This dataset includes the monthly minimum temperature data with 0.0083333 arc degree (~1km) for China from Jan 1901 to Dec 2017. The data form belongs to NETCDF, namely .nc file. The unit of the data is 0.1 ℃. The dataset was spatially downscaled from CRU TS v4.02 with WorldClim datasets based on Delta downscaling method. The dataset was evaluated by 496 national weather stations across China, and the evaluation indicated that the downscaled dataset is reliable for the investigations related to climate change across China. The dataset covers the main land area of China, including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions, and excluding islands and reefs in South China Sea.
This dataset includes the monthly maximum temperature data with 0.0083333 arc degree (~1km) for China from Jan 1901 to Dec 2017. The data form belongs to NETCDF, namely .nc file. The unit of the data is 0.1 ℃. The dataset was spatially downscaled from CRU TS v4.02 with WorldClim datasets based on Delta downscaling method. The dataset was evaluated by 496 national weather stations across China, and the evaluation indicated that the downscaled dataset is reliable for the investigations related to climate change across China. The dataset covers the main land area of China, including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions, and excluding islands and reefs in South China Sea.
This dataset includes the monthly precipitation data with 0.0083333 arc degree (~1km) for China from Jan 1901 to Dec 2017. The data form belongs to NETCDF, namely .nc file. The unit of the data is 0.1 mm. The dataset was spatially downscaled from CRU TS v4.02 with WorldClim datasets based on Delta downscaling method. The dataset was evaluated by 496 national weather stations across China, and the evaluation indicated that the downscaled dataset is reliable for the investigations related to climate change across China. The dataset covers the main land area of China, including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions, and excluding islands and reefs in South China Sea.
To investigate the paternal genetic structure of Tibetans from Lhasa, 1029 male samples were collected from Lhasa, Tibet. Firstly, SNP genotyping was performed to allocate samples into haplogroups. To further evaluate the genetic diversity of the major Y-chromosomal haplogroup in Tibetan populations from Lhasa, eight commonly used Y-chromosomal STR (short tandem repeat) loci (DYS19, DYS388, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, and DYS393) were genotyped using fluorescence-labeled primers with an ABI 3130XL Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, USA). The results indicated that haplogroup D-M174 displayed highest frequency in Lhasa Tibetans (56.56%, the majority of its sublineages were D3*-P99), followed by haplogroups O-M175 (30.71%, with most of the samples belonging to O3a3c1-M117). Another relatively rare lineages in Lhasa Tibetans were N-M231 (5.15%, especially its sublineage N1*-LLY22G), C-M130 (2.62%), R-M207 (2.53%), Q (1.55%), J (0.68%), K-M, and T. Further analysis indicated that the Lhasa Tibetans’ Y chromosome haplogroups have ages within different periods, including >30 kya, LGM, post-LGM, Holocene, indicating occupation of modern humans in different periods.
KONG Qingpeng QI Xuebing
The data set contains nearly 15 years of eddy covariance data from an alpine steppe ecosystem on the central Tibetan Plateau. The dataset was processed following standardized quality control methods to allow for comparability between the different years of our record and with other data sets. To ensure meaningful estimates of ecosystem-atmosphere exchange, careful application of the following correction procedures and analyses was necessary: (1) Due to the remote location, continuous maintenance of the EC system was not always possible, so that cleaning and calibration of the sensors was performed irregularly. Furthermore, the high proportion of bare soil and high wind speeds led to accumulation of dirt in the measurement path of the IRGA. The installation of the sensor in such a challenging environment resulted in a considerable drift in CO2 and H2O gas density measurements. If not accounted for, this concentration bias may distort the estimation of the carbon uptake. We applied a modified drift correction procedure following Fratini et al. (2014) which, instead of a linear interpolation between calibration dates, uses the CO2 concentration measurements from the Mauna Loa atmospheric observatory as reference time series. (2) We applied rigorous low frequency quality filtering to retain only flux measurements which represent actual physical processes. (3) During the long measurement period, there were several buildings constructed in the near vicinity of the EC system. We investigated the influence of these obstacles on the turbulent flow regime and conducted a footprint analysis to identify fluxes with uncertain land cover contribution and exclude them from subsequent computations. (4) We applied a correction for instrument surface heating during cold conditions (Burba et al. 2008), following the approach of Oechel et al. (2014). (5) Subsequently, we applied the traditional and widely used gap filling procedure following Reichstein et al. (2005) to provide a more complete overview of the annual net ecosystem CO2 exchange. (6) We estimated the random uncertainty following Finkelstein and Sims (2001) and analyzed the error propagation through the WPL correction to get an estimation of the accuracy of the measurements. A research paper with the detailed processing procedure will be submitted to Earth System Science Data (https://www.earth-system-science-data.net/).
Felix Nieberding Yaoming Ma* Cristian Wille Gerardo Fratini Magnus Ole Asmussen Yuyang Wang* Weiqiang Ma* Torsten Sachs
From April to June 2019, we used both live traps and camera traps to collect mammal diversity and distributions along the elevational gradients at the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve. We set 64 trap lines for small mammals inventory, with a total of 11456 live trap nights. We collected 1061 individuals and 2394 tissue samples of small mammals during the field sampling. We also retrived images of 60 camera traps placed between October 2018 and April 2019. We obtained 4638 pictures of wild animals and 654 captures of anthopogenic activities. The camera traps were reset in the same locations after renew batteries and memory cards. Small mammal data consist of richness, abundance, traits, environmental gradients etc, and could be used to model relationship between environmental gradients and traits concatenated by richness matrix. Camera trap data could inventory endangered species in the region, and provide information to identify biodiversity hotspots and conservation priorities.
The Optimum Interpolation sea surface temperature (OISST) analysis product provides complete ocean temperature fields constructed by using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The SST analysis has a spatial grid resolution of 0.25 degree and temporal resolution of 1 day. The product uses Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data from the Pathfinder AVHRR SST dataset when available for September 1981 through December 2005, and the operational Navy AVHRR Multi-Channel SST data for 2006 to the present day. Pathfinder AVHRR SST was chosen because of good agreement with the in-situ observation data. The product also uses sea ice datasets, in situ data from ships and buoys, and includes a large-scale adjustment of satellite biases with respect to the in-situ data. In areas where sea ice is present, SST is estimated from sea ice concentration datasets from NASA GSFC before 2005 and then from NOAA NCEP from 2005 onwards. The SST product is of great importance in the study of storm tide. Based on the SST product from 1981 to 2016, GEE was used to tailor the masks of the sea area along the Blet and Road. Finally, the 16-day synthetic sea surface temperature dataset of the sea area along the Blet and Road from 1981 to 2016 was obtained.
By archaeological investigation and excavation in Tibetan Plateau and Hexi corridor, we discovered more than 40 Neolithic and Bronze Age sites, including Zongri, Sanjiaocheng, Huoshiliang, Ganggangwa, Yigediwonan, Shaguoliang, Guandi, Maolinshan, Dongjicuona, Nuomuhong, Qugong, Liding and so on. In this dataset, there are some basic informations about these sites, such as location, longitude, latitude, altitude, material culture and so on. On this Basis, we identified animal remains, plant fossil, selected some samples for radiocarbon dating, optically stimulated luminescence dating, stable carbon, nitrogen isotopes, polle, fungal sporen and environmental proxies. This dataset provide important basic data for understanding when and how prehistoric human lived in the Tibetan Plateau during the Neolithic and Bronze Age.
DONG Guanghui LIU Xiangjun YANG Xiaoyan HOU Guangliang Lü Hongliang
The degree of opening to the outside world refers to the degree of opening to the outside world of a country or region's economy, which is embodied in the degree of opening to the outside world of the market, usually including the amount of import and export, the use of foreign capital, the level of tariff, the convenience of customs clearance, free trade agreements, market access, capital exchange, intellectual property protection, etc. The data are one belt, one road, 64 countries, including the net inflow of foreign direct investment (US $100 million), total import (US $100 million) and total export volume (US $100 million). Data sources include the world bank, the United Nations Conference on Trade and development, and the WTO. The 64 countries along the line include 16 in West Asia and North Africa, 16 in central and Eastern Europe, 5 other CIS countries, 8 in South Asia, 11 in Southeast Asia, including Myanmar, Vietnam and Thailand, and 5 in Mongolia, Russia and Central Asia.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a period of time, which has been used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region. We have collected the published GDP data. Collect the public GDP data. On the basic of 1-kilometer scale global GDP grid data in 2010 released by the United Nations, the total GDP of the node area was obtained. The lighting data and land use data of node areas are took as auxiliary data, after data preprocessing, data interpolation and multiple regression analysis, establish the relationship between GDP and the hundred meter scale multiple data, and then, the GDP data of 34 key node areas are obtained.
The gridded desertification risk data of Amu River Basin in 2018 was calculated based on the environmentally sensitive area index (ESAI) methodology. The ESAI approach incorporates soil, vegetation, climate and management quality and is one of the most widely used approaches for monitoring desertification risk. Based on the ESAI framework, fourteen indicators were chosen to consider four quality domains. Each quality index was calculated from several indicator parameters. The value of each parameter was categorized into several classes, the thresholds of which were determined according to previous studies. Then, sensitivity scores between 1 (lowest sensitivity) and 2 (highest sensitivity) were assigned to each class based on the importance of the class’ role in land sensitivity to desertification and the relationships of each class to the onset of the desertification process or irreversible degradation. A more comprehensive description of how the indicators are related to desertification risk and scores is provided in the studies of Kosmas (Kosmas et al., 2013; Kosmas et al., 1999). The main indicator datasets were acquired from the Harmonized World Soil Database of the Food and Agriculture Organization, Climate Change Initiative (CCI) land cover of the European Space Agency and NOAA’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The raster datasets of all parameters were resampled to 500m and temporally assembled to the yearly values. Despite the difficulty of validating a composite index, two indirect validations of desertification risk were conducted according to the spatial and temporal comparison of ESAI values, including a quantitative analysis of the relationship between the ESAI and land use change between sparse vegetation and grasslands and a quantitative analysis of the relationship between the ESAI and net primary production (NPP). The verification results indicated that the desertification risk data is reliable in Amu River Basin in 2018.
Black carbon is an important light absorbing substance, which has an important impact on climate change. This data set contains the data of black carbon concentration and sedimentation flux in the core of six lakes (gun Yong lake, Tanggula lake, linggecuo, Ranwu lake, gokyo, gosainkunda) on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and the south slope of the Himalayas. The carbon concentration of Huxin black was determined by digestion filtration thermoluminescence method. This dataset is an excel file, which can be opened directly by using Excel. This data set is helpful to study the history of atmospheric black carbon deposition in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and its surrounding areas and to further analyze the sources of atmospheric black carbon. It can be used as the basic data for the study of atmospheric black carbon transport and climate effect assessment.
Guided by the theories of plate tectonics, paleogeography, petroliferous basin analysis and sedimentary basin dynamics, we have collected a large number of data and achievements of geological research and oil-gas geological research in Pan third pole in recent years, including basic materials such as stratum, sedimentation, paleontology, paleogeography, paleoenvironment, paleoclimate, structure, oil-gas (potash) geology, especially paleomagnetism and paleogenesis On the basis of zircon and geochemical data, combined with the results of typical measured stratigraphic sections, the lithofacies and climate palaeogeographic pattern of Jurassic period are restored and reconstructed, and the paleogeographic map of lithofacies and climate of Pan third extremely early, middle and late Jurassic (3 sheets) and pan third extremely early, middle and late Jurassic (3 sheets) are obtained, aiming to discuss paleogeography and paleostructure The control and influence of paleoclimate on oil and gas (including potash) resources, in order to reveal the geological conditions and resource distribution rules of oil and gas formation, and provide scientific basis and technical support for overseas and domestic oil and gas exploration and deployment in China.
A gridded ocean temperature dataset with complete global ocean coverage is a highly valuable resource for the understanding of climate change and climate variability. The Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) provides a new objective analysis of historical ocean subsurface temperature since 1990 for the upper 2000m through several innovative steps. The first was to use an updated set of past observations that had been newly corrected for biases (e.g., in XBTs). The XBT bias was corrected by CH14 scheme, which is recommended by the XBT community. The second was to use co-variability between values at different places in the ocean and background information from a number of climate models that included a comprehensive ocean model. The third was to extend the influence of each observation over larger areas, recognizing the relative homogeneity of the vast open expanses of the southern oceans. Then the observations were also used to provide finer scale detail. Finally, the new analysis was carefully evaluated by using the knowledge of recent well-observed ocean states, but subsampled using the sparse distribution of observations in the more distant past to show that the method produces unbiased historical reconstruction. The ocean wind data set is constructed using RSS Version-7 microwave radiometer wind speed data. The input microwave data are processed by Remote Sensing Systems with funding from the NASA MEaSUREs Program and from the NASA Earth Science Physical Oceanography Program. This wind speed product is intended for climate study as the input data have been carefully intercalibrated and consistently processed. Each netCDF file contains: 1) monthly means of wind speed, grid size 360x180xnumber of all months since Jan 1988(increases over time) 2) a 12-month set of climatology wind speed, grid size 360x180, the climatology is an average calculated over the 20-year period 1988-2007 3) monthly anomalies of wind speed derived by subtracting the above climatology maps from the monthly means, grid size 360x180x#months since Jan 1988 (increases over time) 4) a wind speed trend map, grid size 360x180, the trend is calculated from 1988-01-01 to the latest complete calendar year 5) a time-latitude plot (a minimum of 10% of latitude cells is required for valid data), grid size 180x#months since Jan 1988 (increases over time).
Data from EM-DAT. EM-DAT is a global database on natural and technological disasters, containing essential core data on the occurrence and effects of more than 21,000 disasters in the world, from 1900 to present. EM-DAT is maintained by the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) at the School of Public Health of the Université catholique de Louvain located in Brussels, Belgium.The main objective of the database is to serve the purposes of humanitarian action at national and international levels. The initiative aims to rationalise decision making for disaster preparedness, as well as provide an objective base for vulnerability assessment and priority setting.The database is made up of information from various sources, including UN agencies, non-governmental organizations, insurance companies, research institutes and press agencies. Priority is given to data from UN agencies, governments, and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. This prioritization is not only a reflection of the quality or value of the data, it also reflects the fact that most reporting sources do not cover all disasters or have political limitations that could affect the figures. The entries are constantly reviewed for inconsistencies, redundancy, and incompleteness. CRED consolidates and updates data on a daily basis. A further check is made at monthly intervals, and revisions are made at the end of each calendar year.
1) Data content: including the central Asian region, the regional scope: 30°N ~ 60°N, 40°E ~ 90°E; 2) Data source: process the CMIP data set and use bilinear interpolation to interpolate the data of different resolution modes to 0.5°× 0.5°，CRU observation data from 1901 to 2014;; 3) Data quality: the time length is long, the data quality is good, and the missing values are marked by 999; 3) Prospect of data application achievement set: the data has been used to evaluate the simulation capability of temperature in central Asia, and the capability of climate system model to simulate historical climate change in central Asia has been evaluated through calculation and analysis of regional mean, relative error, root-mean-square error, Taylor diagram, EOF. 4) data reliability: by comparing and analyzing the annual changes of the observed and simulated data, the data results show a significant warming trend. By carrying out correlation test on the data results, they all pass the 99% reliability test.At the same time, CMIP plan data and CRU data are also common data sets, which are often used in many studies on climate change.
1) Data content (including elements and significance): 21 stations (Southeast Tibet station, Namucuo station, Zhufeng station, mustag station, Ali station, Naqu station, Shuanghu station, Geermu station, Tianshan station, Qilianshan station, Ruoergai station (northwest courtyard), Yulong Xueshan station, Naqu station (hanhansuo), Haibei Station, Sanjiangyuan station, Shenzha station, gonggashan station, Ruoergai station（ Chengdu Institute of biology, Naqu station (Institute of Geography), Lhasa station, Qinghai Lake Station) 2018 Qinghai Tibet Plateau meteorological observation data set (temperature, precipitation, wind direction and speed, relative humidity, air pressure, radiation and evaporation) 2) Data source and processing method: field observation at Excel stations in 21 formats 3) Data quality description: daily resolution of the site 4) Data application results and prospects: Based on long-term observation data of various cold stations in the Alpine Network and overseas stations in the pan-third pole region, a series of datasets of meteorological, hydrological and ecological elements in the pan-third pole region were established; Strengthen observation and sample site and sample point verification, complete the inversion of meteorological elements, lake water quantity and quality, above-ground vegetation biomass, glacial frozen soil change and other data products; based on the Internet of Things technology, develop and establish multi-station networked meteorological, hydrological, Ecological data management platform, real-time acquisition and remote control and sharing of networked data.
ZHU Liping PENG Ping
The data include the coastal ports and airport distribution in the Belt and Road region. The data are from the Natural Earth global port and airport data. The data are cut according to the standard map of the 65 countries along the Belt and road, and further corrected, then the distribution of the ports and airports in the area along the B&R is obtained. This data is mainly one to analyze the B&R area's important spatial layout and main characteristics of the transportation facilities, and to get other attributes data of port and airport in the following research, including the throughput of different port cargo types, the incoming and outgoing throughput, the number of docks and berths, the number of passengers on the airport, the data of the flights and routes of ports and airports, we can get further understanding of the spatial differentiation of the distribution of ports and airports in the B&R region.
This data set includes precipitation data from a total of nine ground-based precipitation observation stations located in the Yadong River Valley in the middle of the Himalayas. The observation data was collected by the Hobo tumbler rain gauge developed by Onset company and exported through supporting data reading software. Accumulated counts, the rain gauge tipped once, indicating that 0.2 mm of precipitation was recorded, and the default value of -999 was used when no precipitation event occurred. We screened the collected data and eliminated abnormal values to ensure its quality. This data set has made some progress in the analysis of precipitation characteristics, satellite data verification and model simulation evaluation in this area and two academic papers have been published, which provides strong support for the analysis of precipitation characteristics in the high-altitude valleys of the Himalayas lacking ground observation data.
On the basis of the global tropical cyclone track dataset, the global disaster events and losses dataset, the global tide level observation dataset and DEM data, coastline distribution data, land cover information, population and other related data of 34 key nodes, indicators related to the disaster danger of storm surge in each unit are extracted and calculated using handred meters grid as evaluation unit, such as historical intensity of tide level frequency of storm historic arrival, historical loss, distance of offshore line, etc. The comprehensive index of storm surge disaster danger is constructed, and the danger index of storm surge is obtained by using the weighted method. Finally, the storm surge danger index is normalized to 0-1, which can be used to evaluate the danger level of storm surge in each assessment unit. The key nodes data set only contains 11 nodes which have risks.