Brief Introduction:The high-cold regions in China include the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau, and the alpine regions of Gansu, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang, with a total area of about 2.9 million square kilometers. Due to the complexity of topography and geomorphology, the worldwide researches more and more focus on the surface processes of the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau and its adjacent areas. The High-cold Region Observation and Research Network for Land Surface Processes & Environment of China (HORN) has gradually formed. It integrates 17 stations of Chinese Academy of Sciences, for long term observations and researches of land surface processes, including glaciers, permafrost, lades, alpine ecosystem in the high-cold regions of China. It provides a platform support for integrated researches of earth system, through condensation of scientific problems, integration of monitoring resources, improvement of observation capability and level, long-term continuous monitoring of surface processes and environmental changes in cold regions. It also provides data support for revealing the law of climate change and water resources formation and transformation in the headwaters of big rivers, exploring the changes of ecosystem structure and service function, grasping the mechanism of natural disasters such as ice and snow freezing and thawing, and promoting the sustainable development of regional economy and society, etc. A network integrated center is set up to organize research and carry out the specific implementation of network construction. It consists of an office, an observation technology service group and a data integration management group. The participating units of HORN should sign construction/research contracts in order to implement contract-based management, perform all tasks in the contracts and accept the examination and acceptance of the network organization. The network construction should give priority to scientific research, coordinated development, relatively balanced allocation of infrastructure and observation instruments, and free sharing of data within the network. For the principle of sharing and opening, the observatories of the network are open to the whole country. The network cooperates with relevant units through consultation, agreement or contract according to specific tasks and costs; the original observation data are gradually shared based on the principle of first the network, then the department and then the society. The network carries out planned and coordinated cooperation with foreign scientific research institutions and universities, which can improve the level of network observation and expand the content of observation through the cooperation. The HORN is managed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences in the allocation of funds and resources.

Number of Datasets:465

  • WATER: Dataset of automatic meteorological observations at the Huazhaizi desert station

    The dataset of automatic meteorological observations was obtained from Jun. 1, 2008 to Dec. 31, 2009 at the Huazhaizi desert station which is located in Anyangtan (E100°19'06.9″/N38°45'54.7″), south of Zhangye city, Gansu province,. The experimental area, situated in the middle stream of Heihe river, with a flat and open terrain and sparse vegetation cover is an ideal desert observing field. Observation items included the multi-layer (2m and 10m) wind speed and direction, the air temperature, precipitation, the four components of radiation, the surface infrared temperature, the multi-layer soil temperature (5cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 80cm and 160cm), soil moisture (5cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 80cm and 160cm) and soil heat flux (5cm & 10cm). The raw data were level0 and the data after basic processes were level1; the data after strict quality control were defined as Level2. The data files were named as follows: station+datalevel+AMS+datadate.. As for detailed information, please refer to “Meteorological and Hydrological Flux Data Guide".

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  • HiWATER: Dataset of crop biomass observed in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin

    The data set include crop biomass observed at four sample regions, that is the soil moisture control experimental field at Daman county, and the EC plots, the super station, and Shiqiao sample plots at Wuxing village in Zhangye city. 1) Objective Crop biomass, a key biophysical parameter, was observed for calibration and validation of crop growth model and the retrieval of other biophysical parameters as well as the application in eco-hydrological models. 2) Measurement instrument: Electronic balance (±0.1g) and oven. 3) Measurement site a. the soil moisture control experimental field at Daman county, Twelve soil water treatments are set. The wheat biomass for each treatment is measured on 17, 23 and 29 May, and 3, 9, 14 and 24 June, and 5 and 12 July. b. the EC site Maize biomass at 14 EC site (EC-2,EC-3,EC-5,EC-6,EC-7,EC-8,EC-9, EC-10, EC-11, EC-12, EC-13, EC-14, EC-15, EC-16) are measured on 14, 21, 25 and 31 May, 7, 13, 23 and 28 June, 3, 13, 18 and 23 July, 3, 12 and 28 August. c. the super station Maize biomass at the super station is measured on 22 and 28 May, 5, 11, 18, and 25 June, and 1, 8, 15, 22 and 31 July, 9, 15 and 22 August, and 3 and 11 September. d. the Shiqiao sample site Maize biomass at the Shiqiao village is measured on 17, 22 and 28 May, 4, 11, 17 and 25 June, 1, 8, 15, 22, and 30 July, 8, 16 and 27 August, and 9 September. 4) Data processing The observational data was recorded in the sheets and reorganized in the EXCEL sheets.

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  • WATER: Dataset of LAS (Large Aperture Scintillometer) observations at the A'rou freeze/thaw observation station

    The dataset of LAS (Large Aperture Scintillometer: BLS450, made in Germany) observations was obtained at the A'rou freeze/thaw observation station from Mar. 11 to Jul. 11, 2008. The transmitter (E100°28′16.4″, N38°03′24.3″, 11.2m) and the receiver (E100°27′25.9″, N38°02′18.1″, 11.5m) were 2390m away from each other and the operating altitude was 9.5m. The observation item was the atmospheric refractive index structural parameters (Cn2). The transmitting frequency was 5HZ and the data were output per minute. The processed data were archived in a 30 minutes cycle. The data were named after WATER_LAS_A'rou_yyyymmdd-yyyymmdd.csv (yyyymmdd-yyyymmdd for observation time). The missing data were marked "None".

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  • WATER: Dataset of setting of the sampling plots and stripes in the Linze grassland foci experimental area

    The dataset of setting of the sampling plots and stripes in the Linze grassland foci experimental area from May to Jul. 2008 list as follows: Plots A (reed), B (saline), C (saline), D (alfalfa), E (barley) and H were set according to the spatial resolution of each overpass sensor. 49 points at intervals of 60m were located in each of the first five plots (360m×360m) and numbered such as A01. In order to synchronize with ASAR, PALSAR, ASTER and airborne OMIS and WiDAS, subplots of 120m×120m were arranged in A, B, C, D and E, and the points in these subplots were chosen at intervals of 30m. As for plot H (1.8km×1.8km), there were 64 points at intervals of 250m to synchronize with MODIS. Besides, there were still seven sample lines (200m from one to another), with 25 points at intervals of 100m each (L3-11 indicating No. 11 sample point along L3); and two PR2 plots (3Grid×3Grid) with points numbered like PR11 at intervals of 30m and two PR2 lines (11 points). All coordinates were archived in Excel format.

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  • HiWATER: Dataset of Hydrometeorological observation network (automatic weather station of Huazhaizi desert steppe station)

    This dataset includes data recorded by the Hydrometeorological observation network obtained from the automatic weather station (AWS) at the observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Huazhaizi desert steppe station between 22 September, 2012, and 31 December, 2013. The site (100.319° E, 38.765° N) was located on a desert steppe surface in the Huazhaizi, which is near Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1731 m. There are two equipment in the site, and installed by Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAREERI) and Beijing Normal University (BNU), respectively. The installation heights and orientations of BNU were as follows: two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 2.65 m, south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates, -0.06 m), soil temperature profile (AV-10T; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.2, -0.6, and -1 m), and soil moisture profile (ML2X; -0.04, -0.2 and -1 m). For the CAREERI installation: air temperature and humidity profile (HMP45C; 1, 1.99 and 2.99 m, north), wind speed profile (03102; 0.48, 0.98, 1.99 and 2.99 m, north), wind direction (03302; 4 m, north), air pressure (PTB210; in waterproof box), rain gauge (CTK-15PC; 0.7 m), four-component radiometer (CNR1; 2.5 m, south), soil temperature profile (107; -0.04, -0.1, -0.18, -0.26, -0.34, -0.42 and -0.5 m), and soil moisture profile (ML2X; -0.02, -0.1, -0.18, -0.26, -0.34, -0.42, -0.5, and -0.58 m, 3 duplicates in -0.02 m). The observations included the following: (1) infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, and Gs_3) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_60 cm and Ts_100 cm) (℃), and soil moisture (Ms_4 cm, Ms_20 cm and Ms_100 cm) (%). (2) air temperature and humidity (Ta_1 m, Ta_1.99 m and Ta_2.99 m; RH_1 m, RH_1.99 m and RH_2.99 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_0.48 m, Ws_0.98 m, Ws_1.99 m and Ws_2.99 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_4 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_18 cm, Ts_26 cm, Ts_34 cm, Ts_42 cm and Ts_50 cm) (℃), and soil moisture (Ms_2 cm_1, Ms_2 cm_2, Ms_2 cm_3, Ms_10 cm, Ms_18 cm, Ms_26 cm, Ms_34 cm, Ms_42 cm, Ms_50 cm and Ms_58 cm) (%, volumetric water content). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The BNU data were averaged over intervals of 10 min, The CAREERI data were averaged over intervals of 30 min. A total of 144 runs per day were recorded in BNU data and 48 records per day in CAREERI data. The BNU data during 30 June, 2013 and 26 July, 2013 were missing during the malfunction of datalogger. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2013-6-10 10:30. (6) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Li et al. (2013) (for hydrometeorological observation network or sites information), Liu et al. (2011) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

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  • HiWATER: The Multi-Scale Observation Experiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces (MUSOEXE) Dataset- flux observation matrix (an eddy covariance system at Huazhaizi desert steppe Station)

    This dataset contains the flux measurements from the Huazhaizi desert steppe station eddy covariance system (EC) in the flux observation matrix from 6 June to 15 September, 2012. The site (100.31860° E, 38.76519° N) was located in a desert surface, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1731.00 m. The EC was installed at a height of 2.85 m; the sampling rate was 10 Hz. The sonic anemometer faced north, and the separation distance between the sonic anemometer and the CO2/H2O gas analyzer (CSAT3&Li7500) was 0.15 m. Raw data acquired at 10 Hz were processed using the Edire post-processing software (University of Edinburgh, http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/abs/research/micromet/EdiRe/), including spike detection, lag correction of H2O/CO2 relative to the vertical wind component, sonic virtual temperature correction, coordinate rotation (2-D rotation), corrections for density fluctuation (Webb-Pearman-Leuning correction), and frequency response correction. The EC data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods. Moreover, the observation data quality was divided into three classes according to the quality assessment method of stationarity (Δst) and the integral turbulent characteristics test (ITC), which was proposed by Foken and Wichura [1996]: class 1 (level 0: Δst<30 and ITC<30), class 2 (level 1: Δst<100 and ITC<100), and class 3 (level 2: Δst>100 and ITC>100), representing high-, medium-, and low-quality data, respectively. In addition to the above processing steps, the half-hourly flux data were screened in a four-step procedure: (1) data from periods of sensor malfunction were rejected; (2) data before or after 1 h of precipitation were rejected; (3) incomplete 30 min data were rejected when the missing data constituted more than 3% of the 30 min raw record; and (4) data were rejected at night when the friction velocity (u*) was less than 0.1 m/s. There were 48 records per day; the missing data were replaced with -6999. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. The released data contained the following variables: data/time, wind direction (Wdir, °), wind speed (Wnd, m/s), the standard deviation of the lateral wind (Std_Uy, m/s), virtual temperature (Tv, ℃), H2O mass density (H2O, g/m^3), CO2 mass density (CO2, mg/m^3), friction velocity (ustar, m/s), stability (z/L), sensible heat flux (Hs, W/m^2), latent heat flux (LE, W/m^2), carbon dioxide flux (Fc, mg/ (m^2s)), quality assessment of the sensible heat flux (QA_Hs), quality assessment of the latent heat flux (QA_LE), and quality assessment of the carbon flux (QA_Fc). In this dataset, the time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

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  • HiWATER: The Multi-Scale Observation Experiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces (MUSOEXE) Dataset - Intensive Runoff Observations from the No. 4 hydrological section in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin

    The No. 4 hydrological section is located at Wujin Heihe River Bridge (39 ° 03′53 .23 ″ N, 100 ° 25′59 .31″ E, 1431 m a.s.l.) in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin, Zhangye, Gansu Province. The dataset contains observations from the No.4 hydrological section from 10 June, 2012, to 10 August, 2012. The width of this section is 58 meters. The cross-sectional area is unstable because of human factors. The water level was measured using HOBO pressure range and the discharge was measured using cross-section reconnaissance by the StreamPro ADCP. The dataset includes the following sections: Water level (recorded every 30 minutes) and Discharge. The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: 1) The water level data which collected from the hydrological station were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The missing data were denoted by -6999. 2) Data out the normal range records were rejected. 3) Unphysical data were rejected. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), He et al. (2016) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

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  • HiWATER: The Multi-Scale Observation Experiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces (MUSOEXE) Dataset - Flux Observation Matrix (stable isotopic observations)

    This dataset includes 5 sub-datasets obtained from measurements in the flux observing matrix at observing site No.15 (the Daman superstation) and 13. Specifically, the sub-datasets include the following: (1) a dataset that contains atmospheric water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotopic and flux ratio measurements from site No.15 from 27 May to 21 September in 2012, (2) a dataset that contains D/H and 18O/16O isotopic ratios of water in soil and in corn xylem at site No.15 from 27 May to 21 September 2012, (3) a dataset that contains atmospheric water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotopic ratios at site No.13 when airborne surveys occurred, and (4) a dataset that contains D/H and 18O/16O isotopic ratios of water in soil and in corn xylem at sites No.13 and 15 when airborne surveys occurred, (5) a dataset that contains the ratios of evaporation and transpiration to evapotranpiration at site No.15. The experiment area was located in a corn cropland in the Daman irrigation district of Zhangye, Gansu Province, China. The positions of observing sites No.15 and 13 were 100.3722° E, 38.8555° N and 100.3785° E, 38.8607° N, respectively, with an elevation of 1552.75 m above sea level. The atmospheric water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotopic and flux ratios at site No.15 were continuously measured using an in situ observation system. The system consisted of an H218O, HDO and H2O analyzer (Model L1102-i, Picarro Inc.), a CTC HTC-Pal liquid auto sampler (LEAP Technologies) and a multichannel solenoid valve (Model EMT2SD8 MWE, Valco Instruments CO. Inc.). The heights of the two intakes were 0.5 and 1.5 m above the corn canopy. The water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotopic ratio analyzer recorded signals at 0.2 Hz; data were recorded for 2 minutes per intake. The data were block-averaged to hourly intervals. The sampling frequency of soil and xylem at site No. 15 was 1-3 days. The atmospheric water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotopic and flux ratios at site No.13 were measured using a cold traps/mass spectrometer. The sampling frequency of atmospheric water vapor, soil water and xylem water at site No.13 was the same as that of the airborne surveys. Briefly, the Picarro analyzer measurements were calibrated during every 3 h switching cycle using a two-point concentration interpolation procedure in which the water vapor mixing ratio was dynamically controlled to track the ambient water vapor mixing ratio. Possible delta stretching effects were not considered. A schematic diagram of the Picarro analyzer and its operation principles and calibration procedure are described elsewhere in the literature (Huang et al., 2014; Wen et al. 2008, 2012). The dataset of atmospheric water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotopic and flux ratios at site No.15 includes the following variables: Timestamp (time, timestamp without time zone), Number (available record number), δD for r1 (δD for the lower intake, ‰), δD for r2 (δD for the higher intake, ‰), δ18O for r1 (δ18O for the lower intake, ‰), δ18O for r2 (δ18O for the higher intake, ‰), vapor mixing ratio for r1 (vapor mixing ratio for the lower intake, mmol/mol), vapor mixing ratio for r2 (vapor mixing ratio for the higher intake, mmol/mol), δET_D (δD of evapotranspiration, ‰), and δET_18O (δ18O of evapotranspiration, ‰). The dataset of D/H and 18O/16O isotopic ratios of water in soil and in corn xylem at site No.15 includes the following variables: Timestamp (time, timestamp without time zone), Remark (treatment: soil without mulch (Ld)=1; soil with mulch (Fm)=2; soil with male corns (F)=3; Xylem=4), δD (‰), and δ18O (‰). The dataset for the ratio of soil evaporation and transpiration to the evapotranspiration at site 15 includes the following variables: Timestamp (time, timestamp without time zone), E/ET (ratio of soil evaporation to the evapotranspiration, %), and T/ET (ratio of transpiration to the evapotranspiration, %). The mean (±one standard deviation) ratio of transpiration to evapotranspiration was 86.7±5.2% (the range was 71.3 to 96.0%). The mean (±one standard deviation) ratio of soil evaporation to the evapotranspiration was 13.3 ±5.2% (the range was 4.0 to 28.7%). The dataset of atmospheric water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotopic ratio at site No. 13 when airborne surveys occurred includes the following variables: Timestamp1 (start time, timestamp without time zone), Timetamp2 (end time, timestamp without time zone), Height (observation height, cm), δD (‰), and δ18O (‰). The dataset of D/H and 18O/16O isotopic ratios of water in soil and in corn xylem at sites No. 13 and 15 when airborne surveys occurred include the following variables, Timestamp (time, timestamp without time zone), Remark (treatment: soil without mulch (Ld)=1; soil with mulch (Fm)=2; Xylem=4), δD (‰), δ18O (‰), and Location (observing site 13 or 15) . The missing measurements were replaced with -6999. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Wen et al. (2016) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

    2019-05-23 0 2 View Details

  • WATER: Dataset of PR2 soil moisture profile observations in the Linze grassland foci experimental area

    The dataset of PR2 soil moisture profile observations (10cm, 20cm, 30cm, 40cm, 60cm and 100cm) was obtained in the Linze grassland foci experimental area. The sample points, with various underlying surface and depth were measured by PR2 probe in PR2 quadrate (3Grid×3Grid, 90m×90m) and PR2 line. Observations were carried out from May 31 to Jul. 13, 2008 with exceptions on Jun. 6, 8, 10, 13, 21, 27, 28, 29, Jul. 3 and 12. Data were archived in Excel and Word file. See WATER: Dataset of setting of the sampling plots and stripes in the foci experimental area of Linze station for more information.

    2019-05-23 0 0 View Details

  • HiWATER: The Multi-Scale Observation Experiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces (MUSOEXE) Dataset - Intensive Runoff Observations from the No. 2 hydrological section in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin

    The No. 2 hydrological section is located at 312 Heihe River Bridge (38°59′51.71″ N, 100° 24′38.76″ E, 1485 m a.s.l.) in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin, Zhangye, Gansu Province. The dataset contains observations from the No.2 hydrological section from 19 June, 2012, to 24 November, 2012. This section consists of two river sections, i.e., the east section is marked as No. 1 and the west section is marked as No. 2. The width of this section is 90 meters. This section consists of a gravel bed; the cross-sectional area is unstable because of human factors. The water level was measured using SR50 ultrasonic range and the discharge was measured using cross-section reconnaissance by the StreamPro ADCP. The dataset includes the following sections: Water level (recorded every 30 minutes) and Discharge. The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: 1) The water level data which collected from the hydrological station were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The missing data were denoted by -6999. 2) Data out the normal range records were rejected. 3) Unphysical data were rejected. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), He et al. (2016) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

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