volumetric moisture, the loss tangent, soil conductivity, and the real part and the imaginary part of soil complex permittivity were acquired by the POGO soil sensor, the mean soil temperature from 0-5cm by the probe thermometer, the surface radiative temperature measured three times by the hand-held infrared thermometer, and soil gravimetric moisture, volumetric moisture, and soil bulk density after drying by the cutting ring (100cm^3). In L5, soil volumetric moisture was acquired by ML2X, the mean soil temperature from 0-5cm by the probe thermometer, and soil gravimetric moisture, volumetric moisture, and soil bulk density after drying by the cutting ring (100cm^3). Surface roughness was detailed in the "WATER: Surface roughness dataset in the A'rou foci experimental area". Besides, GPR (Ground Penetration Radar) observations were also carried out in L6 and the handheld thermal imager observations in L4. Those provide reliable ground data for retrieval and validation of soil moisture and freeze/thaw status from active remote sensing approaches.
The dateset of GPR (Ground Penetration Radar) observations was obtained in the A'rou foci experimental area from Mar. 10 to Jun. 19, 2008. Those provide reliable dataset for retrieval of soil moisture and frozen depth from GPR observations. Observation items, sites and time were as follows: (1) GPR in No. 1 quadrate of A'rou on Mar. 10, 2008 (2) GPR+TDR in No. 2 and 3 quadrates of A'rou on Mar. 11, 2008 (3) GPR in No. 1 quadrate of A'rou on Mar. 12, 2008 (4) GPR in No. 2 quadrate of A'rou on Mar. 14, 2008 (5) GPR +TDR in No. 1 quadrate of A'rou on Mar. 15, 2008 (6) GPR +TDR in L6 of A'rou on Mar. 16, 2008 (7) GPR +TDR in L6 of A'rou on Mar. 17, 2008 (8) GPR +TDR in L6 of A'rou on Mar. 18, 2008 (9) GPR +TDR in L6 of A'rou on Mar. 19, 2008 (10) GPR in L6 of A'rou on Mar. 20, 2008 (11) GPR +TDR in No. 3 quadrate of A'rou on Mar. 21, 2008 (12) GPR in No. 1 and 3 quadrates of A'rou on May. 31, 2008 (13) GPR in No. 1 quadrate of A'rou on Jun. 20, 2008
The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with PROBA CHRIS was obtained in No. 2 and 3 quadrates of the A'rou foci experimental area on Jun. 23, 2008. Observation items included: (1) quadrates investigation including GPS by GARMIN GPS 76, plant species by manual cognition, the plant number by manual work, the height by the measuring tape repeated 4-5 times, phenology by manual work, the coverage by manual work (compartmentalizing 0.5m×0.5m into 100 to see the percentage the stellera takes) and the chlorophyll content by SPAD 502. Data were archived in Excel format. (2) roughness by the self-made roughness board and the camera. The processed data were archived as .txt files. (3) BRDF by ASD FieldSpec (350～2 500 nm), with 20% reference board and the observation platform made by Beijing Normal University. The processed reflectance and transmittivity were archived as .txt files. (4) LAI of stellera and pasture by the fisheye camera (CANON EOS40D with a lens of EF15/28), shooting straight downwards, with exceptions of higher plants, which were shot upwards. Data included original photos (.JPG) and those processed by can_eye5.0 (in Excel). For more details, see Readme file. Five files were included, spectrum in No.2 quadrate, multiangle observations in No.2 and 3 quadrates, roughness photos in No.2 and 3 quadrates, the fisheye camera observations, and the No.2 and 3 quadrates investigation.