This dataset includes the monthly air temperature at 2 m in the Qilian Mountain area on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau during 1980 to 2013. The dataset was obtained from the ERA-interim reanalysis product. The ERA-interim system includes a 4-dimensional variational analysis (4D-Var). The quality of the data has been improved using the bias correction of satellite data. The spatial resolution of the dataset is 0.125°. The dataset includes the grid data of the air temperature in the Qilian Mountain area during the past 30 years, and provides a basic data for the studies such as climatic change, ecosystem succession, and earth system models.
This dataset includes the ground surface temperature in the Qilian Mountains on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during 1980-2013. This dataset was obtained from the ERA-interim reanalysis product. The ERA-interim system includes a 4-dimensional variational analysis (4D-Var). The quality of the data has been improved using the bias correction of satellite data. The spatial resolution of the dataset is 0.125°. The dataset includes the grid data of the ground surface temperature in the Qilian Mountains during the past 30 years, and may provide a basic data for relevant studies such as climatic change, ecosystem succession, and earth system models.
The Qinghai Tibet Plateau belongs to the plateau mountain climate. The temperature and its seasonal variation have been one of the hot spots in the global climate change research. The data includes the temperature data of Qinghai Tibet Plateau, with spatial resolution of 1km * 1km, temporal resolution of month and year, and time coverage of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015. The data are obtained by Kring interpolation on the data of national weather station in Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The data can be used to analyze the temporal and spatial distribution of air temperature in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. In addition, the data can also be used to analyze the law of temperature change with time in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, which is of great significance to the study of the ecological environment of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
The data set of ERA-Interim global surface air temperature reanalysis (1979-2016) was obtained from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) by adopting the ECMWF IFS forecasting system (T255, 60 layers) and using the four-dimensional variational assimilation system (8DVAR) with an analysis window of 12 hours to assimilate satellite remote sensing data (TOVS, GOES, Meteosat, etc.) and regular observations of the surface and upper atmosphere in different regions of the world and from different sources. The surface air temperature (2 m air temperature) data span the time range from January 1979 to December 2016 and cover the whole world with the projection of equal latitude and longitude, a temporal resolution of six hours, and a horizontal resolution of 0.75. The data were stored as a NetCDF format file once a month and included longitude, latitude, time, and temperature (t2m, unit: K), with 241 latitudinal grid points and 480 longitudinal grid points.
The meteorological elements distribution map of the plateau, which is based on the data from the Tibetan Plateau National Weather Station, was generated by PRISM model interpolation. It includes temperature and precipitation. Monthly average temperature distribution map of the Tibetan Plateau from 1961 to 1990 (30-year average values): t1960-90_1.e00，t1960-90_2.e00，t1960-90_3.e00，t1960-90_4.e00，t1960-90_5.e00， t1960-90_6.e00，t1960-90_7.e00，t1960-90_8.e00，t1960-90_9.e00，t1960-90_10.e00， t1960-90_11.e00，t1960-90_12.e00 Monthly average temperature distribution map of the Tibetan Plateau from 1991 to 2020 (30-year average values): t1991-20_1.e00，t1991-20_2.e00，t1991-20_3.e00，t1991-20_4.e00，t1991-20_5.e00， t1991-20_6.e00，t1991-20_7.e00，t1991-20_8.e00，t1991-20_9.e00，t1991-20_10.e00， t1991-20_11.e00，t1991-20_12.e00， Precipitation distribution map of the Tibetan Plateau from 1961 to 1990 (30-year average values): p1960-90_1.e00，p1960-90_2.e00，p1960-90_3.e00，p1960-90_4.e00，p1960-90_5.e00， p1960-90_6.e00，p1960-90_7.e00，p1960-90_8.e00，p1960-90_9.e00，p1960-90_10.e00， p1960-90_11.e00，p1960-90_12.e00 Precipitation distribution map of the Tibetan Plateau from 1991 to 2020 (30-year average values): p1991-20_1.e00，p1991-20_2.e00，p1991-20_3.e00，p1991-20_4.e00，p1991-20_5.e00， p1991-20_6.e00，p1991-20_7.e00，p1991-20_8.e00，p1991-20_9.e00，p1991-20_10.e00， p1991-20_11.e00，p1991-20_12.e00， The temporal coverage of the data is from 1961 to 1990 and from 1991 to 2020. The spatial coverage of the data is 73°~104.95° east longitude, 26.5°~44.95° north latitude, and the spatial resolution is 0.05 degrees×0.05 degrees (longitude×latitude), and it uses the geodetic coordinate projection. Name interpretation: Monthly average temperature: The average value of daily average temperature in a month. Monthly precipitation: The total precipitation in a month. Dimensions: The file format of the data is E00, and the DN value is the average value of monthly average temperature (×0.01°C) and the average monthly precipitation (×0.01 mm) from January to December. Data type: integer Data accuracy: 0.05 degrees × 0.05 degrees (longitude × latitude). The original sources of these data are two data sets of 1) monthly mean temperature and monthly precipitation observation data from 128 stations on the Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding areas from the establishing times of the stations to 2000 and 2) HadRM3 regional climate scenario simulation data of 50×50 km grids on the Tibetan Plateau, that is, the monthly average temperature and monthly precipitation simulation values from 1991 to 2020. From 1961 to 1990, the PRISM (Parameter elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model) interpolation method was used to generate grid data, and the interpolation model was adjusted and verified based on the site data. From 1991 to 2020, the regional climate scenario simulation data were downscaled to generate grid data by the terrain trend surface interpolation method. Part of the source data came from the results of the GCM model simulation; the GCM model used the Hadley Centre climate model HadCM2-SUL. a) Mitchell JFB, Johns TC, Gregory JM, Tett SFB (1995) Climate response to increasing levels of greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols. Nature, 376, 501-504. b) Johns TC, Carnell RE, Crossley JF et al. (1997) The second Hadley Centre coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM: model description, spinup and validation. Climate Dynamics, 13, 103-134. The spatial interpolation of meteorological data adopted the PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model) method: Daly, C., R.P. Neilson, and D.L. Phillips, 1994: A statistical-topographic model for mapping climatological precipitation over mountainous terrain. J. Appl. Meteor., 33, 140~158. Due to the difficult observational conditions in the plateau area and the lack of basic research data, there were deletions of meteorological data in some areas. After adjustment and verification, the accuracy of the data was only good enough to be used as a reference for macroscale climate research. The average relative error rate of the monthly average temperature distribution of the Tibetan Plateau from 1961 to 1990 was 8.9%, and that from 1991 to 2020 was 9.7%. The average relative error rate of precipitation data on the Tibetan Plateau from 1961 to 1990 was 20.9%, and that from 1991 to 2020 was 22.7%. The area of missing data was interpolated, and the values of obvious errors were corrected.
NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1 is an assimilation of data from the past (1948-recent). It was developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) in the US to act as an advanced analysis and prediction system. Most of the data are from the original daily average data of the PSD (Physical Sciences Division). However, the data from 1948 to 1957 are slightly different because these data are conventional (non-Gaussian) grid data. The information published on the official website is generally from 1948 to the present, and the latest information is generally updated every two days. For data on an isostatic surface, the general vertical resolution is 17 layers, from 1000 hPa to 10 hPa. The horizontal resolution is typically 2.5° x 2.5°. The NCEP reanalysis data are systematically comparable among international atmospheric science reanalysis data sets. Compared with the reanalysis data of the European Center, the initial year is earlier, and the latest data updates are more frequent. These two sets of reanalysis data are currently the most widely used data sets in the world. For details of the data, please visit the following website: https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.ncep.reanalysis.html
LUO Dehai, YAO Yao
This dataset includes the emissivity spectrum of typical ground objects in middle researches of the Heihe river basin. This dataset was acquired in oasis, desert, Gobi and wetland of experiment area. Time range starts from 2012-05-25 to 2012-07-18 (UTC+8). Instrument: MODEL 102F PORTABLE FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer), Handheld infrared thermometer. Measurement methods: at the first step, measure the thermal radiance of cold blackbody, warm blackbody, sample and gold plate (Downwelling Radiance). The radiance of cold blackbody and warm blackbody was used to calibrate the instrument, and eliminate the “noise” caused by the device itself. The retrieval of emissivity and temperature was then performed using iterative spectrally smooth temperature-emissivity separation (ISSTES) algorithm. The retrieved emissivity spectrum range from 8 to 14 μm, with spectral resolution of 4cm-1. Dataset contains the original recorded spectra (in ASCII format) and the log files (in doc format). The processed data are emissivity curves (ASCII) that ranged from 8 to 14 μm, and the temperatures of samples. Thermal photos of the sample, digital photo of the scene and the object are recorded in some cases.
The aim of the simultaneous observation of land surface temperature is obtaining the land surface temperature of different kinds of underlying surface, including greenhouse film, the roof, road, ditch, concrete floor and so on, while the sensor of thermal infrared go into the experimental areas of artificial oases eco-hydrology on the middle stream. All the land surface temperature data will be used for validation of the retrieved land surface temperature from thermal infrared sensor and the analysis of the scale effect of the land surface temperature, and finally serve for the validation of the plausibility checks of the surface temperature product from remote sensing. 1. Observation time and other details On 25 June, 2012, ditch and asphalt road surface temperatures were observed once every five minutes using handheld infrared thermometers recorded. On 26 June, 2012, ditch and asphalt road surface temperatures were observed once every five minutes using handheld infrared thermometers while greenhouse film and concrete floor surface temperatures were observed once every one second using self-recording point thermometer. On 29 June, 2012, concrete floor surface temperatures were observed continuously using handheld infrared thermometers during the sensor of TASI go into the region. At the same time, greenhouse film and concrete floor surface temperatures were observed once every one second using self-recording point thermometer. On 30 June, 2012, asphalt road, ditch, bare soil, melonry and ridge of field surface temperatures were observed continuously using handheld infrared thermometers during the sensor of TASI go into the region. At the same time, greenhouse film and concrete floor surface temperatures were observed once every one second using self-recording point thermometer. On 10 July, 2012, asphalt road, ditch, bare soil, melonry and ridge of field surface temperatures were observed once every one minute using handheld infrared thermometers during the sensor of TASI go into the region. At the same time, concrete floor surface temperatures were observed once every six second using self-recording point thermometer. On 26 July, 2012, asphalt road, concrete floor, bare soil and melonry surface temperatures were observed once every one minute using handheld infrared thermometers during the sensor of WiDAS go into the region. At the same time, greenhouse film and concrete floor surface temperatures were observed once every six second using self-recording point thermometer. On 2 August, 2012, corn field and concrete floor surface temperatures were observed using handheld infrared thermometers. At the same time, greenhouse film and concrete floor surface temperatures were observed once every six second using self-recording point thermometer. For corn field, twelve sites were selected according to the flight strip of the WiDAS sensor, and for each site one plot surface temperatures were recorded continuously during the sensor of WiDAS go into the region. On 3 August, 2012, corn field and concrete floor surface temperatures were observed using handheld infrared thermometers. At the same time, greenhouse film and concrete floor surface temperatures were observed once every six second using self-recording point thermometer. For corn field, fourteen sites were selected according to the flight strip of the WiDAS sensor, and for each site three plots surface temperatures were recorded continuously during the sensor of WiDAS go into the region. 2. Instrument parameters and calibration The field of view of the self-recording point thermometer and the handheld infrared thermometer are 10 and 1 degree, respectively. The emissivity of the latter was assumed to be 0.95. The observation heights of the self-recording point thermometer for the greenhouse film and the concrete floor were 0.5 m and 1 m, respectively. All instruments were calibrated three times (on 6 July, 5 August and 20 September, 2012) using black body during observation. 3. Data storage All the observation data were stored in excel.
GENG Liying, Jia Shuzhen, WANG Haibo,
The dataset of sun photometer observations was obtained in Linze grassland station, the reed plot A, the saline plot B, the barley plot E, the observation stationof the Linze grassland foci experimental areaand Jingdu hotel of Zhangye city. The optical depth in 1020nm, 936nm, 870nm, 670nm and 440nm were all acquired by CE318 from May 30 to Jun. 11, 2008. And from Jun. 15 to Jul.11, the data of 1640nm, 1020nm, 936nm, 870nm, 670nm, 550nm, 440nm, 380nm and 340nm were acquired. Both measurements were carried out at intervals of 1 minute. Optical depth, rayleigh scattering, aerosol optical depth, the horizontal visibility, air temperature and pressure near land surface, the solar azimuth and zenith could all be further retrieved. Readme file was attached for detail.
The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with PROBA CHRIS was obtained in the Yingke oasis and Huazhaizi desert steppe foci experimental areas on Jul. 1, 2008. Observation items included: (1) FPAR (Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation) of maize and wheat by SUNSACN and the digital camera in Yingke oasis maize field. FPAR= (canopyPAR－surface transmissionPAR－canopy reflection PAR+surface reflectionPAR) /canopy PAR; APAR=FPAR* canopy PAR. Data were archived in the table format of Word. (2) BRDF of maize by ASD (350～2 500 nm) from Institute of Remote Sensing Applications (CAS) and the self-made multi-angluar observation platform of BNU make in Yingke oasis maize field. The maximum height of the platform was 5m above the ground with the azimuth 0~360° and the zenith angle -60°~60°. An automatic thermometer was attached to the platform for the multiangle radiative temperature. Raw data were binary files direct from ASD (by ViewSpecPro), and pre-processed data on reflectance were in Excel. (3) The radiative temperature of the maize canopy by the automatic thermometer (emissivity: 0.95),at a hight of 50cm from the crown in Yingke oasis maize field. Raw data, blackbody calibrated data and processed data were all archived in Excel format. (4) Atmospheric parameters at the resort by CE318 (produced by CIMEL in France). The total optical depth, aerosol optical depth, Rayleigh scattering coefficient, column water vapor in 936 nm, particle size spectrum and phase function were then retrieved from these observations. The optical depth in 1020nm, 936nm, 870nm, 670nm and 440nm were all acquired by CE318. Those data include the raw data in k7 format and can be opened by ASTPWin. ReadMe.txt is attached for details. Processed data (after retrieval of the raw data) in Excel format are on optical depth, rayleigh scattering, aerosol optical depth, the horizontal visibility, the near surface air temperature, the solar azimuth, zenith, solar distance correlation factors, and air column mass number. (5) The multiangle radiative temperature by the automatic thermometer (emissivity: 1.0) attached on the observation platform, at an interval of 0.05s. The data were archived in .txt files (.dat format). The first seven lines were the header file, including acquisition date, time, and intervals; besides, Time (starting time), TObj (target temperature), Tint (the interior temperature of the probe), TBox (the temperature of the box) and Tact (the actual temperature calculated from the given emissivity) were also listed.