Brief Introduction: Heihe River Basin is the second largest inland river basin in China. From the upstream to the downstream of the basin, it forms a diverse natural landscape of "ice / snow - frozen soil - forest - grassland - river - lake - oasis - desert - Gobi" with water as the link. The cold and arid areas coexist in the basin, with sharp contrasting mountainous cryosphere and the extreme arid river tail area. At the same time, the Heihe River has a long history of development, and human activities have significantly affected the hydrological environment of the river basin. For more than 2000 years, the agricultural development, land reclamation, multi-cultural exchanges and exchanges in this area are all deeply connected with water. The combination of natural and human processes makes the Heihe River Basin an ideal experimental basin for comprehensive watershed research. The Heihe River Basin is an important base for inland river research in China, no matter from its unique natural geographical environment or from the influence of human activities for thousands of years. At present, the abundant and valuable data accumulated by a large number of scientific research and experiments have laid a good scientific data foundation for the study of watershed eco-hydrology. For the convenience of data users, according to the different experimental stages of data acquisition, the data topics of Heihe River basin are divided into: HiWATER, WATER, surface process observation network and other Heihe River Basin data.
HiWATER: "The Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research" (hereinafter referred to as HiWATER) is the core scientific goal of the NSFC's major research program of "The Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research" (hereinafter referred to as WATER). Based on the established observation system and the results of WATER carried out from 2007 to 2009, HiWATER was carried out in the Heihe River Basin from 2012 to 2015 by combining multi-disciplinary, multi-scale, multi institution and multi project researchers to integrate satellite, aerial remote sensing and ground observation.
WATER: "The Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER)" is jointly designed and implemented by the Western Action Plan of Chinese Academy of Sciences (phase II) project "Heihe River Basin remote sensing ground observation synchronous experiment and integrated simulation platform construction" and the national key basic research and development plan (973 Plan) project "Active and passive remote sensing collaborative inversion theory and method of land surface ecological environmental factors". It is a large-scale scientific experiment of aerial , satellite remote sensing and ground synchronous observation, which is carried out on the scale of watershed and mainly studies the water cycle and its closely related ecological processes. WATER has completed a total of 25 sorties and 110 hours of aerial remote sensing flight test, with 281 scientists, engineers and postgraduates from 28 relevant units participating in the test. A set of high-quality, multi-scale, standardized and shared watershed comprehensive data set was obtained.
Integrated observation network of surface processes in Heihe River Basin: under the framework of the National Natural Science Foundation of China's major research program of "Integrated research on Ecological hydrological processes in Heihe River Basin", the integrated observation network of Heihe River Basin was established in the period of WATER (2008-2011) in 2008 and HiWATER (2012-2015) in 2013. The observation network includes 3 super stations and 18 ordinary stations over the Heihe River Basin, covering the following major surface types: grassland, farmland, wetland, Tamarix, Populus euphratica, desert, sandy land, Gobi, and bare land. In 2014, it was selected as a member of Remote Sensing Experimental Research and Ground-based Observation Network of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS-RSON). Since 2016, it has been optimized into three super stations and eight ordinary stations for continuous station observation and data sharing.
Number of Datasets: 1234