Brief Introduction:The high-cold regions in China include the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau, and the alpine regions of Gansu, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang, with a total area of about 2.9 million square kilometers. Due to the complexity of topography and geomorphology, the worldwide researches more and more focus on the surface processes of the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau and its adjacent areas. The High-cold Region Observation and Research Network for Land Surface Processes & Environment of China (HORN) has gradually formed. It integrates 17 stations of Chinese Academy of Sciences, for long term observations and researches of land surface processes, including glaciers, permafrost, lades, alpine ecosystem in the high-cold regions of China. It provides a platform support for integrated researches of earth system, through condensation of scientific problems, integration of monitoring resources, improvement of observation capability and level, long-term continuous monitoring of surface processes and environmental changes in cold regions. It also provides data support for revealing the law of climate change and water resources formation and transformation in the headwaters of big rivers, exploring the changes of ecosystem structure and service function, grasping the mechanism of natural disasters such as ice and snow freezing and thawing, and promoting the sustainable development of regional economy and society, etc. A network integrated center is set up to organize research and carry out the specific implementation of network construction. It consists of an office, an observation technology service group and a data integration management group. The participating units of HORN should sign construction/research contracts in order to implement contract-based management, perform all tasks in the contracts and accept the examination and acceptance of the network organization. The network construction should give priority to scientific research, coordinated development, relatively balanced allocation of infrastructure and observation instruments, and free sharing of data within the network. For the principle of sharing and opening, the observatories of the network are open to the whole country. The network cooperates with relevant units through consultation, agreement or contract according to specific tasks and costs; the original observation data are gradually shared based on the principle of first the network, then the department and then the society. The network carries out planned and coordinated cooperation with foreign scientific research institutions and universities, which can improve the level of network observation and expand the content of observation through the cooperation. The HORN is managed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences in the allocation of funds and resources.

Number of Datasets:465

  • Daily Rainfall Data 1990-2004 of Heihe

    Data source: China l Meteorological Administration Network; Data Content: Daily Rainfall Data Series of Heihe River Basin from 1990 to 2004; Evaporation Data of Heihe River Basin from 2000 to 2012. Data Spatial Range: Rainfall Data (Yingluoxia, Shandan, Gaoya, Pingchuan, Ganzhou Pingshan Lake, Zhengyixia Gorge, Liyuan River); Evaporation Data (Zhangye, Gaotai, Dingxin, Jiuquan, Jinta, Shandan, Ejina, Hequ)

    2019-07-19 0 1 View Details

  • Asian Monsoon Experiment on the Tibetan Plateau (GAME/Tibet) Data Set for Global Energy Water Cycle

    The GAME/Tibet project conducted a short-term pre-intensive observing period (PIOP) at the Amdo station in the summer of 1997. From May to September 1998, five consecutive IOPs were scheduled, with approximately one month per IOP. More than 80 scientific workers from China, Japan and South Korea went to the Tibetan Plateau in batches and carried out arduous and fruitful work. The observation tests and plans were successfully completed. After the completion of the IOP in September, 1998, five automatic weather stations (AWS), one Portable Atmospheric Mosonet (PAM), one boundary layer tower and integrated radiation observatory (Amdo) and nine soil temperature and moisture observation stations have been continuously observed to date and have obtained extremely valuable information for 8 years and 6 months consecutively (starting from June 1997). The experimental area is located in Nagqu, in northern Tibet, and has an area of 150 km × 200 km (Fig. 1), and observation points are also established in D66, Tuotuohe and the Tanggula Mountain Pass (D105) along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway. The following observation stations (sites) are set up on different underlying surfaces including plateau meadows, plateau lakes, and desert steppe. (1) Two multidisciplinary (atmosphere and soil) observation stations, Amdo and NaquFx, have multicomponent radiation observation systems, gradient observation towers, turbulent flux direct measurement systems, soil temperature and moisture gradient observations, radiosonde, ground soil moisture observation networks and multiangle spectrometer observations used as ground truth values for satellite data, etc. (2) There are six automatic weather stations (D66, Tuotuohe, D105, D110, Nagqu and MS3608), each of which has observations of wind, temperature, humidity, pressure, radiation, surface temperature, soil temperature and moisture, precipitation, etc. (3) PAM stations (Portable Automated Meso - net) located approximately 80 km north and south of Nagqu (MS3478 and MS3637) have major projects similar to the two integrated observation stations (Amdo and NaquFx) above and to the wind, temperature and humidity turbulence observations. (4) There are nine soil temperature and moisture observation sites (D66, Tuotuohe, D110, WADD, NODA, Amdo, MS3478, MS3478 and MS3637), each of which has soil temperature measurements of 6 layers and soil moisture measurement of 9 layers. (5) A 3D Doppler Radar Station is located in the south of Nagqu, and there are seven encrypted precipitation gauges in the adjacent (within approximately 100 km) area. The radiation observation system mainly studies the plateau cloud and precipitation system and serves as a ground true value station for the TRMM satellite. The GAME-Tibet project seeks to gain insight into the land-atmosphere interaction on the Tibetan Plateau and its impact on the Asian monsoon system through enhanced observational experiments and long-term monitoring at different spatial scales. After the end of 2000, the GAME/Tibet project joined the “Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP)” jointly organized by two international plans, GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) and CL IVAR (Climate Change and Forecast). The Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP) on the Tibetan Plateau of the Global Coordinated Enhanced Observation Program (CEOP) has been started. The data set contains POP data for 1997 and IOP data for 1998. Ⅰ. The POP data of 1997 contain the following. 1. Precipitation Gauge Network (PGN) 2. Radiosonde Observation at Naqu 3. Analysis of Stable Isotope for Water Cycle Studies 4. Doppler radar observation 5. Large-Scale Hydrological Cycle in Tibet (Link to Numaguchi's home page) 6. Portable Automated Mesonet (PAM) [Japanese] 7. Ground Truth Data Collection (GTDC) for Satellite Remote Sensing 8. Tanggula AWS (D105 station in Tibet) 9. Syamboche AWS (GEN/GAME AWS in Nepal) Ⅱ. The IOP data of 1998 contain the following. 1. Anduo (1) PBL Tower, 2) Radiation, 3) Turbulence SMTMS 2. D66 (1) AWS (2) SMTMS (3) GTDC (4) Precipitation 3. Toutouhe (1) AWS (2) SMTMS (3 )GTDC 4. D110 (1) AWS (2) SMTMS (3) GTDC (4) SMTMS 5. MS3608 (1) AWS (2) SMTMS (3) Precipitation 6. D105 (1) Precipitation (2) GTDC 7. MS3478(NPAM) (1) PAM (2) Precipitation 8. MS3637 (1) PAM (2) SMTMS (3) Precipitation 9. NODAA (1) SMTMS (2) Precipitation 10. WADD (1) SMTMS (2) Precipitation (3) Barometricmd 11. AQB (1) Precipitation 12. Dienpa (RS2) (1) Precipitation 13. Zuri (1) Precipitation (2) Barometricmd 14. Juze (1) Precipitation 15. Naqu hydrological station (1) Precipitation 16. MSofNaqu (1) Barometricmd 16. Naquradarsite (1)Radar system (2) Precipitation 17. Syangboche [Nepal] (1) AWS 18. Shiqu-anhe (1) AWS (2) GTDC 19. Seqin-Xiang (1) Barometricmd 20. NODA (1)Barometricmd (2) Precipitation (3) SMTMS 21. NaquHY (1) Barometricmd (2) Precipitation 22. NaquFx(BJ) (1) GTDC(2) PBLmd (3) Precipitation 23. MS3543 (1) Precipitation 24. MNofAmdo (1) Barometricmd 25. Mardi (1) Runoff 26. Gaize (1) AWS (2) GTDC (3) Sonde A CD of the data GAME-Tibet POP/IOP dataset cd (vol. 1) GAME-Tibet POP/IOP dataset cd (vol. 2)

    2019-07-19 0 7 View Details

  • HiWATER:Dataset of Hydrometeorological observation network (eddy covariance system of Shenshawo desert Station, 2015)

    This data set includes the eddy correlation data of Shenshawo Desert Station in the middle reaches of Heihe Hydrometeorological Observation Network from January 1, 2015 to April 12, 2015. The site is located in Zhangye City, Gansu Province, and the underlying surface is desert. The latitude and longitude of the observation point is 100.49330E, 38.78917N, and the altitude is 1594.00m. The height of eddy correlator is 4.6 m, the sampling frequency is 10 Hz, the ultrasonic orientation is positive north, and the distance between the ultrasonic wind speed thermometer (CSAT3) and the CO2/H2O analyzer (Li7500) is 15 cm. The original observation data of the eddy correlation meter is 10 Hz, and the released data is 30-minute data processed by Eddypro software. The main steps of the processing include: outlier removal, time-lag correction, coordinate rotation (double rotation), frequency response correction, ultrasonic virtual temperature correction and density (WPL) correction, etc. At the same time, the quality evaluation of each flux value is conducted, it mainly contains atmosphere state stability test(Δst) and integrated turbulence characteristic test(ITC). The 30-min flux value output by Eddypro software was also screened: (1) data from the instrument error was eliminated; (2) data 1 h before and after precipitation was removed; (3) data from the deletion rate greater than 10% within every 30 min of the 10 Hz raw data. (4) eliminating observation data of weak turbulence at night (u* less than 0.1 m/s). The average time period of observation data is 30 minutes, 48 data per day, and the missing data is labeled -6999. Abnormal data caused by instrument drift and other reasons are marked in red. Published observations include: date/time Date/Time, wind direction Wdir(°), horizontal wind speed Wnd(m/s), lateral wind speed standard deviation Std_Uy(m/s), ultrasonic virtual temperature Tv(°C), water vapor density H2O (g/m3), carbon dioxide concentration CO2 (mg/m3), friction velocity Ustar (m/s), Obukhov length L (m), sensible heat flux Hs (W/m2), latent heat flux LE (W/m2), carbon dioxide flux Fc (mg/(m2s)), sensible heat flux quality identification QA_Hs, latent heat flux quality identification QA_LE, carbon dioxide flux quality identification QA_Fc. The quality identification of sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide flux is divided into three levels (quality mark 0: (Δst <30, ITC<30); 1: (Δst <100, ITC<100); the rest is 2). The meaning of the data time, such as 0:30 represents an average of 0:00-0:30; the data is stored in *.xls format. For hydrometeorological network or site information, please refer to Li et al. (2013). For observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).

    2019-07-17 0 0 View Details

  • WATER: Dataset of 3D scanning of forest structure using the ground-based LiDAR at the super site around the Dayekou Guantan forest station

    This data set is the acquisition of the super-site forest 3D structure of the scanning point cloud data and other ancillary data based on the ground-based lidar (LiDAR) . Data acquisition time is from June 4, 2008 to June 12, 2008. Riegl LMS-Z360i ground-based LiDAR was used. The super site is divided into 16 sub-samples of 25m×25m, LiDAR base station points are set in each sub-sample, and LiDAR acquisition 3D full coverage LiDAR point metadata is set at each base station point. The content of the data set: total station measurement coordinates (x, y, z) for each LiDAR data acquisition base station point, the instrument attitude measured by a digital slope meter and an angle meter when each station collects data, and the laser radar scanning point cloud data at each station. This data set can provide realistic 3D forest scenes, provide detailed ground observation data for the development and correction of various 3D forest remote sensing models, and provide ground verification data for airborne and spaceborne remote sensing data.

    2019-07-16 0 0 View Details

  • HiWATER:Dataset of Hydrometeorological observation network (No.8 runoff observation system of Gaotai bridge on the Heihe River, 2014)

    This dataset contains data on river water level and flow velocity at No.8 in the intensive runoff observation in the middle reaches of Heihe River runoff from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014. The observation point is located at Heihe Bridge, Gaotai County, Zhangye City, Gansu Province. The riverbed is sediment and the section is stable. The latitude and longitude of the observation point is N39°23'22.93", N 99°49'37.29", the altitude is 1347 meters, and the river channel width is 210 meters. The water level observation is measured by SR50 ultrasonic range finder with a frequency of 30 minutes. The data  declaration includes the following two parts: Water level observation, observation frequency 30 minutes, unit (cm); data covering time period from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014; Flow observation, unit (m3); monitoring flow and obtaining water level flow curve according to different water levels. The process of the runoff changing is obtained by observing the water level process. The No. 8 point-Gaotaiqiao section only monitored the water level because the water body of the wetland park basically stopped flowing. The missing data is uniformly represented by the string -6999. For hydrometeorological network or site information, please refer to Li et al. (2013). For observation data processing, please refer to He et al. (2016).

    2019-07-16 0 0 View Details

  • HiWATER:Dataset of Hydro-meteorological Observation Network (Automatic Weather Station of Bajitan Gobi Desert Station, 2014)

    The data set contains the observation data of meteorological elements from the Bajitan Gobi Desert Station, which is located along the middle reaches of the Heihe Hydro-meteorological Observation Network, and the data set covers data from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014. The station is located in Bajitan, West Zhangye City, Gansu Province, the underlying surface is Gobi. The latitude and longitude of the observation point is 100.3042E, 38.9150N, and the altitude is 1562m. The air temperature and relative humidity sensors are erected 5 and 10 meters above the ground, facing North; the barometer is installed 2 meters above the ground; tipping bucket rain gauge is installed 10 meters above the ground; the wind speed sensors are set 5 and 10 meters above the ground, facing North; the four-component radiometer is installed 6 meters above the ground, facing South; two infrared thermometers are installed 6 meters above the ground, facing South, and the probe orientation is vertical downward; the soil temperature probes are buried respectively at 0cm on the ground surface, 2cm, 4cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 60cm and 100cm under the ground, they are located 2 meters from the meteorological tower in the North. The soil moisture sensors are buried 2cm, 4cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 60cm and 100cm under the ground, 2 meters from the meteorological tower in the South; the soil heat flow boards (3 pieces) are buried 6cm under the ground. Observed items include: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5m、RH_5m、Ta_10m、RH_10m) (unit: Celsius, percentage), pressure(Press) (unit:hectopascal), precipitation (Rain) (unit: mm), wind speed (WS_5m、WS_10m) (unit: meter / sec), wind direction (WD_10m) (unit: degree), four-component radiation (DR, UR, DLR_Cor, ULR_Cor, Rn) (unit: watt / square meter), surface radiation temperature (IRT_1, IRT_2) (unit: Celsius) , soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, Gs_3) (unit: watt / square meter), soil moisture (Ms_2cm、Ms_4cm、Ms_10cm、Ms_20cm、Ms_40cm、Ms_60cm、Ms_100cm) (unit: volumetric water content, percentage), soil temperature (Ts_0cm、Ts_2cm、Ts_4cm、Ts_10cm、Ts_20cm、Ts_40cm、Ts_60cm、Ts_100cm) (unit : Celsius). Processing and quality control of observation data: (1) Ensure 144 data per day (every 10 minutes), if there is missing data, it is marked as -6999. Due to sensor problem, Ms_40cm data between January 1 and March 2 had a large fluctuation, it can only be used as reference. (2) Eliminate moments with duplicate records; (3) Remove data that is significantly beyond physical meaning or beyond the measuring range of the instrument; (4) Data marked by red is debatable; (5) The formats of the date and time are uniform, and the date and time are in the same column. For example, the time is: 2014-6-10 10:30; (6) The naming rule is: AWS + site name. For hydro-meteorological network or site information, please refer to Li et al. (2013). For observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).

    2019-07-15 0 1 View Details

  • HiWATER:Dataset of Hydro-meteorological Observation Network (An Automatic Weather Station of Sidaoqiao Barren-land Station, 2014)

    The data set contains the observation data of meteorological elements from the Barren-land Station,which is located along the lower reaches of the Heihe Hydro-meteorological Observation Network, and the data set covers data from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014. The station is located in Sidaoqiao,Dalaihubu Town, Ejina Banner, Inner Mongolia. The underlying surface is barren land. The latitude and longitude of the observation point is 101.1326E, 41.9993N, and the altitude is 878m. The four-component radiometer is installed 6 meters above the ground, facing South; two infrared thermometers are installed 6 meters above the ground, facing South, and the probe orientation is vertical downward; the soil temperature probes are buried respectively at 0cm on the ground surface, 2cm and 4cm under the ground, they are located 2 meters from the meteorological tower in the South; the soil moisture sensors (installed on March 15,2014) are buried 2cm and 4cm under the ground, 2 meters from the meteorological tower in the South; the soil heat flow boards (3 pieces) are buried 6cm under the ground, 2 meters from the meteorological tower in the South. Observed items include: four-component radiation (DR, UR, DLR_Cor, ULR_Cor, Rn) (unit: watt / square meter), surface radiation temperature (IRT_1, IRT_2) (unit: Celsius) , soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, Gs_3) (unit: watt / square meter), soil moisture (Ms_2cm , Ms_4cm) (unit: volumetric water content, percentage), soil temperature (Ts_0cm, Ts_2cm, Ts_4cm) (unit: Celsius). Processing and quality control of observation data: (1) Ensure 144 data per day (every 10 minutes), if there is missing data, it is marked as -6999. The surface radiation temperature IRT2 data during October 12,2014 to November 8,2014 is missing because of sensor problem; Some 2cm soil moisture data during March21 to March 29 and October 12 to November 8 is missing due to probe problem. (2) Eliminate moments with duplicate records; (3) Remove data that is significantly beyond physical meaning or beyond the measuring range of the instrument; (4) Data marked by red is debatable; (5) The formats of the date and time are uniform, and the date and time are in the same column. For example, the time is: 2014-9-10 10:30; (6) The naming rule is: AWS + site name. For hydro-meteorological network or site information, please refer to Li et al. (2013). For observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).

    2019-07-12 0 2 View Details

  • HiWATER:Dataset of Hydro-meteorological Observation Network (Eddy Covariance System of Desert Station, 2015)

    The data set contains the observation data of the eddy covariance system of the desert station, which is located along the lower reaches of the Heihe Hydro-meteorological observation network, and the data set covers data from April 28, 2015 to December 31, 2015. The station is located in Ejina Banner, Inner Mongolia, and the underlying surface is desert. The latitude and longitude of the observation station is 100.9872E, 42.1135N, and the altitude 1054m. The height of the eddy covariance system is 4.7 meters, the sampling frequency is 10Hz, the ultrasonic orientation is positive north, and the distance between the ultrasonic wind speed and temperature monitor (CSAT3) and the CO2/H2O analyzer (Li7500) is 15cm. The original observation data of the eddy covariance system is 10 Hz, and the released data is a 30-minute data processed by Eddypro software. The main steps of the processing include: outlier eliminating, delay time correction, coordinates rotation (secondary coordinates rotation), frequency response correction, ultrasonic virtual temperature correction and density (WPL) correction, etc. Meanwhile, the quality evaluation of each flux value was performed,mainly includes atmospheric stability (Δst) test and turbulence similarity (ITC) test. The 30-min flux value output of Eddypro software was also screened: (1) Data from the instrument error was eliminated; (2) Data obtained with one hour before and after precipitation was removed; (3) Data with a deletion rate greater than 10% of the 10 Hz raw data every 30 minutes was eliminated; (4) Observation data of weak turbulence at night (u* less than 0.1 m/s) was excluded. The average period of observation data is 30 minutes, 48 data per day, and the missing data is marked as -6999. The suspicious data caused by instrument drift and other reasons was marked by red fonts. Published observation data include: Date/Time, wind direction(°), horizontal wind speed(m/s), lateral wind speed standard deviation(m/s), ultrasonic virtual temperature (°C), water vapor density (g/m3), carbon dioxide concentration(mg/m3), friction velocity (m/s), length (m), sensible heat flux(W/m2), latent heat flux (W/m2), carbon dioxide flux (mg/(m2s)), sensible heat flux quality identification QA_Hs, latent heat flux quality identification QA_LE, carbon dioxide flux quality identification QA_Fc. The quality identification of sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide flux is divided into three levels (quality mark 0: (Δst <30, ITC<30); 1: (Δst <100, ITC<100); the rest is 2). The meaning of the data time, such as 0:30 represents an average data of 0:00-0:30; the data is stored in *.xls format. For hydro-meteorological network or station information, please refer to Li et al. (2013). For observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).

    2019-07-12 0 0 View Details

  • HiWATER:Dataset of Hydro-meteorological Observation Network (Automatic Weather Station of Dashalong Station, 2016)

    halong Beach area on the west side of Qilian County, Qinghai Province. The underlying surface is swamp meadow. The latitude and longitude of the observation point is 98.9406E, 38.8399N, and the altitude is 3739m. The air temperature and relative humidity sensors are erected 5 meters above the ground, facing North; the barometer is installed in the pick-proof box on the ground; the tipping bucket rain gauge is erected 10 meters above the ground; the wind speed and direction sensor is set 10 meters above the ground, facing North; the four-component radiometer is installed 6 meters above the ground, facing South; two infrared thermometers are installed 6 meters above the ground, facing South, and the probe orientation is vertical downward; the soil temperature probes are buried respectively at 0cm on the ground surface, 4cm、10cm、20cm、40cm、80cm、120cm and 160cm under the ground, they are located 2 meters from the meteorological tower in the South; the soil moisture sensors are buried 4cm、10cm、20cm、40cm、80cm、120cm and 160cm under the ground, 2 meters from the meteorological tower in the South; the soil heat flow boards (3 pieces) are buried 6cm under the ground, 2 meters from the meteorological tower in the South. Observed items include: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5m, RH_5m) (unit: Celsius, percentage), air pressure (Press) (unit: hectopascal), precipitation (Rain) (unit: mm), wind speed (WS_10m) (unit: meter / sec), wind direction (WD_10m) (unit: degree), four-component radiation (DR, UR, DLR_Cor, ULR_Cor, Rn) (unit: watt / square meter), surface radiation temperature (IRT_1, IRT_2) (unit: Celsius) , soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, Gs_3) (unit: watt / square meter), soil temperature (Ts_0cm, Ts_4cm, Ts_10cm, Ts_20cm, Ts_40cm, Ts_80cm, Ts_120cm, Ts_160cm) (unit: Celsius), soil moisture (Ms_4cm , Ms_10cm, Ms_20cm, Ms_40cm, Ms_80cm, Ms_120cm, Ms_160cm) (unit: volumetric water content, percentage). Processing and quality control of observation data: (1) Ensure 144 data per day (every 10 minutes), if there is missing data, it is marked as -6999. (2) Eliminate moments with duplicate records; (3) Remove data that is significantly beyond physical meaning or beyond the measuring range of the instrument; (4) Data marked by red is debatable; (5) The formats of the date and time are uniform, and the date and time are in the same column. For example, the time is: 2016-9-10 10:30; (6) The naming rule is: AWS + site name. For hydro-meteorological network or site information, please refer to Li et al. (2013). For observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).

    2019-07-12 0 1 View Details

  • HiWATER:Dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with airborne PLMR mission in the Yingke oasis and Huazhaizi desert steppe on July 10, 2012

    On July 10, 2012, the airborne flight and ground observation was synchronously carried out in the PLMR quadrat of Yingke Oasis and the Huazhaizi Desert. PLMR (Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometer) is a dual-polarized (H/V) L-band microwave radiometer with a center frequency of 1.413 GHz, a bandwidth of 24 MHz, and a resolution of 1 km (relative flight height of 3 km).The radiometer has 6 beams to observe synchronously, and the incident angles are ±7º,±21.5º,±38.5º, and the sensitivity is less than 1K. The flight observation mainly covers the artificial oasis eco-hydrological test area in the middle reaches. This ground-synchronized data set provides a basic ground dataset for developing and validating passive microwave remote sensing inversion soil moisture algorithms. Quadrat and sampling strategy: The observation area is located in the transition zone between the southern margin of Zhangye Oasis and Anyang beach desert, the west side of Zhang (Zhangye)-Da (Daman) highway. It is divided into two parts by the main canal of the Dragon Canal from North to South. The Southwest area is a desert quadrat with the size of 1 km×1 km. The desert is relatively homogeneous, so soil moisture of 5 points in the 1 km quadrat are collected (1 point of each corner and the center point, in the actual measurement process, several extra points can be measured along the road). The four corner points are 600 meters away from each other,except the diagonal direction. And the southwest corner point is Huazhaizi Desert Station, for the convenience of comparison with weather station data. On the northeast side, a large size quadrat of 6 km×1.6 km is selected for simultaneous observation of the oasis underlying surface.In order to obtain the brightness temperature comparison with the PLMR observation, the quadrat was chose based on the following factors :surface coverage representative, avoiding the residential and greenhouses, crossing the oasis farmland and part of the Southern desert, accessibility, and observation time(road consumption). Taking the resolution of PLMR observations into consideration, in the synchronous observation, 11 sampling lines (East-West distribution) were collected with an interval of 160 meters from the East to the West. Each line from the North to the South was separated by 21 points with an interval of 80 meters. And 4 Hydraprobe Data Acquisition System (HDAS, Reference 2) were used to measure simultaneously. Measurement contents: About 230 points of the quadrat were collected, 2 observations were performed on each point, that is, 2 observations were performed on each sampling point of the film mulched corn field, 1 inside the film (marked as a in the data record), 1 outside the film (marked as b in the data record). Since the HDAS system useed the POGO portable soil sensor, the soil temperature, soil moisture (volumetric water content), loss tangent, soil electrical conductivity, soil complex dielectric real part and imaginary part were obtained by observation. No special simultaneous sampling of vegetation was carried out on the same day. Data: The data set includes two parts: soil moisture observation and vegetation observation. The former saves the data as a vector file, the spatial position is the position of each sampling point (WGS84+UTM 47N), and the measurement information of soil moisture is recorded in the attribute file.

    2019-07-12 0 0 View Details