Vegetation photosynthesis is a key component of carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystem. Simulating photosynthesis activities on different spatial and temporal scales is helpful to solve the problem of land carbon budget, and it is also an important way to accurately predict the direction of future climate change and an important prerequisite for scientific understanding of the supporting capacity of terrestrial ecosystem for sustainable development of human society. At present, although a variety of algorithms and products for estimating the total primary productivity (GPP) of ecosystems have been relatively mature, there are still great differences and uncertainties in the global GPP products of long time series, especially the trend of their temporal variation. Sunlight induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) remote sensing is a new type of remote sensing technology developed rapidly in recent years. The close relationship between SIF and photosynthetic process makes it an effective probe to indicate the changes of vegetation photosynthesis and a powerful means to monitor GPP. A new vegetation index (Nirv) based on remote sensing data, namely the product of normalized vegetation index (NDVI) and near-infrared reflectance, is highly related to remote sensing SIF products; based on mechanism derivation, model simulation and analysis of remote sensing data, Nirv can be used as an alternative product of SIF to estimate global GPP. Therefore, on the basis of analyzing the feasibility of Nirv as SIF and GPP probe, this data set generates the global high-resolution long-time series GP data from 1982 to 2018 based on the AVHRR data of remote sensing and hundreds of flux stations around the world, and analyzes the temporal and spatial variation trend of global GPP. The resolution is month, 0.05 degree, and the data unit is gcm-2 The annual average global GPP is about 128.3 ± 4.0 PG Cyr − 1, and the root mean square error (RMSE) of the data is 1.95 gcm-2 D-1. The data set can be used to study global climate change and carbon cycle.
The near-surface freeze-thaw affects the water and energy exchanges mode and efficiency between the land and atmosphere. The transition of the freeze/thaw state affects the pattern of runoff concentration, which has an important impact on regional and global water cycle. Based on the remote sensing data of AMSR-E/2 passive microwave sensors and MODIS optical sensor, this data set uses the discriminant function algorithm and its downscaling method to produce a global mapping of near-surface freeze-thaw states with higher spatial resolution. This product covers the time period from 2002 to 2018 (daily), and spatial coverage is global scale (spatial resolution of 0.05°). It can be used to analyze the start/end time of global near-surface freeze/thaw states, the duration of freezing/thawing and their changing trends, and provide data support for studying the mechanism of water cycle and energy exchanges in the context of global change.
Terrestrial actual evapotranspiration (ET), including evaporation from soil and water surfaces, evaporation of rainfall interception, transpiration of vegetation canopy and sublimation of snow and glaciers, is an important component of the terrestrial water cycle and links the hydrological, energy, and carbon cycles. The dataset of ETMonitor-GlobalET-2013-2014 is obtained based on ETMonitor model, which combines parameterizations for different processes and land cover types, with multi-source satellite data as input. Several remote sensing based variables, e.g. net radiation flux and dynamic water body area, and meteorological variables from ERA5 reanalysis dataset, were used as input to estimate daily ET. The ET estimation is conducted at daily temporal step and 1km spatial resolution, and the generated global ET dataset is at 5km resolution and daily time step for publication. The data type is 16-bit signed integer, the scale factor is 0.1, and the unit is mm/day.