The data are the typical landscape, geomorphology and sedimentary strata photos obtained by the thematic group in the lower reaches of Yajiang River and Niyang River Basin from July to August 2019, as well as the physical and chemical indexes of loess and river sediments, mainly including: (1) 14C sample sampling and age in the lower reaches of Niyang River; (2) Chronological results of OSL in the lower reaches of Niyang River; (3) XRF of lacustrine sediments and Langou loess in the lower reaches of Niyang River; (4) Magnetic susceptibility of Lamawan lacustrine sediments and Langou loess in the lower reaches of Niyang River; (5) Grain size of Langou loess in the lower reaches of Niyang River; (6) Elements in the lower reaches of Yarlung Zangbo River and Niyang River Basin. The photos mainly show glaciers, rivers, lakes and other landscapes, as well as landslide surface, glacier shear surface and sedimentation.
The development history of high topography in the northeastern (NE) Tibetan Plateau is essential to test various plateau growth models and understand plateau construction. We present integrated provenance data from the NE Qaidam Basin, south of the Qilian Shan. Results show an increase in carbonate lithics, an increase in Al2O3/SiO2 ratios, a negative shift in εNd values and an appearance of large amounts of Precambrian zircon grains in the period of ~13 to ~8 Ma, arguing that the sediment source of the NE Qaidam Basin may have shifted from the East Kunlun Shan to the Qilian Shan during this time interval. We infer that significant topographic growth of the southern Qilian Shan occurred during the middle-late Miocene. Along with widespread middle to late Miocene deformation records across the Qilian Shan and abruptly shifts on provenance, sedimentary facies and climate indexes in its surrounding basins, present high topography of the NE Tibetan Plateau may have been established since the middle-late Miocene.
This set of data is used to reconstruct the magnetostratigraphy of the Hoh Xil basin in the interior of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Sichuan Basinaround the eastern margin of the plateau, and then combined with other chronological methods to establish high-precision chronological scales of the two basins. All the data are thermal demagnetization data, including two parts: one is the paleomagnetic data of the strata about 1000 meters in the top of the Hoh Xil basin; The second is the paleomagnetic data of the bottom strata in Sichuan Basin. The data were measured or obtained in the State Key Laboratory of continental dynamics, Northwestern University and the laboratory of paleomagnetism and geochronology, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The preliminary processing results show that the data quality is high.
The data of major and trace elements were analysed by ICP-MS at the State Key Laboratory of Isotope Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Zircon U-Pb ages and trace elements were analysed by LA-ICP-MS at the Key Laboratory of Mineralogy and Metallogeny of CAS, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The international standard samples and reference values measured in the same batch are consistent within the error range, with low blank in the whole process. The samples of YMS and FS batholiths range from diorite to granite (52‒75 wt. % SiO2), and both show the higher bulk rock Fe3+/ΣFe ratios (between 0.3 and 0.6). The Fe3+/ΣFe of low silica (SiO2<65 wt. %) samples of Dabie are consistent with YMS and FS, but the high SiO2 samples show the low ratios (between 0.1 and 0.3) . Compared with MORB, all the samples show the high ƒO2.Majority of zircons Ce4+/Ce3+ and Eu/Eu* ratios are mostly in range of 100-1000, and consistent with ore-bearing porphyries in Chile and China (e.g., Dexing), indicating the high ƒO2. Conversely, the inherited zircon (~2.5 Ga) Ce4+/Ce3+ ratios of Liguo and FS plutons range from 10 to 200, similar to those of ore barren porphyries in Chile, i.e. low ƒO2 .That adakitic rocks with high oxygen fugacity are very widespread in the NCC. Those magmas were derived from partial melting of thickened lower continental crust with the mixing of mantle materials, and the high ƒO2 characteristic inherited from an oxidized mantle source that has been modified by fluids and/or melt derived from (Paleo)-Pacific plate.
There are 6 apatite fission track data and 2 zircon fission track data in tiekelike mountain, West Kunlun. The age error is less than 10%; The results show that the tiekelike mountains in the north of West Kunlun have undergone rapid exhumation since Miocene. There are 17 groups of detrital zircon U-Pb dating results of Cenozoic sediments from keriyang section and kashtashi section in front of West Kunlun Mountains, which are analyzed by LA-ICP-MS method, and the age concordance is less than 10%; These results indicate that the early provenance of the Piedmont sediments came from Songpan Ganzi and South Kunlun blocks, and the South Kunlun block and North Kunlun block provided provenance to the Piedmont since the Atushi formation. These results indicate that the Cenozoic uplift of the West Kunlun Mountains experienced a process of gradual northward growth. Four apatite fission track results of bedrock samples from the upper and lower walls of Tashkurgan normal fault in the Pamir orogenic belt were obtained by using the external detector method, and the age error was less than 15%; The results show that the Tashkurgan normal fault began to move about 8.5 Ma, and the footwall of the normal fault tilted westward, which may indicate that there was a structural system transformation from the previous north-south compression orogeny to the late Cenozoic East-West collapse extension in the East Pamir area.
This data is the stratigraphic histogram of Quanshui Lake in Kunlun mountain area, including the characteristic elements of stratigraphic thickness and lithologic changes, which is based on detailed field survey and indoor analysis. The specific processing method is as follows: through field investigation, obtain the material of formation lithology composition, formation thickness, structural characteristics, etc., and draw the draft of stratigraphic histogram by hand. Back in the room, the lithology of rock is confirmed by thin section identification, and then the histogram is electronized by CorelDRAW software. This map is about 4MB in size with high resolution. It can be used for stratigraphic investigation, lithological analysis, the highest marine strata in Kunlun Mountain, paleontology and paleogeography.
This data is a histogram of red coral stratum in Kunlun mountain area, including the characteristic elements of stratum thickness and lithology change, which is based on detailed field survey and indoor analysis. The specific processing method is as follows: through field investigation, obtain the material of formation lithology composition, formation thickness, structural characteristics, etc., and draw the draft of stratigraphic histogram by hand. Back in the room, the lithology of rock is confirmed by thin section identification, and then the histogram is electronized by CorelDRAW software. This map is about 4MB in size with high resolution. It can be used for stratigraphic investigation, lithological analysis, the highest marine strata in Kunlun Mountain, paleontology and paleogeography.
Electron microprobe data analysis of tourmaline in tourmaline leucogranite of cuonadong dome in North Himalayan dome belt Data source and processing: EPMA testing, testing laboratory: EPMA laboratory, Key Laboratory of orogenic belt and crustal evolution, Ministry of education, Peking University; The element abundance of tourmaline in the probe slice was measured; Data quality: element abundance error < 0.1% Application of the data in the future: analysis of the source areas of leucogranite and their differences, and discussion of the transformation of fluid action.
The contents include: plane model diagram of strata deformation and shear strain change after 10% compression of the model of Huangjindong deposit in northeastern Hunan Province; Plane model diagram of strata deformation and shear strain change after 2% extension of Huangjindong deposit model in Northeast Hunan Province; Plane model diagram of strata deformation and volume strain change after 2% stretching of Huangjindong deposit model in Northeast Hunan Province; The cross-section model map of strata deformation and shear strain change after 1% compression of Huangjindong deposit model in Northeast Hunan Province; Section model of strata deformation and volume strain change after 1% compression in Huangjindong deposit, Northeastern Hunan Province; The cross-section model map of strata deformation and shear strain change after 1% stretching of Huangjindong deposit model in Northeast Hunan Province; The profile model of strata deformation and volume strain change after 1% stretching of the Huangjindong deposit model in northeastern Hunan Province. There are seven Mesozoic tectonic thermal fluid numerical simulation maps in eastern China. The establishment process of plane and profile model: the top surface of the profile model is 3km underground, and the geometric model is 633m long, 20m wide and 512 M high. The lithology of the stratum in the model is sandstone and slate interbedding, and is cut through by a fault. The plane model is 15.3km wide and 12.5km high. The model consists of sandstone, siliceous slate and two kinds of quartz bearing slate with four faults. The stratum and rock mass in the study area are defined as elastic-plastic materials, and the corresponding simulation calculation is carried out based on the Mohr Coulomb strength criterion. The Mohr Coulomb strength criterion is adopted. The permeability and porosity of each geological unit are mainly based on the measured parameters of different geological units in Northeast Hunan, while the mechanical parameters are mainly from the FLAC3D manual or the test data of similar lithology. According to the previous research results and the actual geological characteristics of the mining area, the initial and boundary conditions of deformation and fluid flow are set, and the fluid flux is given to the whole model according to the mode and direction of fluid migration. In the initial state, the initial state of all pores in the rock is water saturation, that is, the saturation is 1. According to the theoretical model of ore-forming fluid pressure of hypabyssal rock, the initial pore pressure in the formation is set as hydrostatic pressure, and the pore pressure on the top surface of the model is fixed. The surface of the model is a permeable boundary, and other boundaries are set as impermeable boundaries. Then the initial geostress is balanced to get the equilibrium state. Then, the mechanical boundary conditions are set for the model. Combined with the characteristics of the ore deposits in northeastern Hunan formed in the tectonic environment of first compression and then tension, the two models are compared with each other, and the symmetrical initial compression velocity (2.425) is applied on the left and right boundaries of one model × 10-9 M / s) to simulate the process of tectonic compression, while the symmetrical initial tension velocity (2. 425 M / s) was applied to the left and right boundaries of the other model × 10-9m / s) to simulate the process of tectonic extension. Main conclusions and Enlightenment: the dynamic mechanism of the mineralization process of Huangjindong gold deposit is discussed through numerical simulation. Under the action of tectonic compression and tectonic extension, a large dilatation area appears in the slate near the fault. The formation of dilatation space can provide a favorable metallogenic space for mineral precipitation and metasomatism, and provide a favorable place for the convergence of ore-forming fluids, The simulation results show that the expansion location is basically corresponding to the known ore body. It also shows that the mineralization process of gold deposits in Northeast Hunan is closely related to mechanical action. At the same time, for other gold deposits or other types of gold deposits in Northeast Hunan, this simulation study also has a certain reference value, that is, through obtaining the relevant metallogenic geological characteristics (tectonic stress environment, rock mechanics parameters, etc.), studying the rock mass properties, strata deformation characteristics and the migration law of ore-forming fluid in the ore body location, It can clearly show the physical process of mineralization, improve the existing metallogenic model, and provide a theoretical basis for further prospecting. The above data have not been published yet. The results are expected to be published in SCI high-level journals, and the data are true and reliable. The data is stored in JPG format.
The data of major and trace elements were analysed by ICP-MS at the State Key Laboratory of Isotope Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Zircon U-Pb ages and trace elements were analysed by LA-ICP-MS at the Key Laboratory of Mineralogy and Metallogeny of CAS, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The international standard samples and reference values measured in the same batch are consistent within the error range, with low blank in the whole process. The data quality is accurate and reliable. The samples of Guandian pluton show high SiO2 (59.15-62.32%), Al2O3 (14.51-15.38%), Sr (892-1184 ppm), Sr/Y (57.63-86.32) and low Y (12.65-18.05 ppm), similar to typical geochemical features of adakite. The Guandian adakite also exhibits high K2O (2.88-3.86%), MgO (3.89-5.24%) and Mg# (55-60), negative anomalies of high field strength elements (HFSE, e.g., Nb, Ta and Ti) and positive anomalies of Ba, Pb and Sr. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating yielded a weighted average age of 129.2 ± 0.7 Ma. Calculations of zircon Ce4+/Ce3+ (6.79-145) and (Eu/Eu*)N (0.23-0.42) on the basis of in situ zircon trace element analysis indicate that the magma had a lower oxygen fugacity relative to the ore-bearing adakites in the LYRB and Dexing, which is consistent with the fact of ore-barren in the research area. In combination with previous research, we propose that Guandian adakite was formed by partial melting of delaminated lower continental crust triggered by Early Cretaceous ridge subduction of the Pacific and Izanagi plates.