The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition (STEP) program

Brief Introduction: Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition Program

Number of Datasets: 111

  • Composition and implication of trace elements from the Permian basic rocks in central Yarlung Zangbo suture zone

    Composition and implication of trace elements from the Permian basic rocks in central Yarlung Zangbo suture zone

    Previous works have been undertaking on the geochemistry of some basic rocks within the Yaelung Zangbo suture zone, and it was proposed that the Jurassic-Cretaceous seamount type basement basic rocks are preserved in Zhongba and Renbu area. In this work, we conducted analysis of trace element for seventeen basic rock samples underlain below limestone blocks in Lhaze area within the central Yarlung Zangbo suture zone, southern Tibet. Results show that the rocks are dominated by basalts and have a feature of EMORB type with NMORB and OIB types. Combined with the overlain carbonates, these rocks are proposed the basement of paleo-seamounts, the Permian vestige preserved within the Yarlung Zangbo suture zone. This recognition of paleo-seamount implies that the Neotethys Ocean could have been already opened at the time (before the Middle Permian epoch).

    2021-01-05 337 1

  • Field exploration dataset of the central, eastern and southern Qinghai-Xizang Plateau geology

    Field exploration dataset of the central, eastern and southern Qinghai-Xizang Plateau geology

    The Yarlung Zangbo suture zone and its neighbouring areas are crucial for the research of the evolution of Neo-Tethys. The earliest evidence of the formation of Neo-Tethys remains to be discovered and the sequence of the basin evolution in many areas, such as the eastern and western Xizang, is far from well established. The limits in stratigraphy and sedimentology have greatly restricted the investigation of the evolution of Neo-Tethys as well as the collision between Indian-Eurasian plates. This exploration team conducted a joint investigation on the Mesozoic strata in some key areas in eastern, central, and southern Xizang, with emphasis on their stratigraphy, palaeontology, and sedimentology, to retrieve potential stratigraphic and sedimentary evidence of the opening, evolution, and retreat of the Neo-Tethys in the region. This dataset is a collection of the exploration, which includes diaries and photos of the strata, geological structure, profiles, and fossils that have been collected in the above-mentioned areas. It consists of three items. The explored strata include the Jurassic-Cretaceous in Luolong and Basu counties, eastern Xizang, in Renbu and Lang counties, central Xizang, and the radiolarite strata in Ngari.

    2020-12-29 384 1

  • Middle Permian stratigraphic column of the Xiadong section, Tibet (with fusulines and smaller foraminifera biostratigraphic subdivisions)

    Middle Permian stratigraphic column of the Xiadong section, Tibet (with fusulines and smaller foraminifera biostratigraphic subdivisions)

    The Xiadong section locates at the Xiadong village region in Tsochen County, Tibet. The Permian strata in this region includes Largar, Angjie and Xiala formations. The Xiadong Section locates at the north of the Xiadong Village. The section is composed of entirely carbonates with abundant fusulines, smaller foraminifers and corals. The column exhibit the occurrences of fusulines and smaller foraminifers and their biostratigraphy. According to the fusulines, the age of the Xiala Formation at this section is middle Permian age. The fusulines can be subdivided into two assemblages, respectively Chenella changanchiaoensis-Neoschwagerina cheni in the lower and Nankinella-Chusenella assemblage in the upper. The foraminifers are divided into four assemblages, respectively Lasiodiscus tenuis-Palaeotextularia angusta elongata assemblage, Agathammina pusilla-A.vachardi assemblage, Hemigordiopsis-Midiella assemblage and Pachyphloi-Nodosinelloides assemblage.

    2020-12-23 263 1

  • Northern Tibetan Scientific Expedition Album, September-October, 2020

    Northern Tibetan Scientific Expedition Album, September-October, 2020

    25 members consisting of researchers from Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS and Nanjing University, reporters from Beijing News, technicians from China Unicom, drivers and kitchener undertook the investigation on the Palaeozoic strata and faunas from various regions in northern Tibet from 30 August to 3 October. The expedition areas include areas in northern Selingco, Rejuechaka and Rongma region in northern Nyima County, Wenbu area in southern Nyima County. The objective of the expedition includes: (1) the origin of the Permian limestone blocks within the Bangong-Nujiang suture zones; (2) the Permian-Triassic strata, faunas and floras in the Rejuechaka region, northern Tibet; (3) the Ordovician cephalopods in the Rongma area, Nyima County; (4) the Permian sequence and faunas in the Wenbu area, southern Nyima County. This album contains the full record of the investigation and geological phenomenon. The links in the album can directly link to the video in internet.

    2020-12-23 278 1

  • Northern Tibetan Scientific Expedition document, September-October, 2020

    Northern Tibetan Scientific Expedition document, September-October, 2020

    25 members consisting of researchers from Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS and Nanjing University, reporters from Beijing News, technicians from China Unicom, drivers and kitchener undertook the investigation on the Palaeozoic strata and faunas from various regions in northern Tibet from 5 September to 2 October. The expedition areas include areas in northern Selingco, Rejuechaka and Rongma region in northern Nyima County, Wenbu area in southern Nyima County. In northern Selingco region, the expedition focused on the faunas from the exotic limestone blocks within the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone. In the Rejuechaka region, the expedition attention was paid on the Permian-Triassic successions, sea-level changes, and Permian and Triassic faunas and floras. In the Rongma area, the Ordovician cephalopod and Permian microfossils within the Longmu Co-Shuanghu suture zone was investigated. In the Wenbu area, the research attention was paid on the stratigraphic transition from the ice-houce to green-house conditions during the early Permian time. This document record the full information about the field investigation.

    2020-12-23 278 1

  • Middle Permian stratigraphic column of the Xiala Formation at the Sixth Zhabuye Section, Tibet (with fusulines and smaller foraminifera biostratigraphic subdivisions)

    Middle Permian stratigraphic column of the Xiala Formation at the Sixth Zhabuye Section, Tibet (with fusulines and smaller foraminifera biostratigraphic subdivisions)

    The Sixth Zhabuye Section locates at the northern part of the Zhabuye salt lake in Zhongba County, Tibet. The Middle Permian carbonates of the Xiala Formation outcropped very well in the region. This section has a thickness of 200 meters and was divided into 6 units. The lower 50 meters of the section is composed of limestones and chert layers. The chert layers in the above 100 meters decreased significantly, but they reappear in the top 35 meters. This section has abundant fusulines and smaller foraminifers. The fusulines has two assemblages, respectively Neoschwagerina majulensis-Kahlerina pachytheca assemblage in the lower and Chusenella quasifera-Codonofusiella nana assemblage in the upper. The foraminifers are divided into three assemblages, respectively Glomomidiellopsis specialisaeformis-Pachyphloia multiseptata assemblage, Lysites biconcavus-Shanita amosi assemblage and Lasiodiscus tenuis-Neoendothyra reicheli assemblage.

    2020-12-22 257 1

  • Permian stratigraphic column of the Mujiucuo section in Xainza County, Tibet (with brachiopod biostratigraphic subdivisions)

    Permian stratigraphic column of the Mujiucuo section in Xainza County, Tibet (with brachiopod biostratigraphic subdivisions)

    The Mujiucuo section locates at the west of the Mujiucuo salt lake in Xainza County, Tibet. The Permian sequences oupcropped very well at the section. The Permian sequence at the section was divided into five formations, respectively Yunzhub, Largar, Angjie, Xiala and Mujiucuo formations. The Yunzhub Formation is composed of sandstone. The upper part of this formation contains limestone interlayers with 8 species of brachiopods. The brachiopods are grouped into the Costatumulus-Bandoproductus assemblage. The Xiala Formation is composed of entirely carbonates. The purplish limestone in the base of Xiala Formation consists of 6 species of brachiopods. They are grouped into the Alispiriferella-Retimarginifera celeteria assemblage. The overlying bed only contains one species Permophricodothyris elegantula. The brachiopods from these beds overall show a Gondwanan type in palaeobiogeography. It suggests that the Lhasa Block located not far away from the Gondwana margin. According to the constraints by fusulines and conodonts, the ages of beds 83, 86 and 87 are Middle Permian whereas those of beds 88 and 89 are late Permian. Brachiopods are found in many beds in the Xiala Formation. They are divided into two separate assemblages, respectively Echinauris opuntia-Neoplicatifera in the lower and Spinomarginifera lopingensis-Chonetinella cymatilis in the upper. Compared with the brachiopods from the Yunzhub Formation and basal Xiala Formation below, both assemblages from the middle and upper part of the Xiala Formation exhibit a pronounced palaeobiogeographical changes.

    2020-12-22 268 1

  • Middle and Upper Permian stratigraphic column of the Mujiucuo section in Xainza County, Tibet (with fusulines and samller foraminifera biostratigraphic subdivisions)

    Middle and Upper Permian stratigraphic column of the Mujiucuo section in Xainza County, Tibet (with fusulines and samller foraminifera biostratigraphic subdivisions)

    The Mujiucuo section locates at the west of the Mujiucuo salt lake in Xainza County, Tibet. The Permian sequences oupcropped very well at the section. The beds from 83 to 89 consists mainly of bioclastic limestone with abundant fusulines and foraminifers. After careful examination, 13 species of fusulines and 37 species of smaller foraminifers are identified at the section. In terms of the occurrences of those fusulines and smaller foraminifers, the fusulines are subdivided into the lower Nankinella-Chusenella assemblage of Middle Permian and upper Codonofusiella schubertelloides zone of Late Permian. Similarly, the smaller foraminifers are also divided into lower Agathammina vachardi-Hemigordiopsis subglobosa assemblage and upper Glomomidiellopsis xainzaensis-Midiella reicheli assemblage. The dominance of Miliolinids in the section suggests an overall warm-water depositional settings.

    2020-12-22 241 1

  • Identifications of Permian fossils from the Mujiucuo section, Xainza County, Tibet

    Identifications of Permian fossils from the Mujiucuo section, Xainza County, Tibet

    The dataset contains the identification lists of fusulines, smaller foraminifers, brachiopods and conodonts from three sections at the Mujiucuo area, Xainza County, Tibet. The Permian strata has very good outcrops at the Mujiucuo region. The Permian strata is composed of the Yunzhub, Largar, Angjie, Xiala and Mujiucuo formations in ascending order. The Yunzhub Formation contains only abundant brachiopods, they show a typical Gondwanan cool-water type. The middle part of the Xiala Formation is composed of medium-bedded limestone with abundant foraminifers, fusulines and brachiopods. The upper part of the Xiala Formation contains abundant conodonts, smaller foraminifers and fusulines. According to the ages of the fossils, the limestone from the northwest Mujiucuo section corresponds to the bed 86 of the Mujiucuo section. The limestones from the short western Mujiucuo section corresponds to bed 89 of the Mujiucuo section. The limestone and dolomites from the No. 2 short section comes from the lower part of the Mujiucuo Formation.

    2020-12-22 292 1

  • Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset of Tibetan Plateau (1982-2015)

    Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset of Tibetan Plateau (1982-2015)

    The data set is based on NDVI 3G calculated by GIMMS AVHRR sensor data, which represents the greenness of vegetation. The data is from Zhu et al. (2013), and the specific calculation method is shown in the article. The source data range is global, and the Qinghai Tibet plateau region is selected in this data set. This data integrates the original semi monthly scale data into the monthly data. The processing method is to take the maximum value of two NDVI of a month to achieve the effect of noise removal as far as possible. This data set is one of the most widely used NDVI data, and is often used to evaluate the temporal and spatial patterns of vegetation greenness, which has practical significance and theoretical value.

    2020-12-22 662 78

  • Leaf area index (LAI) dataset of Tibetan Plateau (1982-2015)

    Leaf area index (LAI) dataset of Tibetan Plateau (1982-2015)

    The data set is based on the Lai 3g calculated by GIMMS AVHRR sensor, which represents the greenness of vegetation. The data is from Chen et al. (2019), and the specific calculation method is shown in the article. The source data range is global, and Tibetan plateau region is selected in this data set. This data integrates the original semi monthly scale data into the monthly data, and the processing method is to take the maximum value of two periods of Lai in a month, so as to achieve the effect of removing noise as much as possible. This data set is one of the most widely used Lai data, and is often used to evaluate the temporal and spatial patterns of vegetation greenness, which has practical significance and theoretical value.

    2020-12-22 421 33

  • Vegetation optical depth (VOD) dataset in Tibetan Plateau (1993-2012)

    Vegetation optical depth (VOD) dataset in Tibetan Plateau (1993-2012)

    The data set is based on a series of microwave remote sensing data, including Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observation System (AMSR-E), etc., which can be used as a reference for primary productivity. The data is from Liu et al. (2015), and the specific calculation method is shown in the article. The source data range is global, and Tibetan Plateau region is selected in this data set. This data set is often used to evaluate the temporal and spatial patterns of vegetation greenness and primary productivity, which has practical significance and theoretical value.

    2020-12-22 1211 7

  • The data set is based on the reflectance of MODIS channels and the observation data of SIF to establish the neural network model, so as to obtain the SIF data with high spatial and temporal resolution, which is often used as a reference for primary productivity. The data is from Zhang et al. (2018), and the specific algorithm is shown in the article. The source data range is global, and the Tibetan plateau region is selected in this data set. This data integrates the original 4-day time scale data into the monthly data. The processing method is to take the maximum value of the month, so as to achieve the effect of removing noise as much as possible. This data set is often used to evaluate the temporal and spatial patterns of vegetation greenness and primary productivity, which has practical significance and theoretical value.

    2020-12-18 285 7

  • Dataset of urban land and urbanization index on the Tibetan Plateau (2018, 2019)

    Dataset of urban land and urbanization index on the Tibetan Plateau (2018, 2019)

    The dataset of urban land and urbanization index on the Tibetan Plateau mainly includes the spatial distribution data of all urban land on the Tibetan Plateau (2019) and urbanization index of different scales (2018). The dataset of urban land was obtained by the visual interpretation of Google Earth images (2019), and the residential place and residential area data of "1:250000 national basic geographic database - 2015 edition". The dataset of urbanization index was based on the composite night light index (CNLI) at the regional, provincial, watershed, prefecture, and county scales calculated from the night light data of Luojia-1. Our dataset will support the study of optimizing the ecological security barrier system in the key urbanization areas of the Tibetan Plateau

    2020-12-16 300 13

  • Data set of socio-economic vulnerability parameters in agricultural and pastoral areas of Qinghai Tibet Plateau (2000-2015)

    Data set of socio-economic vulnerability parameters in agricultural and pastoral areas of Qinghai Tibet Plateau (2000-2015)

    The data set of socio-economic vulnerability parameters in the agricultural and pastoral areas of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau mainly contains the socio-economic vulnerability parameter data at county level. The data time range is from 2000 to 2015, involving 112 counties and districts in Qinghai Province and Tibet Autonomous Region. The main parameters include population density, the proportion of unit employees in the total population, the proportion of rural employees in the total population, the proportion of agricultural, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery employees in rural employees, per capita GDP, per capita savings balance of residents, per capita cultivated land area, per capita grain output, and people Average oil production, livestock stock per unit area, per capita meat production, the proportion of primary and secondary school students in the total population, and the number of hospital beds per 10000 people. The entropy weight method is used to calculate the weight of each index, and ArcGIS is used to spatialize, and finally the county scale socio-economic vulnerability parameter data is obtained. The original data is from the statistical yearbook of Qinghai Province and Tibet Autonomous Region. The data are expressed by shape file and excel file. This data set will provide reference for socio-economic vulnerability assessment and selection of typical agricultural and pastoral areas.

    2020-12-15 1352 24

  • Black carbon mass concentration data set in Ali area

    Black carbon mass concentration data set in Ali area

    The data set is the observation of Shiquanhe town in Ali area. The altitude, longitude and latitude of Ali area are 32.50, 80.10 and 4360m respectively. The mass concentration of black carbon in the atmosphere was continuously observed. Ae31 (aethalometer) is used as the measuring instrument. Its observation period is from 12:00:00 on July 13, 2019 to 21:35:00, July 17, 2020. The time resolution is 5 minutes. There is data missing due to instrument failure. The data file includes instrument information, flow parameter setting (LPM) and specific observed concentration. Funded project: Research Fund for the second comprehensive investigation of Qinghai Tibet Plateau, 2019qzkk0602.

    2020-11-08 489 4

  • Off line sampling data set of medium flow aerosol at Shiquanhe station in Ali area (2019)

    Off line sampling data set of medium flow aerosol at Shiquanhe station in Ali area (2019)

    The data set contains the off-line sampling data of medium flow aerosols from Shiquanhe national climate station (32 ° 30'n, 80 ° 05'e, altitude 4278.6 m) in Ali Region. The measuring instrument is Laoying 2030 medium flow sampler. The quartz filter membrane samples of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP with a diameter of 90 mm are collected. The samples will be used for chemical components such as elemental carbon, organic carbon, water-soluble ions and metal elements analysis. The sampling period is from July 7, 2019 to August 2, 2019, starting at 09:00 every day, with a total of 81 samples for 23 hours each time. The data is stored in Excel file.

    2020-09-23 877 10

  • Aerosol scattering coefficient data set of Shiquanhe station in Ali area (2019)

    Aerosol scattering coefficient data set of Shiquanhe station in Ali area (2019)

    The data set contains the scattering coefficients of PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5 μ m) at 450nm, 550nm and 700nm at Shiquanhe national climate station (32 ° 30'n, 80 ° 05'e, altitude 4278.6 m). The measuring instrument is tsi-3563 integral turbidimeter, the observation period is from July 8, 2019 to August 2, 2019, and the time resolution is 10 seconds. It can be used to study the dependence of PM2.5 scattering coefficient on the wavelength of incident light, which can reflect the particle size distribution of PM2.5.

    2020-09-23 3263 9

  • Aerosol scattering and absorption coefficient data set of Shiquanhe station in Ali area (2019)

    Aerosol scattering and absorption coefficient data set of Shiquanhe station in Ali area (2019)

    The data set contains the scattering and absorption coefficients of PM2.5 (particles with particle size less than 2.5 μ m) in the atmosphere of Shiquanhe national reference climate station (32 ° 30'n, 80 ° 05'e, altitude 4278.6 m) in Ali Region. The measurement instrument is photoacoustic extinctiomer (pax), the observation period is from July 13, 2019 to August 2, 2019, and the time resolution is 1 minute. The data set can be used to study the scattering and absorption characteristics of PM2.5 over the Tibetan Plateau.

    2020-09-23 1795 9

  • PM2.5 mass concentration data set of Shiquanhe station in Ali area (2019)

    PM2.5 mass concentration data set of Shiquanhe station in Ali area (2019)

    The data set contains the mass concentration of PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 μ m) in the atmosphere of Shiquanhe national reference climate station (32 ° 30'n, 80 ° 05'e, altitude 4278.6 m). The measuring instrument is RP 1400A vibrating balance micro balance (TEOM). The observation period is from July 8, 2019 to August 2, 2019, and the time resolution is 1 minute. The data is stored in TXT format.

    2020-09-23 1837 13