Brief Introduction: 高寒区一般指海拔较高、气候寒冷的地区。中国的高寒区包括整个青藏高原,以及甘肃、内蒙古和新疆的高山地区,总面积约为290万平方公里。高寒区形成了特殊的大气过程、水文过程及生态过程,其环境变化研究是地表过程研究的重要组成部分,是开展地球系统集成研究的重要切入口。高寒区广泛分布着冰川、冻土、积雪和湿地等,是我国大江大河的源头区和重要的生态屏障区,同时又是气候条件恶劣、生态环境脆弱、经济发展水平低的地区。 从阐明高寒区大气过程、水文过程、生态过程及其相互间的联系这一科学问题的角度考虑,中国科学院组织院内所属的17个野外站(点),并通过与其他系统的野外站联合组建“高寒区地表过程与环境监测研究网络”(简称“高寒网”),通过凝炼科学问题、整合监测资源、统一观测手段、完善观测能力、提高观测水平,实现对高寒区地表过程与环境变化的长期连续监测,为地球系统集成研究、关键区域对全球变化的影响与响应、定量化辨识人类活动在全球变化中的作用等研究提供平台支撑;为揭示大江大河源头区气候变化规律和水资源形成转化规律、合理开发利用水资源,探明生态系统结构与服务功能变化、构建生态屏障,掌握冰雪冻融等自然灾害发生机理、科学防灾减灾,以及促进区域经济社会可持续发展等提供数据支持。 “高寒网”以中国科学院所属17个野外站为主体,由中国科学院作为牵头单位,组织成立“高寒网”科学委员会,把握网络研究的重要科学问题,指导网络建设的计划和发展方向。设立网络综合中心,负责组织研究和开展网络建设的具体实施工作,下设办公室、观测技术服务组和数据集成管理组。网络实施合同式管理,各参建单位需签定建设/研究合同,履行合同规定的各项任务,接受网络组织部门的考核与验收。网络建设过程中,本着科研优先,协调发展的原则,相对均衡配置网络内部各观测台站的基础设施以及观测仪器,获得的数据在网络内部实现无偿共享;本着共享开放的原则,网络的各观测站对全国开放,根据具体工作任务和成本的需要,通过协商、协议或合同的形式与相关单位开展合作,获得的数据本着先网络,再部门,后社会的原则,使原始观测数据逐步共享;本着以我为主,扩大交流的原则,整个网络开展有计划、有协调地与国外科研单位和大学合作,通过合作提高网络观测水平与扩大观测内容,围绕提高网络整体观测和研究实力的目标开展工作。“高寒网”由中国科学院层面统筹进行经费资源配置。

Number of Datasets: 65

  • Surface meteorological observation data product of TP (1979-2016)

    1)Data content (including elements and meanings): surface meteorological observation data product of TP in 1979-2016 2)Data source and processing method: In .tif format, can be opened and analysed in arcgis. 3)Data quality description: daily resolution 4)Data application results and prospects: Based on the long-term observation data of the 17 stations of HORN, establish a series of data series of meteorological, hydrological and ecological elements in the Pan-Earth region; Strengthen observation and sample and sample verification, and complete the inversion of meteorological elements, lake water quantity and water quality, aboveground vegetation biomass, glacier and frozen soil changes; based on Internet of Things technology, develop multi-station networked meteorological, hydrological, The ecological data management platform realizes real-time acquisition and remote control and sharing of networked data.

    2019-09-15 0 48 View Details

  • Atmospheric heat source/sink dataset over the Tibetan Plateau based on satellite and routine meteorological observations (1984-2015)

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP), acting as a large elevated land surface and atmospheric heat source during spring and summer, has a substantial impact on regional and global weather and climate. To explore the multi-scale temporal variation in the thermal forcing effect of the TP,The data set of atmospheric heat source/sink in Tibetan Plateau was prepared as a quantitative analysis tool for calculating heat budget of gas column. the atmospheric heat source/sink dataset consists of three variables: surface sensible heat flux SH, latent heat release LH and net radiation flux RC. here we calculated the surface sensible heat and latent heat release based on 6-h routine observations at 80 (32) meteorological stations during the period 1979–2016:air temperature at 1.5 m and surface temperature and wind speed at 10 m are used to calculate surface sensible heat flux,the latent heat release is estimated precipitation data.The satellite datasets used to calculate the net radiation flux were the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment surface radiation budget satellite radiation(GEWEX/SRB) and Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy Systems/Energy Balanced And Filled (CERES/EBAF). The monthly shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) in GEWEX/SRB and CERES/EBAF were utilized to obtain the net radiation flux for the period 1984–2015 via statistical methods。

    2019-09-14 0 8 View Details

  • The dataset of atmospheric chemical composition in Namcu and Muztagh Ata (2005-2009)

    The data include three data sets of Namcu and Muztagh Ata: an atmospheric aerosol data set of monthly average values of TSP, lithium, sodium and other elements; an atmospheric precipitation chemical data set of monthly average values of soluble sodium ions, potassium ions, magnesium ions, calcium ions and other ions; and a data set of chemical compositions of snow ice in the Zhadang Glacier of Namcu Basin of the concentrations of soluble sodium ions, potassium ions, magnesium ions, calcium ions and other ions in snow pits collected in different months. The data can be used in conducting located observations of atmospheric aerosol element content, precipitation chemistry, and glacier snow ice chemical records in the Namco and Muztagh Ata areas. The samples were processed at the Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes of CAS using ICS2500 and ICS2000 ion-chromatographic analyzers to determine the concentration of soluble anions and cations in the samples. Data collection and processing: 1. The automatic rain gauges were erected in the typical regions of the Tibetan Plateau (the Namco Basin and the Muztagh Ata Peak area) to collect precipitation samples. The precipitation samples were collected using a SYC-2 type rainfall sampler that comprised a collector, rain sensor and gland drive. The sample collector was provided with a rain collection bucket and a dust collection bucket, and the weather condition was sensed by the rain sensor. The rain collection bucket would be opened when it started to rain, and the gland would be pressed onto the dust collection bucket. Meanwhile, the date and the rain start and end times were automatically recorded. When the rain stopped, the gland automatically flipped to the rain collection bucket to complete a rainfall record. The collected samples were placed in 20 mL clean high-density polyethylene plastic bottles and refrigerated in a -20 °C refrigerator. They were frozen during transportation and storage until right before being analyzed, when they would be taken from the refrigerator and thawed at room temperature (20 °C). They were then processed at the Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes CAS using ICS2500 and ICS2000 ion-chromatographic analyzers to determine the concentration of soluble anions and cations in the precipitation. 2. The atmospheric aerosol sampler installed at Namco Station was 4 m above the ground and included a vacuum pump, which was powered by solar panels and batteries. The air flux was recorded by an automatic flow meter, and the instantaneous flow rate was approximately 16.7 L/min. The air flux took the meteorological parameter conversion of the Namco area as the standard volume. A Teflon filter with a diameter of 47 mm and a pore size of 0.4 & mu; m was used. The sample interval was 7 days, and the total sample flow rate of each sample was approximately 120-150 m³. Each sample was individually placed in a disposable filter cartridge and stored at low temperature in a refrigerator. Before and after sampling, the filter was placed in a constant temperature (20 ± 5 °C) and constant humidity (40 & plusmn; 2%) environment for 48 hours and weighed with a 1/10000 electronic balance (AUW220D, Shimadu); the difference between the weights before and after was the weight of the aerosol sample on the filter. The collected samples were processed at the Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes CAS by ICP-MS to determine the concentrations of 18 elements. Strict measures were taken during indoor and outdoor operations to prevent possible contamination. 3. A precleaned plastic shovel was used to collect a sample every 5 cm from the lower part of the snow pit (samples were collected every 10 cm in some snow pits). The samples were dissolved at room temperature, placed in 20 mL clean high-density polyethylene plastic bottles and stored in a refrigerator at -20 °C. The samples were frozen during transportation and storage until they were taken out of the refrigerator before the analysis and melted at room temperature. The samples were processed at the Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes CAS using ICS2500 and ICS2000 ion-chromatographic analyzers to determine the concentrations of soluble anions and cations in the samples. Clean clothing, disposable masks and plastic gloves should be worn during the manual collection of glacier snow ice chemical samples to prevent contamination. The data set was processed by forming a continuous sequence of monthly mean values after the raw data were quality controlled. It meets the accuracy of routine monitoring research on precipitation, aerosol, snow and ice records in China and the world and is satisfactory for comparative study with relevant climate change records.

    2019-09-12 0 3 View Details

  • Geocryological regionalization and classification map of the frozen soil in China (1:10,000,000) (2000)

    These data are digitized for the Geocryological Regionalization and Classification Map of the Frozen Soil in China (1:10 million) (Guoqing Qiu et al., 2000; Youwu Zhou et al., 2000), adopting a geocryological regionalization and classification dual series system. The geocryological regionalization system and classification system are used on the same map to reflect the commonality and individuality of the formation and distribution of frozen soil at each level. The geocryological regionalization system consists of three regions of frozen soil: (1) the frozen soil region of eastern China; (2) the frozen soil region of northwestern China; and (3) the frozen soil region of southwestern China (Tibetan Plateau). Based on the three large regions, 16 regions and several subregions are further divided. In the division of the geocryological boundary in the frozen soil area, the boundary between major regions I and III mainly consults the results of Bingyuan Li (1987). The boundary between major regions II and III is the northern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau, which is the Kunlun Mountains-Altun Mountains-Northern Qilian Mountains and the piedmont line. The boundary between major regions I and II is in the area of Helan Mountain-Langshan Mountain. The boundary of the secondary region is divided by the geomorphological conditions in regions II and III. However, in region I, it is mainly divided by the ratio of the annual temperature range A to the annual mean temperature T, and the frozen depths of various regions are taken into consideration. The classification system is divided into 8 types based on the continuity of frozen soil, the time of existence of frozen soil and the seasonal frozen depth. The various classifications of boundaries are mainly taken from the "Map of Snow, Ice and Frozen Ground in China" (1:4 million) (Yafeng Shi et al., 1988) and consult some new materials, whereas the seasonal frozen soil boundary is mainly based on the weather station data. The definitions of each classification are as follows: (1) Large permafrost: the continuous coefficient is 90%-70%; (2) Large-island permafrost: the continuous coefficient is 70%-30%; (3) Sparse island-shaped permafrost: the continuous coefficient is <30%; (4) Permafrost in the mountains; (5) Medium-season seasonal frozen soil: the maximum seasonal frozen depth that can be reached is >1 m; (6) Shallow seasonal frozen soil: the maximum seasonal frozen depth that can be reached is <1 m; (7) Short-term frozen soil: less than one month of storage time; and (8) Nonfrozen soil. According to the data, China's permafrost areas sum to approximately 2.19 × 106 km², accounting for 22.83% of China's territory. Among those areas, the mountain permafrost is found over 0.42×106 km2, which is 4.39% of the territory of China. The seasonal frozen soil area is approximately 4.76×106 km², accounting for 49.6% of China's territory, and the instantaneous frozen soil area is approximately 1.86×106 km², i.e., 19.33% of China's territory. For more information, please see the references (Youwu Zhou et al., 2000).

    2019-09-11 0 7 View Details

  • Annual variation characteristic value of runoff at the major hydrological stations of the Yarlung Zangbo River (1956-2000)

    This dataset contains the annual variation of runoff from the major hydrological stations in the Yarlung Zangbo River (annual average runoff volume, annual extremum ratio, coefficient of variation, etc.). It can be used to study the hydrological characteristics of the Yarlung Zangbo River. The original data are the national hydrological station data, and the quality requirements are the same as the national standards. Spatial Coverage: 4 hydrological stations in the main streams of the Yarlung Zangbo River basin, which are Lazi, Nugesha, Yangcun and Nuxia. This data sheet has five fields. Field 1: Station Name Field 2: Annual average runoff volume Field 3: Annual Extreme Ratio Field 4: Coefficient of variation Field 5: Data Series Length

    2019-09-12 0 14 View Details

  • The fundamental database of atmospheric boundary layer of the north Tibetan Plateau (1997-2008)

    The data set collected long-term monitoring projects from multiple stations for atmosphere, hydrology and soil in the North Tibetan Plateau. The data set consisted of monitoring data obtained from the automatic weather station (AWS) and the atmospheric boundary layer tower (PBL) in the field. The sensors for temperature, humidity and pressure were provided by Vaisala of Finland; the sensors for wind speed and direction were provided by Met One of America, the radiation sensors were provided by APPLEY of America and EKO of Japan; the gas analyzers were provided by Licor of America; the soil water content instrument, ultrasonic anemometers and data collectors were provided by CAMPBELL of America. The observation system was maintained by professionals regularly (2-3 times a year), the sensors were calibrated and replaced, and the collected data were downloaded and reorganized. The data set was processed by forming a time continuous sequence after the raw data were quality-controlled. It met the accuracy level of the original meteorological observation data of the National Weather Service and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The quality control included the elimination of the missing data and the systematic error caused by the failure of the sensor.

    2019-09-15 0 5 View Details

  • Dataset of alpine timberlines in Southern Tibet (2005-2008)

    This data set mainly includes meteorological data and soil moisture data collected from 2005 to 2008 at the Sherjila Mountain Alpine Timberline Observation Site of the Integrated Observation and Research Station of the Alpine Environment in Southeast Tibet. The data set of alpine timberline observations in southeast Tibet includes 1) the meteorological data set and 2) the soil moisture data set. The meteorological data set includes wind speed, temperature (1, 3 m), relative humidity (1, 3 m), soil heat flux (-5, -20, -60 cm), soil temperature (-5, -20, -60 cm), air pressure, total radiation, net radiation, photosynthetically active radiation, infrared radiation (660, 730 nm), atmospheric longwave radiation, ground longwave radiation, surface temperature, precipitation, and snow thickness. The soil moisture data set includes vegetation type and soil water content (-5, -20, -60 cm). Instruments used for each variable: Temperature: Air temperature probe, produced in Taiwan, model TRH-S. Relative humidity: Model TRH-S, produced in Taiwan. Wind speed: Anemoscope, produced in Taiwan, model 03102. Barometric Pressure: Barometric pressure sensor, produced in Taiwan, model BP0611A. Atmospheric longwave radiation: Pyrgeometer, produced by the Kipp & Zonen Company of the Netherlands, model CG3. Ground longwave radiation: Pyrgeometer, produced by the Kipp & Zonen Company of the Netherlands, model CG3. Total radiation: Pyranometer, produced by the Kipp & Zonen Company of the Netherlands, model CM3. Net radiation: Net radiometer, produced by the Kipp & Zonen Company of the Netherlands, model NR-Lite. Photosynthetically active radiation: PAR-Sensor, produced by the Kipp & Zonen Company of the Netherlands, model MS-PAR. Infrared radiation: Infrared radiation sensor, produced by the Skye Company of the UK, model SKY110. Rainfall: Rain gauge, produced in Taiwan, model 7852 M. Snow thickness: Ultrasonic snow depth sensor, produced in the United States, model 260-700. Soil temperature: Soil temperature probe, produced by the Onset Company of the United States, model 12-Bit. Soil heat flux: Soil heat flux plate, produced by the Hukseflux Company of the Netherlands, model HFP01. Soil moisture content: Soil moisture sensor, produced by the Onset Company of the United States, model S-SMA-M003. The observations and data acquisition were carried out in strict accordance with the instrument operating specifications. Each instrument was rigorously validated and calibrated by the supplier before installation to ensure the accuracy of the observation data. Data with significant errors were removed when processing the data table.

    2019-09-12 0 10 View Details

  • The lake level observation data of Lake Namco from the Integrated Observation and Research Station of Multisphere in Namco (2007-2016)

    The daily lake level observation data of lake Namco obtained from the Integrated Observation and Research Station of Multisphere in Namco in summers during 2007 to 2016. Every winter, the water gauge is destroyed by the lake ice, and it is reinstalled every summer. Taking the observational data (beginning with 0 cm) of the beginning of every year as a reference, an observational sequence is generated every year. The data set was processed by forming a continuous time series after the raw data were quality-controlled to meet the needs of lake hydrology research. Water level, unit: cm.

    2019-09-15 0 8 View Details

  • Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Qinghai Lake integrated observatory network (an observation system of meteorological elements gradient of Yulei station on Qinghai lake, 2018)

    This dataset includes data recorded by the Qinghai Lake integrated observatory network obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Yulei station on Qinghai lake from January 1 to October 12, 2018. The site (100° 29' 59.726'' E, 36° 35' 27.337'' N) was located on the Yulei Platform in Erlangjian scenic area, Qinghai Province. The elevation is 3209m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (HMP155; 12 and 12.5 m above the water surface, towards north), wind speed and direction profile (windsonic; 14 m above the water surface, towards north) , rain gauge (TE525M; 10m above the water surface in the eastern part of the Yulei platform ), four-component radiometer (NR01; 10 m above the water surface, towards south), one infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 10 m above the water surface, towards south, vertically downward), photosynthetically active radiation (LI190SB; 10 m above the water surface, towards south), water temperature profile (109, -0.2, -0.5, -1.0, -2.0, and -3.0 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_12 m, Ta_12.5 m; RH_12 m, RH_12.5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_14 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_14 m) (°) , precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (μmol/ (s m-2)), water temperature (Tw_20cm、Tw_50cm、Tw_100cm、Tw_200cm、Tw_300cm) (℃). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The other data in addition to the four-component radiation data during January 1 to October 12 were missing because the malfunction of datalogger. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2018-1-1 10:30. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red.

    2019-09-15 0 10 View Details

  • Observation dataset of forest ecosystems on the eastern margin of the Tibet Plateau (2005-2008)

    These are the meteorological, soil, vegetation and other data observed by the Gongga Mountain Forest Ecosystem Test Station on the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau, primarily from 2005 to 2008. Meteorological data: temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, dew point temperature, water pressure, ground temperature, soil temperature (5 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm, and 40 cm), 10-minute average wind, 10-minute maximum wind speed, precipitation, total radiation, net radiation. Tree layer biological observation data: diameter at breast height, tree height, life form Shrub layer biological observation data: tree number, height, coverage, life form, aboveground biomass, underground biomass Herb layer biological observation data: tree (strain) number, average height, coverage, life type, aboveground biomass, underground biomass Leaf area index: tree layer leaf area index, shrub layer leaf area index, grass layer leaf area index Soil organic matter and nutrients: soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, nitrate nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, available nitrogen (alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen), available phosphorus, available potassium, slowly available potassium, PH value in aqueous solution Soil water content: depth, water content

    2019-09-13 0 13 View Details

  • Meteorological observation data of the terminus of Naimona'nyi Glacier (2011-2017)

    This data set includes the temperature, relative humidity, and other daily values at the end of the observation point of the terminus of Naimona’nyi Glacier The data is observed from July 3, 2011 to September 15, 2017. It is measured by automatic meteorological station (Onset Company) and a piece of data is recorded every 60minutes. The original data forms a continuous time series after quality control, and the daily mean index data is obtained through calculation. The original data meets the accuracy requirements of China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for meteorological observation. Quality control includes eliminating the systematic error caused by the missing point data and sensor failure. The data is stored as an excel file.

    2019-09-12 0 0 View Details

  • Dataset of meteorological elements of Nagqu Station of Plateau Climate and Environment (2014-2017)

    This dataset is derived from the Nagqu Station of Plateau Climate and Environment (31.37N, 91.90E, 4509 a.s.l), Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The ground is flat, with open surrounding terrain. An uneven growth of alpine steppe, with a height of 3–20 cm. The observation time of this dataset is from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2017. The observation elements primarily included the wind speed, air temperature, air relative humidity, air pressure, downward shortwave radiation, precipitation, evaporation, latent heat flux and CO2 flux. The precipitation , evaporation and CO2 flux data are daily cumulative values, and the other variables are daily average values. The observed data are generally continuous, but some data are missing due to power supply failure, and the missing data in this dataset are marked as NAN.

    2019-09-13 0 22 View Details

  • The receiver function data of the Southern Station of the ANTILOPE-1 Array (2006-2007)

    The data set mainly includes P-wave and S-wave receiver functions calculated from the waveform data collected at the southern station of the ANTILOPE-1 array, which is located in the western part of the Tibetan Plateau. This array was established by the Antelope Project of the International Lithosphere Exploration Research Program in the Tibetan Plateau. The pulse deconvolution method was applied to the time domain to calculate the receiver function. All of the receiver function data were visually inspected to remove low-quality records that were significantly different from the majority of the receiver functions. The data set was compressed into a zip format file containing two folders: ANTILOPE-1-PRF and ANTILOPE-1-SRF, where PRF and SRF represent the P-wave receiver function and the S-wave receiver function, respectively. All P-wave and S-wave receiver function data were placed in the corresponding folders. The data are mainly used to investigate the lithospheric structure and reveal the deep dynamics of plateau uplift.

    2019-09-11 0 6 View Details

  • Dataset of black carbon concentration at Mt. Everest Station from May 2015 to May 2017

    Black carbon(BC) is a carbonaceous aerosol that mainly emitted from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels or biomass. As fine particles in the atmosphere with light-absorbing characteristic, BC can significantly reduce the surface albedo when deposits on snow and ice and accelerate the melting of glaciers and snow cover. New Aethalometer model AE-33 acquires the real-time BC concentration according to the light absorption and attenuation characteristics from the different wavelengths. In addition, AE-33 uses dual-spot measurements, which can compensate for the “spot loading effect” and obtain high-quality BC concentrations. By using the real-time observation data measured by AE-33 at Mt. Everest Station, we analyzed the seasonal and diurnal variations of BC and its sources and transport processes, and we also investigated the transport mechanisms of serious polluted episodes. That can provide basis for future works on assessment of climate effects caused by BC in this region.

    2019-09-13 0 0 View Details

  • The meteorological observation data of the Xiying River on the east section of the Qilian Mountains (2006-2010)

    This data set contains meteorological observation data from three meteorological stations in the Shandong section of the Qilian Mountains (Xiying Reservoir [XYSCZ], Forest Protection Station [XYHLZ] and Shangchigou [XYSCG]), including temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed, main wind direction, total radiation and air pressure, and the temporal resolution is one day. The raw data were observed and collected in strict accordance with the instrument operating specifications. The accuracy of the data meets the requirements of the National Meteorological Administration and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for meteorological observation data. The observation system is maintained by professionals 2-3 times a year, during which the sensor is calibrated or replaced and the collected data are downloaded and reorganized. The data are the continuous sequence generated by quality controlling the raw data, and some obvious systematic error data caused by missing points and sensor failure are eliminated.

    2019-09-12 0 9 View Details

  • Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university (an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Guazhou Station, 2018)

    This dataset includes data recorded by the Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Guazhou Station from September 23 to December 31, 2018. The site (95.673E, 41.405N) was located on a desert in the Liuyuan Guazhou, which is near Jiuquan city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 2016 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 48 m, towards north), wind speed and direction profile (windsonic; 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 48 m, towards north), air pressure (1.5 m), rain gauge (4 m), infrared temperature sensors (4 m, towards south, vertically downward), photosynthetically active radiation (4 m, towards south), soil heat flux (-0.05 m and -0.1m in south of tower), soil soil temperature/ moisture/ electrical conductivity profile -0.05, -0.1m, -0.2m, -0.4m, -0.6m and -0.8m in south of tower), four-component radiometer (4 m, towards south), sunshine duration sensor(4 m, towards south). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_2 m, Ta_4 m, Ta_8 m, Ta_16 m, Ta_32 m, and Ta_48 m; RH_2 m, RH_4 m, RH_8 m, RH_16 m, RH_32 m, and RH_48 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_2 m, Ws_4 m, Ws_8 m, Ws_16 m, Ws_32 m, and Ws_48 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_2 m, WD_4 m, WD_8 m, WD_16 m, WD_32 m, and WD_48 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (μmol/ (s m^2)), soil heat flux (Gs_0.05m, Gs_0.1m) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_5 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, and Ts_80 cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_5 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, and Ms_80 cm) (%, volumetric water content),soil water potential (SWP_5cm, SWP_10cm, SWP_20cm, SWP_40cm, SWP_60cm, and SWP_80cm)(kpa), soil conductivity (Ec_5cm, Ec_10cm, Ec_20cm, Ec_40cm, Ec_60cm, and Ec_80cm)(μs/cm), sun time (h). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The soil water potential in the area is so low that it has exceeded the sensor measurements. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2018-6-10 10:30.

    2019-09-12 0 8 View Details

  • Meteorological observation data from Qomolangma station for atmospheric and environmental observation and research (2005-2016)

    This data set includes the daily averages of the temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, precipitation, global radiation, P2.5 concentration and other meteorological elements observed by the Qomolangma Station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research from 2005 to 2016. The data are aimed to provide service for students and researchers engaged in meteorological research on the Tibetan Plateau. The precipitation data are observed by artificial rainfall barrel, the evaporation data are observed by Φ20 mm evaporating pan, and all the others are daily averages and ten-day means obtained after half hour observational data are processed. All the data are observed and collected in strict accordance with the Equipment Operating Specifications, and some obvious error data are eliminated when processing the generated data.

    2019-09-14 0 23 View Details

  • The water level observation of lakes on the Tibetan Plateau (2010-2017)

    The water level observation data set of lakes on the Tibetan Plateau contains the daily variations of water levels for three lakes: Zhari Namco, Bamco and Dawaco. The lake water level was obtained by a HOBO water level gauge (U20-001-01) installed on the lakeshore, then corrected using the barometer installed on the shore or pressure data of nearby weather stations, and then the real water level changes were obtained. The accuracy was less than 0.5 cm. The items of this data set are as follows: Daily variation data of water level in Zhari Namco from 2009 to 2014; Daily variation data of water level in Bamco from 2013 to 2014; Daily variation data of water level in Dawaco from 2013 to 2014. Water level, unit: m.

    2019-09-11 0 13 View Details

  • Asian monsoon experiment on the Tibetan Plateau (GAME/Tibet) dataset for global energy water cycle (1997-1998)

    The GAME/Tibet project conducted a short-term pre-intensive observing period (PIOP) at the Amdo station in the summer of 1997. From May to September 1998, five consecutive IOPs were scheduled, with approximately one month per IOP. More than 80 scientific workers from China, Japan and South Korea went to the Tibetan Plateau in batches and carried out arduous and fruitful work. The observation tests and plans were successfully completed. After the completion of the IOP in September, 1998, five automatic weather stations (AWS), one Portable Atmospheric Mosonet (PAM), one boundary layer tower and integrated radiation observatory (Amdo) and nine soil temperature and moisture observation stations have been continuously observed to date and have obtained extremely valuable information for 8 years and 6 months consecutively (starting from June 1997). The experimental area is located in Nagqu, in northern Tibet, and has an area of 150 km × 200 km (Fig. 1), and observation points are also established in D66, Tuotuohe and the Tanggula Mountain Pass (D105) along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway. The following observation stations (sites) are set up on different underlying surfaces including plateau meadows, plateau lakes, and desert steppe. (1) Two multidisciplinary (atmosphere and soil) observation stations, Amdo and NaquFx, have multicomponent radiation observation systems, gradient observation towers, turbulent flux direct measurement systems, soil temperature and moisture gradient observations, radiosonde, ground soil moisture observation networks and multiangle spectrometer observations used as ground truth values for satellite data, etc. (2) There are six automatic weather stations (D66, Tuotuohe, D105, D110, Nagqu and MS3608), each of which has observations of wind, temperature, humidity, pressure, radiation, surface temperature, soil temperature and moisture, precipitation, etc. (3) PAM stations (Portable Automated Meso - net) located approximately 80 km north and south of Nagqu (MS3478 and MS3637) have major projects similar to the two integrated observation stations (Amdo and NaquFx) above and to the wind, temperature and humidity turbulence observations. (4) There are nine soil temperature and moisture observation sites (D66, Tuotuohe, D110, WADD, NODA, Amdo, MS3478, MS3478 and MS3637), each of which has soil temperature measurements of 6 layers and soil moisture measurement of 9 layers. (5) A 3D Doppler Radar Station is located in the south of Nagqu, and there are seven encrypted precipitation gauges in the adjacent (within approximately 100 km) area. The radiation observation system mainly studies the plateau cloud and precipitation system and serves as a ground true value station for the TRMM satellite. The GAME-Tibet project seeks to gain insight into the land-atmosphere interaction on the Tibetan Plateau and its impact on the Asian monsoon system through enhanced observational experiments and long-term monitoring at different spatial scales. After the end of 2000, the GAME/Tibet project joined the “Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP)” jointly organized by two international plans, GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) and CL IVAR (Climate Change and Forecast). The Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP) on the Tibetan Plateau of the Global Coordinated Enhanced Observation Program (CEOP) has been started. The data set contains POP data for 1997 and IOP data for 1998. Ⅰ. The POP data of 1997 contain the following. 1. Precipitation Gauge Network (PGN) 2. Radiosonde Observation at Naqu 3. Analysis of Stable Isotope for Water Cycle Studies 4. Doppler radar observation 5. Large-Scale Hydrological Cycle in Tibet (Link to Numaguchi's home page) 6. Portable Automated Mesonet (PAM) [Japanese] 7. Ground Truth Data Collection (GTDC) for Satellite Remote Sensing 8. Tanggula AWS (D105 station in Tibet) 9. Syamboche AWS (GEN/GAME AWS in Nepal) Ⅱ. The IOP data of 1998 contain the following. 1. Anduo (1) PBL Tower, 2) Radiation, 3) Turbulence SMTMS 2. D66 (1) AWS (2) SMTMS (3) GTDC (4) Precipitation 3. Toutouhe (1) AWS (2) SMTMS (3 )GTDC 4. D110 (1) AWS (2) SMTMS (3) GTDC (4) SMTMS 5. MS3608 (1) AWS (2) SMTMS (3) Precipitation 6. D105 (1) Precipitation (2) GTDC 7. MS3478(NPAM) (1) PAM (2) Precipitation 8. MS3637 (1) PAM (2) SMTMS (3) Precipitation 9. NODAA (1) SMTMS (2) Precipitation 10. WADD (1) SMTMS (2) Precipitation (3) Barometricmd 11. AQB (1) Precipitation 12. Dienpa (RS2) (1) Precipitation 13. Zuri (1) Precipitation (2) Barometricmd 14. Juze (1) Precipitation 15. Naqu hydrological station (1) Precipitation 16. MSofNaqu (1) Barometricmd 16. Naquradarsite (1)Radar system (2) Precipitation 17. Syangboche [Nepal] (1) AWS 18. Shiqu-anhe (1) AWS (2) GTDC 19. Seqin-Xiang (1) Barometricmd 20. NODA (1)Barometricmd (2) Precipitation (3) SMTMS 21. NaquHY (1) Barometricmd (2) Precipitation 22. NaquFx(BJ) (1) GTDC(2) PBLmd (3) Precipitation 23. MS3543 (1) Precipitation 24. MNofAmdo (1) Barometricmd 25. Mardi (1) Runoff 26. Gaize (1) AWS (2) GTDC (3) Sonde A CD of the data GAME-Tibet POP/IOP dataset cd (vol. 1) GAME-Tibet POP/IOP dataset cd (vol. 2)

    2019-09-12 0 14 View Details

  • The concentration dataset of persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere, lake water and fish bodies in Namco (2012-2014)

    The concentration data set of persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere, lake water and fish bodies in Namco from 2012 to 2014 includes concentration time series of atmospheric gaseous organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), atmospheric gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), atmospheric particulate PAHs, dissolved persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in lake water, POPs in suspended particles of lake water and POPs in bodies of Gymnocypris namensis. The contents of the data set are all measured data. (1) The atmospheric samples were collected from the Integrated Observation and Research Station of Multisphere in Namco by the atmospheric active sampler. The flow rate of the sampler is 60 L min-1, which collects data every other day. One sample is generated every half month, and the sampling volume is approximately 600 m³. Each sample includes a glass fiber filter (GFF, 0.45 μm, Whatman) that adsorbs particulate POPs and a polyurethane foam (PUF, 7.5 x 6 cm) that collects gaseous POPs. (2) Fifteen sampling points were selected along Namco to collect surface lake water samples at a water depth of 0-1 m and with a volume of 200 L. The total suspended particulates are obtained by filtering the water samples with a 0.7 μm GFF membrane, and then the dissolved POPs in the water are collected using a solid phase extraction column packed with XAD-2. (3) Gymnocypris namensis is the most widely distributed fish in Namco. A total of 35 samples of different sizes were collected, and the concentration of POPs in the back muscle samples was analyzed. Each medium sample was prepared and analyzed by the Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes of CAS. The sample preparation steps include Soxhlet extraction, silica-alumina column purification, removal of macromolecular impurities by a GPC column, concentration and constant volume. The analytical test instrument was a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS, Finnigan-Trace GC/PolarisQ) manufactured by American Thermoelectric Corporation. The column separating OCPs and PCBs was a CP-Sil 8CB capillary column (50 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 μm), and the column separating PAHs was a DB-5MS capillary column (60 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 μm). Sampling and laboratory analysis procedures followed strict quality control measures with lab blanks and field blanks. The detection limit of the compound is the average of the concentration of the corresponding compound in the field blank plus 3 times the standard deviation; if the compound is not detected in the field blank, the signal-to-noise ratio, 10 times the lowest concentration of the working curve, will be considered as the detection limit. Data below the detection limit are considered undetected and labeled as BDL; data marked in italics are detected by 1/2 times the detection limit. The recovery of PAHs is between 65% and 92%, the recovery of OCPs is between 64% and 112%, and the sample concentration is not corrected using recovery.

    2019-09-14 0 3 View Details