Stratigraphic column of Devonian and Carboniferous near Nuoma Village, Changdu, Tibet

Paleozoic carbonate sequences are well developed along the road from the Leiwuqi County to the Jiangda County, Changdu, eastern Tibet. Preliminary Devonian-Carboniferous biostratigraphy studies based on macro-fauna (e.g. brachiopods and corals) have been conducted by previous researchers, but high-resolution subdivision and correlation is still lacking in study area. For example, Upper Devonian Zhuogedong Formation and Lower Carboniferous Wuqingna Formation exists near Tuoba and Wuqingna village. Abundant conodonts, rock and geochemical samples from the Nuoma section in Tuoba, Karuo District, Changdu have been collected, which was assigned to the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary interval by geological survey. Our studies would provide precise biostratigraphic correlation in this area and have important significance for redefinition of the DCB GSSP. This dataset includes the stratigraphic column and outcrop photo of the Nuoma section in Changdu (GPS coordinates: 97°49’53.06’’ E, 31°27’2.94’’ N). According to the conodont data, the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary is tentatively placed within the interval between 141 m to 188 m in this section.

0 2022-07-11

The record and photo gallery of the comprehensive stratigraphic expedition of the Precambrian-Cambrian in the Hazara Basin of northern Pakistan

The Ediacaran to early Cambrian representing the transition of Cryptozoic to Phanerozoic is one of the most important transitional periods in the earth system evolution and a hot period for the study of the origin and evolution of metazoan. Focusing on this scientific question, massive interdisciplinary studies including palaeontology, stratigraphy, geochemistry, geophysics etc. have been taken in many regions which significantly improve our understandings of this period. In the Himalaya zone, the correlative strata only have been reported and studies in a few regions in the Sub Indian Continent. The North Pakistan locating the western Himalaya is one of the adjoining areas of Tibet Plateau. For the lack of basic stratigraphic and palaeontological studies, it’s hard to confirm the exact age of the Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian strata assigned by the previous studies. Thus, for the establishment of the chronological framework in western Himalaya, it’s necessary to do more detailed investigations and sample collections to sort out the sedimentary sequence, biostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy of this interval in North Pakistan. During the expeditions in the Hazara Basin, we detailedly observed the lithostratigraphy and systematically collected samples for petrological, palaeontological and geochemical studies at Sikhar Mountain, Tarnawai Village, Salhad Village, Abbottabad Height, Sobangali, Neelor Village and Pindkhan Khel sections. The result of this preliminary investigation confirmed that the Hazara Basin deposited a relatively successive Ediacaran to early Cambrian strata.

0 2022-07-11

The record and photo gallery of the geological expedition of Northern Pakistan, the adjacent zone of Tibet Plateau

The Ediacaran to early Cambrian representing the transition of Cryptozoic to Phanerozoic is one of the most important transitional periods in the earth system evolution and a hot period for the study of the origin and evolution of metazoan. Focusing on this scientific question, massive interdisciplinary studies including palaeontology, stratigraphy, geochemistry, geophysics etc. have been taken in many regions which significantly improve our understandings of this period. In the Himalaya zone, the correlative strata only have been reported and studies in a few regions in the Sub Indian Continent. The North Pakistan locating the western Himalaya is one of the adjoining areas of Tibet Plateau. For the lack of basic stratigraphic and palaeontological studies, it’s hard to confirm the exact age of the Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian strata assigned by the previous studies. Thus, for the establishment of the chronological framework in western Himalaya, it’s necessary to do more detailed investigations and sample collections to sort out the sedimentary sequence, biostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy of this interval in North Pakistan. During the expeditions in the Hazara Basin, we detailedly observed the lithostratigraphy and systematically collected samples for petrological, palaeontological and geochemical studies at Sikhar Mountain, Tarnawai Village, Salhad Village, Abbottabad Height, Sobangali, Neelor Village and Pindkhan Khel sections. The result of this preliminary investigation confirmed that the Hazara Basin deposited a relatively successive Ediacaran to early Cambrian strata.

0 2022-04-21

Identification lists of fossils from Nyalam and Xainza, Tibet

Ostracods from the Silurian Pulu Formation in the Yalai West II section, Nyalam (GPS coordinates: 28°24′3.52″N, 86°5′55.08″ E) and the Devonian–Carboniferous transitional interval in Xainza (GPS coordinates: 31°4′ 11″N, 88°41′08″E) are described for the first time. The methodology, known as ‘hot-acetolysis’, was used to extract ostracods from the limestones. About 1050 and 2460 specimens were obtained, including both single valves and carapaces from the Yalai west II section, Nyalam and Chaguoluoma DCB section, Xainza, respectively. In the Yalai West II section, thirty-two species belonging to 19 genera are identified and figured, and the ostracod fauna indicates an age of the late Llandovery Pridoli for the Pulu Formation. At the stratotype section of the Chaguoluoma Formation, Xainza, fifty-three ostracod species of 19 genera are identified and figured including a new species Bairdiacypris xainzaensis n. sp. The ostracod fauna in the Chaguoluoma section may represent an age close to the Devonian–Carboniferous boundary. New findings of ostracods fauna have great significance for biostratigraphy subdivision ad correlation. This dataset include identification lists from the Yalai West II and the Chaguoluoma sections.

0 2022-04-16

Identification lists of fossils from Wat Mong Kratae section, western Thailand

Palaeozoic chronostratigraphic division and correlation are mainly based on biostratigraphy studies. Western Thailand was located in the Sibumasu terrane, having palaeogeographic affinity to the western Yunnan and Qiangtang terranes. Previous biostratigraphic sequences of major fossil groups have been poorly studied here. However, most of the paleontological work being conducted in western Thailand is of a reconnaissance nature. Collections and identifications of important index fossils are especially significant in improving our understating of Early Paleozoic stratigraphy in Sibumasu terrane, to correlate with Xizang and western Yunnan of China. Abundant fossil samples from the Tha Manao Formation in western Thailand (Sibumasu terrane, Dapingian Wat Mong Kratae section, GPS coordinates: 14°25′57″ N, 99°7′23″) were collected and identified in this study, including conodonts Drepanoistodus pitjanti, Erraticodon patu, Protopanderodus nogamii, and cephalopods Wutinoceras sp., Armenoceras sp., Wadema sp.. This collection suggests the Tha Manao Formation an age of upper Floian to middle Darriwilian of Middle Ordovician.

0 2022-04-16

The Pre-Cambrian to Cambrian lithostratigraphic columns of the sections in Northern Pakistan

The Ediacaran to early Cambrian representing the transition of Cryptozoic to Phanerozoic is one of the most important transitional periods in the earth system evolution and a hot period for the study of the origin and evolution of metazoan. Focusing on this scientific question, massive interdisciplinary studies including palaeontology, stratigraphy, geochemistry, geophysics etc. have been taken in many regions which significantly improve our understandings of this period. In the Himalaya zone, the correlative strata only have been reported and studies in a few regions in the Sub Indian Continent. The North Pakistan locating the western Himalaya is one of the adjoining areas of Tibet Plateau. For the lack of basic stratigraphic and palaeontological studies, it’s hard to confirm the exact age of the Pre-Cambrian to Cambrian strata assigned by the previous studies. Thus, for the establishment of the chronological framework in western Himalaya, it’s necessary to do more detailed investigations and sample collections to sort out the sedimentary sequence, biostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy of this interval in North Pakistan. During the expeditions in the Hazara Basin divided into eastern (Abbottabad block) and western (Tanawal Block) segments across Panjal-Khairabad Thrust (PKT or MCT), we detailedly observed the lithostratigraphy and systematically collected samples for petrological, palaeontological and geochemical studies at the sections in both eastern (Sikhar Mountain, Tarnawai Village, Tanakki, Abbottabad Height and Sobangali sections) and western (Neelor Village and Pindkhan Khel sections) Hazara Basin. Basing on the lab analysis, we have detailed correlated and sorted the lithostratigraphic sequences of each section, and completed a correlative lithostratigraphic columns of the sections. In general, the lithology of these sections in eastern and western Hazara Basin are comparable and consist of the Hazara Formation (Eastern Harara Basin) and Tanawa Formation (Western Harara Basin), Ediacaran Tanakki Diamictite, Cap-Carbonate, Kakul Formation (siliciclastics) and Abbottabad Formation (dolostone)、Cambrian Hazira Formation (phosphorite, dolostone and siliciclastics ) and Jurassic Samana Suk (bioclastic limestone) in ascending order. The Tanakki Diamictite disconformably overlies the underlying Hazara Formation (Eastern Harara Basin) and Tanawa Formation (Western Harara Basin); the Abbottabad Formation both disconformably contacts with the under Kakul Formation and upper Hazira Formation; the Jurassic Samana Suk directly unconformably overlies the Cambrian Hazira Formation. For now, the Ediacaran Cap-carbonate has only been observed at the Pindkhand Khel section in the western Hazara Basin which is reported in the Lesser Himalaya for the first time. Thus, it is possible to induce the underlying Tanakki Diamictite is belong to Ediacaran in age. However, the exact Cambrian Hazira Formation bearing abundant small shelly fossils has only been confirmed at Tarnawai Village and Tanakki sections in eastern Harara Basin.

0 2022-04-04

Revisit of Hsianwenia wui (Cyprinidae: Schizothoracinae) from the Pliocene of Qaidam Basin

The Qaidam Basin is a key area for understanding the paleoenvironmental and faunal history of the Tibetan Plateau. The fossil schizothoracine fish, Hsianwenia wui, evolved extraordinarily thickened bones to adapt to the aridification of the Qaidam Basin during the Pliocene. However, the nature of the bone thickening itself remains elusive. To promote the further investigation of the physiological mechanism of the pachyostosis and the phylogenetic interrelationships of Hsianwenia and all relevant cyprinids, here we present a comprehensive morphological study of Hsianwenia. We have new information on the anterior part of the cranial cavity, a large supraneural 3 in the Weberian apparatus, numerous procurrent caudal fin rays supported by the preural centrum (Pu) 5, and a neural arch on Pu2. We also find the differentiated pattern of the bone-thickening: the pachyostosis exists in the endoskeleton but not in the dermal skeleton; it is more obvious in ventral bones than in dorsal ones, when the thickening is present in the dorsally and ventrally grouped endoskeletal bones (e.g., the epineural and epipleural intermuscular bones). Considering the integrity of musculoskeletal system manipulating the chewing activities, we suspect that the thickened pharyngeal jaws and the hard food processing might be associated with the unique hind protrusion (cleithral “humeral” process) of the dermal pectoral girdle of Hsianwenia.

0 2022-03-09

Stratigraphic column of Ordovician Tha Manao Formation in Wat Mong Kratae section, western Thailand

Paleozoic strata are well developed in the western Thailand area, but the detailed palaeontological research is still lacking for the Ordovician in study area. Abundant conodonts and cephalopod samples from the Tha Manao Formation in western Thailand (Sibumasu terrane, Dapingian Wat Mong Kratae section, GPS coordinates: 14°25′57″ N, 99°7′23″) were collected and identified in this study, constraining the age of Dapingian, and correlating to the Hunghuayuan Formation of South China. This dataset includes the stratigraphic column of the Tha Manao Formation section and outcrop photos in the western Thailand.

0 2022-02-26

Stratigraphic column of Devonian and Carboniferous near Nuoma Village, Changdu, Xizang

The Late Paleozoic carbonate strata are well developed from Lewuqi County to Jiangda County in the Changdu area, eastern Xizang. The previous biostratigraphic studies based on macro-fossils (e.g. brachiopod and coral) are not sufficient for high resolution correlation. The seemingly continuous strata at Tuoba and Wuqingna have been divided as Zhuogedong Formation (or Qiangge Formation) of Late Devonian and Wuqingna Formation of Early Carboniferous mainly by lithology. We made detailed sampling for conodont, sedimentary and geochemical research at the outcrops between Tuoba and Wuqingna near Nuoma Village which according to the unpublished data belong to the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary interval. This study is significant for high resolution correlation of Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous in this region and the global stratotype study. The dataset only includes the stratigraphic column and photo of the section. The bio-chronological information will be added in the future.

0 2022-02-14