The data are collected from the automatic weather station (AWS, Campbell company) in the moraine area of the 24K glacier in the Southeast Tibet Plateau, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The geographic coordinates are 29.765 ° n, 95.712 ° E and 3950 m above sea level. The data include daily arithmetic mean data of air temperature (℃), relative humidity (%), wind speed (M / s), net radiation (w / m2), water vapor pressure (kPa) and air pressure (mbar). In the original data, an average value was recorded every 30 minutes before October 2018, and then an average value was recorded every 10 minutes. The temperature and humidity are measured by hmp155a temperature and humidity probe. The net radiation probe is nr01, the atmospheric pressure sensor probe is ptb210, and the wind speed sensor is 05103. These probes are 2 m above the ground. Data quality: the data has undergone strict quality control. The original abnormal data of 10 minutes and 30 minutes are removed first, and then the arithmetic mean of each hour is calculated. Finally, the daily value is calculated. If the number of hourly data is less than 24, the data is removed, and the corresponding date data in the data table is empty. In addition to the lack of some parameter data due to the thick snow and low temperature in winter and spring, the data can be used by scientific researchers who study climate, glacier and hydrology through strict quality control.
This data is a 5km monthly hydrological data set, including grid runoff and evaporation (if evaporation is less than 0, it means condensation; if runoff is less than 0, it means precipitation is less than evaporation). This data is a 5km monthly hydrological data set, including grid runoff and evaporation (if evaporation is less than 0, it means condensation; if runoff is less than 0, it means precipitation is less than evaporation).
This dataset includes the ground surface temperature in the Qilian Mountains on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during 1980-2013. This dataset was obtained from the ERA-interim reanalysis product. The ERA-interim system includes a 4-dimensional variational analysis (4D-Var). The quality of the data has been improved using the bias correction of satellite data. The spatial resolution of the dataset is 0.125°. The dataset includes the grid data of the ground surface temperature in the Qilian Mountains during the past 30 years, and may provide a basic data for relevant studies such as climatic change, ecosystem succession, and earth system models.
This data set contains oxygen isotope data from 1010 to 2005. It is used to study environmental changes in the Xixiabangma area of the Tibetan Plateau. The ice core oxygen isotope is measured by instrument. This data set is obtained from laboratory measurements. The data are obtained immediately after the completion of the instrument or experiment. The samples and data are collected in strict accordance with relevant operating procedures at all stages and comply with the laboratory operating standards. This data contains two fields: Field 1: The time AD. Field 2: The oxygen isotope ‰.
This data set includes the temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and other daily values in the observation point of Kunsha Glacier. The data is observed from October 3, 2015 to September 19, 2017. It is measured by automatic meteorological station (Onset Company) and a piece of data is recorded every 2 hours. The original data forms a continuous time series after quality control, and the daily mean index data is obtained through calculation. The original data meets the accuracy requirements of China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for meteorological observation. Quality control includes eliminating the systematic error caused by the missing point data and sensor failure. The data is stored as an excel file.
This data set includes the temperature, relative humidity, and other daily values at the end of the observation point of the terminus of Naimona’nyi Glacier The data is observed from July 3, 2011 to September 15, 2017. It is measured by automatic meteorological station (Onset Company) and a piece of data is recorded every 60minutes. The original data forms a continuous time series after quality control, and the daily mean index data is obtained through calculation. The original data meets the accuracy requirements of China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for meteorological observation. Quality control includes eliminating the systematic error caused by the missing point data and sensor failure. The data is stored as an excel file.
Xiaodongkemadi glacier, located in Tanggula Mountain, is a continental glacier. The glacier is a compound valley glacier formed by the confluence of a southward main glacier (also known as dadongkemadi glacier) and a Southwest Branch glacier (also known as xiaodongkemadi glacier). The daily temperature and humidity observation data of 6 points in xiaodongkemadi, 4 points in Yangbajing and 4 points in hariqin from 2012 to 2015.
The data set includes the trends of annual average temperature and rainfall changes at the three meteorological stations in the permafrost section of the Qinghai-Tibet Engineering Corridor over the past 50 years. According to the recorded data, the annual average temperature is experiencing a gradually rising process. The annual average temperature change over the past 56 years in Wudaoliang and Tuotuohe has a good correlation (r2=0.83). In 1957, the average annual temperatures of Wudaoliang and Tuotuohe were -6.6 °C and -5.1 °C, respectively. By 2012, the temperatures of the two stations were -4.6 and -3.1 °C, and the total temperature has risen by approximately 2 °C. The annual average temperature rises by 0.03-0.04 °C. The annual average temperature changes over the past 47 years in Wudaoliang and Anduo also have a good correlation (r2=0.84). In 1966, the average annual temperature in Anduo was -3.0 °C. By 2012, the temperature has risen to -1.8 °C, corresponding to a total temperature rise of approximately 1.2 °C and an annual average temperature rise of 0.02-0.03 °C. The annual average temperature in Wudaoliang and Tuotuohe rose slightly faster than that in Anduo. However, the change in rainfall was more volatile than that of temperature. The correlation between the rainfall change in Wudaoliang and Tuotuohe over the past 56 years is relatively poor (r2=0.60). In 1957, the annual rainfall amounts in Wudaoliang and Tuotuohe were 302 and 309 mm, respectively. By 2012, the annual rainfall amounts at the two stations were 426 and 332 mm. Thus, the rainfall in Wudaoliang had increased by 124 mm, with an annual rainfall increase of approximately 2 mm. In contrast, the annual rainfall in Tuotuohe only increased by 0.4 mm. The correlation between the rainfall change in Wudaoliang and Anduo over the past 47 years is also poor (r2=0.35). In 1966, and 2012, the annual average rainfall amounts in Anduo were 354 and 404 mm. The total increase was approximately 50 mm, and the annual average increase was 1 mm. The annual rainfall in Wudaoliang increased the fastest. The observation data from the three meteorological stations reveal climate changes in the permafrost sections of the Qinghai-Tibet Engineering Corridor. Judging from the overall trend of temperature and rainfall changes, the temperature in the northern and central parts of the corridor has increased rapidly over the past 50 years, exceeding the global average of 0.02 °C/a (IPCC). The rainfall increase in the northern part of the corridor is also obvious, especially the rate of rainfall increase at the Wudaoliang meteorological station. Increases in both temperature and rainfall have a great impact on accelerating the spatial variation in permafrost, and they are the leading cause of permafrost degradation on the Tibetan Plateau.
NIU Fujun, LIN Zhanju, YIN Guoan
The past frozen soil map of the Tibetan Plateau was based on a small number of temperature station observations and used a classification system based on continuity. This data set used the geographically weighted regression model (GWR) to synthesize MODIS surface temperature, leaf area index, snow cover ratio and multimodel soil moisture forecast products of the National Meteorological Information Center through spatiotemporal reconstruction. In addition, precipitation observations of more than 40 meteorological stations, the precipitation products of FY2 satellite observations and the multiyear average temperature observation data of 152 meteorological stations from 2000 to 2010 were integrated to simulate the average temperature data of the Tibetan Plateau, and the permafrost thermal condition classification system was used to classify permafrost into several types: Very cold, Cold, Cool, Warm, Very warm, and Likely thawing. The map shows that, after deducting lakes and glaciers, the total area of permafrost on the Tibetan Plateau is approximately 1,071,900 square kilometers. Verification shows that this map has higher accuracy. It can provide support for future planning and design of frozen soil projects and environmental management.
RAN Youhua, LI Xin
The 2008 national remote sensing annual average surface temperature and freezing index is a 5 km instantaneous surface temperature data product based on MODIS Aqua/Terra four times a day by Ran Youhua et al. (2015). A new method for estimating the annual average surface temperature and freezing index has been developed. The method uses the average daily mean surface temperature observed by LST in morning and afternoon to obtain the daily mean surface temperature. The core of the method is how to recover the missing data of LST products. The method has two characteristics: (1) Spatial interpolation is carried out on the daily surface temperature variation observed by remote sensing, and the spatial continuous daily surface temperature variation obtained by interpolation is utilized, so that satellite observation data which is only once a day is applied; (2) A new time series filtering method for missing data is used, that is, the penalty least squares regression method based on discrete cosine transform. Verification shows that the accuracy of annual mean surface temperature and freezing index is only related to the accuracy of original MODIS LST, i.e. the accuracy of MODIS LST products is maintained. It can be used for frozen soil mapping and related resources and environment applications.
RAN Youhua, LI Xin
The data set is the meteorological and observational data of hulugou shrub experimental area in the upper reaches of Heihe River, including meteorological data, albedo data and evapotranspiration data under shrubs. 1. Meteorological data: Qilian station longitude: 99 ° 52 ′ E; latitude: 38 ° 15 ′ n; altitude: 3232.3m, scale meteorological data from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013. Observation items include: temperature, humidity, vapor pressure, net radiation, four component radiation, etc. The data are daily scale data, and the calculation period is 0:00-24:00 2. Albedo: daily surface albedo data from January 1, 2012 to July 3, 2014, including snow and non snow periods. The measuring instrument is the radiation instrument on the 10m gradient tower in hulugou watershed. Among them, the data from August 4 to October 2, 2012 was missing due to instrument circuit problems, and the rest data quality was good 3. Evapotranspiration: surface evapotranspiration data of Four Typical Shrub Communities in hulugou watershed. The observation period is from July 18 to August 5, 2014, which is the daily scale data. The data include precipitation data, evaporation and infiltration data observed by lysimeter. The data set can be used to analyze the evapotranspiration data of alpine shrubs and forests. The evapotranspiration of grassland under canopy was measured by a small lysimeter with a diameter of 25 cm and a depth of 30 cm. Two lysimeters were set up in each shrub plot, and one lysimeter was set for each shrub in transplanting experiment. The undisturbed undisturbed soil column with the same height as the barrel is placed in the inner bucket, and the outer bucket is buried in the soil. During the embedding, the outer bucket shall be 0.5-1.0 cm higher than the ground, and the outer edge of the inner barrel shall be designed with a rainproof board about 2.0 cm wide to prevent surface runoff from entering the lysimeter. Lysimeter was set up in the nearby meteorological stations to measure grassland evapotranspiration, and a small lysimeter with an inner diameter of 25 cm and a depth of 30 cm was also set up in the sample plot of Picea crassifolia forest to measure the evaporation under the forest. All lysimeters are weighed at 20:00 every day (the electronic balance has a sensing capacity of 1.0 g, which is equivalent to 0.013 mm evaporation). Wind proof treatment should be taken to ensure the accuracy of measurement. Data processing method: evapotranspiration is mainly calculated by mass conservation in lysimeter method. According to the design principle of lysimeter lysimeter, evapotranspiration is mainly determined by the quality difference in two consecutive days. Since it is weighed every day, it is calculated by water balance.
SONG Yaoxuan, LIU Zhangwen
The project “The impact of the frozen soil environment on the construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway and the environmental effects of the construction” is part of the “Environmental and Ecological Science in West China” programme supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China. The person in charge of the project is Wei Ma, a researcher at the Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The project ran from January 2002 to December 2004. Data collected in this project included the following: Monitoring data of the active layer in the Beiluhe River Basin (1) Description of the active layer in the Beiluhe River Basin (2) Subsurface moisture data from the Beiluhe River Basin, 2002.9.28-2003.8.10 (Excel file) * Site 1 - Grassland moisture data * Site 2 – Removed turf moisture data * Site 3 - Natural turf moisture data * Site 4 - Gravel moisture data * Site 5 - Insulation moisture data (3) Subsurface temperature data from the Beiluhe River Basin, 0207-0408 Excel file * Temperature data for the ballast surface * Temperature data for insulation materials * Temperature data for a surface without vegetation * Temperature data for a grassland surface * Temperature data for a grit and pebble surface Data on the impact of construction on the ecological environment were obtained at Fenghuoshan, Tuotuohe, and Wudaoliang. Sample survey included plant type, abundance, community coverage, total coverage, aboveground biomass ratio and soil structure. The moisture content at different depths of the soil was detected using a time domain reflectometer (TDR). A set of soil samples was collected at a depth of 0-100 cm at each sample site. An EKKO100 ground-penetrating radar detector was used to continuously sample 1-1.5 km long sections parallel to the road to determine the upper limit depth of the frozen soil. 3. Predicted data: The temperature of the frozen soil at different depths and times was predicted in response to temperature increases of 1 degree and 2 degrees over the next 50 years based on initial surface temperatures of -0.5, -1.5, -2.5, -3.5, and -4.5 degrees. 4. The frozen soil parameters of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway were as follows: location, railway mileage, total mileage (km), frozen soil type mileage, mileage of zones with an average temperature conducive to permafrost, frozen soil with high temperatures and high ice contents, frozen soils with high temperatures and low ice contents, frozen soils with low temperatures and high ice contents, frozen soils with low temperatures and low ice contents, and melting area.
MA Wei, WU Qingbai
The data are a digitized permafrost map along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway (1:600,000) (Boliang Tong, et al. 1983), which was compiled by Boliang Tong, shude Li, Jueying bu, and Guoqing Qiu from the Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (originally called the Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Cryopedology, Chinese Academy of Sciences) in 1981. The map aims to reflect the basic laws of permafrost distribution along the highway and its relationship with the main natural environmental factors. The basic data for the compilation of the map include hydrogeological and engineering geological survey results and maps along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway(1:200000) (First Hydrogeological Engineering Geological Brigade of Qinghai Province, Institute of Geomechanics of the Academy of Geological Science), the cryopedological research results of the Institute of Glaciology and Cryopedology of Chinese Academy of Sciences since 1960 in nine locations along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway (West Datan, Kunlun pass basin, Qingshuihe, Fenghuohe, Tuotuohe, the Sangma Basin, Buquhe, Tumengela, and Liangdaohe) and drilling data of the Golmud-Lhasa oil pipeline and aerial topographic data of the work area. Taking the 1:200000 topographic map as the working base map, a permafrost map was compiled, which was then downscaled to a 1:600000 map to ensure the accuracy of the map. To make up for the lack of data in a larger area along the line, the characteristics and principles of the frozen soils found in the nine frozen soil research points along the highway were applied to areas with the same geologic and geographical conditions; meanwhile, aerial photographs were used as supplements to the freeze-thaw geology and frozen soil characteristics. The permafrost map along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway (1:600,000) includes the annual average temperature contour map along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway (1:7,200,000) and the permafrost map along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway (1:600,000). The permafrost map along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway also contains information on permafrost types, lithology, frozen soil phenomena, types of through-melting zones, classification of frozen soil engineering, and geological structural fractures. These data contain only digitized permafrost information. The spatial coverage is from Daxitan on the Qinghai-Tibet Highway in the north to Sangxiong in the south and is nearly 800 kilometers long and 40-50 kilometers wide. The data set includes a vectorized and a scanned map of the permafrost map along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway. The attribute information of the map is as follows. A-1; Continuous permafrost; >0°C; remained as a frozen soil layer and isolation layer A-2; Continuous permafrost; 0~-0.5°C; 0-25 m A-3; Continuous permafrost; -0.5~-1.5°C; 25-60 m A-4; Continuous permafrost; -1.5~-3.5°C; 60-120 m A-5;Continuous permafrost;<-3.5°C;>120 m B-1; Island permafrost ground; Seasonal Frozen Ground; B-2; Continuous permafrost; >0°C; remained as a frozen soil layer and isolation layer B-3; Island permafrost extent; 0~-0.5°C; 0-25 m B-4; Island permafrost extent; -0.5~-1.5°C; 25-60 m B-5; Island permafrost extent; -1.5~-3.5°C; 60-120 m
TONG Boliang, LI Shude, BO Jueying, QIU Guoqing