Diagnostic list of Cambrian Small shelly fossil from the Northern Pakistan

The occurrence and diversification of the skeletal fossils during the latest Ediacaran and early Cambrian (Terreneuvian) witness the significant evolutionary event, “Cambrian explosion”, in earth history. These skeletal fossils were collectively termed as “small shelly fossils (SSFs)” for their micro-size and mineralization in normal. They represent the earliest metazoan records, and are crucial for studying the origins and early evolution of many animal clades. Due to their worldwide distribution and rapid biodiversification, the SSFs have been taken as an important tool for the early Cambrian stratigraphical correlation (especially for the Terreneuvian) and paleobiogeographical reconstruction. The North Pakistan locating the western Himalaya is one of the adjoining areas of Tibet Plateau. For the lack of basic stratigraphic and palaeontological studies, it’s hard to confirm the exact age of the Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian strata assigned by the previous studies. Few SSFs had been reported in the early Cambrian Hazira Formation at Salhad section in the eastern Hazara Basin, however, the studies of these fossils are quite preliminary and problematic. Therefore, it’s urgent to carry on new detailed research to clarify the genus and species of these fossils which is fundamental for the biostratigraphical studies. Herein, basing on the expedition of the Salhad section in eastern Hazara Basin, we have systematically collected and done the lab process of the fossil samples, and tentatively recognized 24 genus, 18 species and 3 unidentified species.

0 2021-10-08

Identification lists of fossils from Nyalam and Xainza, Tibet and Longmenshan, Sichuan

Paleozoic chronostratigraphic division and correlation are mainly based on biostratigraphy studies. In Tibet, biostratigraphic sequences of major fossil groups, such as conodont and rugose coral, have been briefly summarized by previous research. However, due to its remoteness, high altitude and the geographic extent of this vast mountainous region, most of the paleontological work being conducted in Tibet is of a reconnaissance nature. Collections and identifications of important index fossils are especially significant in improving our understating of Paleozoic stratigraphy in Himalayan, Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes and associated arc-basin systems. Abundant conodont, rugose coral, tabulate coral and stromatoporoid samples from the Pulu Formation in Nyalam (Himalaya terrane, Llandovery to Pridoli Yalai 2 sction, GPS coordinates: 28°24′17″ N, 86°5′48″ E)) and the Dardong Formation in Xainza (Lhasa terrane, Pragian to early Emsian SZ1 and SZ2 sections, GPS coordinates: 31°8′36.63″ N, 88°38′39.22″ E和31°7′56″ N, 88°37′47″ E), Tibet and the Changtanzi Formation in Longmenshan (Songpan-Ganzi terrane, Late Devonian Famennian Longmenshan section, GPS coordinates: 31°54′3.55″ N, 104°42′29.82″ E), Sichuan were collected and identified in this study. This dataset include identification lists from four sections in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its adjacent area, which are named as SZ1, SZ2, Yalai2 and Longmenshan, respectively.

0 2021-07-31

Carbon and oxygen isotopic features of marine carbonate rocks from the Yalai 2 section in Nyalam, Tibet (433-419 Ma)

Carbon cycle is controlled by relative changes in carbon fluxes of global atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. During the geological history, carbon isotope excursions usually occur in the critical period. Carbon isotope positive excursions are recognized to be related to abundant organic burial or enhanced primary productivity. Silurian δ13Ccarb curves from Euramerica have been established, but the isotopic patterns in different sections and regions can be quite different. Before the use of δ13Ccarb records to facilitate high resolution correlation, it is necessary to conduct sedimentary facies and diagenesis analyses and compare numerous isotopic records on a global scale, in order to learn the global versus local contribution in a δ13C record. 43 geochemical samples were collected from the Wenlock to Pridoli Pulu Formation for carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses, in order to reveal carbon cycling process in northern margin of Gondwana continent and alternation of carbon isotopic records during diagenesis. At the Yalai 2 section, δ13C values show a major positive shift in the Ludlow, which could be recognized in other sections around the world, indicating that major carbon cycling perturbation occurred during this time interval. This dataset include 43 carbon and oxygen isotopic records.

0 2021-07-31

Stratigraphic column of Silurian at the Yalai 2 section in Nyalam, Tibet

The Nyalam region of southern Tibet, China, is one of the best locations to study Wenlock to Pridoli conodonts in China, due to the relatively continuous strata. The Yalai West II section is located on the mountain west of the Yalai Town. The Pulu Formation is composed of bioclastic wackestones with some interbeds of lim-mudstones, packstones and calcisiltites. Abundant cephalopods and conodonts, as well as rare bivalves and corals were reported from the Pulu Formation. The Pulu Formation represents a shallow-water marine environment with slow depositional rates. Five conodont biozones are established, i.e., the Ozarkodina sagitta sagitta Biozone, the Kockelella crassa Biozone, the Kockelella variabilis variabilis Interaval Biozone, the Polygnathoides siluricus Biozone, and the “Ozarkodina” eosteinhornensis s.l. Interval Biozone from the Homerian of Wenlock to Pridoli are recognized from the Pulu Formation, which is assigned to the late Telychian of Llandovery to Pridoli based on the conodonts, as well as the graptolites from the underlying strata. Among the conodont fauna in the Nyalam region, Wurmiella alternata has only been recognized from the Gondwana and peri-Gondwana, but others are widespread, which might be an indication of the cosmopolitan character of the Wenlock to Pridoli conodonts.

0 2021-07-23

Stratigraphic column of Devonian SZ1 section in Xainza, Tibet

Paleozoic strata are well developed and widely outcropped around the Xainza area of central Tibet. Among them, the Devonian succession was first introduced during the geological survey in the late 1970s, and was suggested to comprise the Middle Devonian Dardong Group (including the Lower and Upper formations) and the Upper Devonian Chaguoluoma Formation. However, high-resolution stratigraphic framework and palaeontological research are still lacking for the Lower Devonian in study area. This investigation focus on the Dardong Formation in this area, and detailed geological survey and detailed sampling were carried out in order to improve stratigraphic correlation in central Tibet. The Dardong Formation mainly consists of carbonate and siliciclastic sediments, yielding abundant fossils such as brachiopods, corals, cephalopods, conodonts, tentaculites, etc. This dataset includes the stratigraphic column of the SZ1 section and outcrop photos in the Xainza area, central Tibet.

0 2021-07-23

Stratigraphic column of Ordovician Jiaqu Formation in Nyalam, Tibet

In southern Tibet, Paleozoic strata are well developed and widely outcropped in the Himalaya area. The early stratigraphical divisions and palaeontological investigations of the Mt. Jolmo Lungma area were conducted by pioneer expedition teams in the 1920s, which originally assigned a Carboniferous or Permian age to the limestone from the Summit. The discovery of Ordovician strata in the region was mainly based on finding of index fossils from the Jiacun and other sections in the vicinity of Mt. Jolmo Lungma. However, detailed palaeontological research is still lacking for the Late Ordovician in study area. Our research focus on ostracods fauna from the Jiaqu Formation, which are described for the first time from the Upper Ordovician in Nyalam, southern Xizang (Tibet). Thirty species belonging to sixteen genera are described and figured from the Yalai Waterworks section. The ostracod fauna suggests a probable Sandbian-Katian age for the Jiaqu Formation. The ecological assemblage of ostracods fauna belongs to the Eifelian Ecotype, which implies deposition in an environment of nearshore when the Jiaqu Formation was being laid down. Many cosmopolitan or provincial genera were present in diversified ostracod fauna of the Jiaqu Formation, suggesting close biogeographic relationships among Himalaya terranes, Tarim and South China plates. This dataset includes the stratigraphic column of the Jiaqu Formation section and outcrop photos in the Himalaya area, southern Tibet.

0 2021-07-23

Stratigraphic column of Devonian SZ2 section in Xainza, Tibet

Paleozoic strata are well developed and widely outcropped around the Xainza area of central Tibet. Among them, the Devonian succession was first introduced during the geological survey in the late 1970s, and was suggested to comprise the Middle Devonian Dardong Group (including the Lower and Upper formations) and the Upper Devonian Chaguoluoma Formation. However, high-resolution stratigraphic framework and palaeontological research are still lacking for the Lower Devonian in study area. This investigation focus on the Dardong Formation in this area, and detailed geological survey and detailed sampling were carried out in order to improve stratigraphic correlation in central Tibet. The Dardong Formation mainly consists of carbonate and siliciclastic sediments, yielding abundant fossils such as brachiopods, corals, cephalopods, conodonts, tentaculites, etc. The Xainza II section is exposed along the cliff of a mountain. The studied Dardong Formation can be divided into five lithological units in ascending order: 1) light grey to grey medium- to thick-bedded limestone with cross-bedding in the middle part, yielding fragments of brachiopods and crinoid stems; 2) grayish white thin- to medium- bedded siltstone; 3) light grey to grey thin- to medium-bedded limestone, containing colonial corals and crinoid stems; 4) grey medium- to thick-bedded limestone; 5) light grey medium-bedded limestone with fragments of crinoid stems, partially covered in the upper part. This dataset includes the stratigraphic column of the SZ2 section and outcrop photos in the Xainza area, central Tibet.

0 2021-07-22

Stratigraphic histogram of Quanshui Lake

This data is the stratigraphic histogram of Quanshui Lake in Kunlun mountain area, including the characteristic elements of stratigraphic thickness and lithologic changes, which is based on detailed field survey and indoor analysis. The specific processing method is as follows: through field investigation, obtain the material of formation lithology composition, formation thickness, structural characteristics, etc., and draw the draft of stratigraphic histogram by hand. Back in the room, the lithology of rock is confirmed by thin section identification, and then the histogram is electronized by CorelDRAW software. This map is about 4MB in size with high resolution. It can be used for stratigraphic investigation, lithological analysis, the highest marine strata in Kunlun Mountain, paleontology and paleogeography.

0 2021-06-23

Stratigraphic histogram of Hongshanhu area

This data is a histogram of red coral stratum in Kunlun mountain area, including the characteristic elements of stratum thickness and lithology change, which is based on detailed field survey and indoor analysis. The specific processing method is as follows: through field investigation, obtain the material of formation lithology composition, formation thickness, structural characteristics, etc., and draw the draft of stratigraphic histogram by hand. Back in the room, the lithology of rock is confirmed by thin section identification, and then the histogram is electronized by CorelDRAW software. This map is about 4MB in size with high resolution. It can be used for stratigraphic investigation, lithological analysis, the highest marine strata in Kunlun Mountain, paleontology and paleogeography.

0 2021-06-23

Second Comprehensive Scientific Expedition on the Tibetan Plateau

This set of data includes the Cenozoic biostratigraphy scientific expedition in autumn 2020, relying on the second comprehensive scientific expedition on the Tibetan Plateau Research Task 7 topic 5 "second comprehensive scientific expedition on the Tibetan Plateau, 2019qzk0705" The data content includes image material and field video material. The main shooting equipment is SLR camera, motion camera and UAV. Data is used for documentary production, paper publication and other matters. The data involves original intellectual property rights, and the user must obtain the prior consent of the copyright owner.

0 2021-06-15