1)The datase includes a 30-year (1986-2015) average rainfall erosivity raster data for 20 countries in key regions, with a spatial resolution of 300 meters. 2）The 0.5°×0.5° grid daily rainfall data generated by the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) based on global site data was used to calculate the rainfall erosivity R factor of 20 countries in key regions. 3）The daily rainfall data of 2358 weather stations nationwide from China Meteorological Administration from 1986 to 2015 was used to calculate the R value, and the R value calculated by establishing the CPC data source was rechecked and verified. It is found that the R value calculated by the CPC data system was low, and then it was revised, and the final data obtained was of good quality. 4）Rainfall erosivity R factor can be used as the driving factor of the CSLE model, and the data is of great significance for the simulation of soil erosion in 20 countries in key regions and the analysis of its spatial pattern.
This data set is the result of dynamic downscaling simulation of CORDEX region 8 (Central Asia) using WRF model driven by MPI-ESM-HR1.2 model data in CMIP6 plan. The data include 2m temperature (variable T2) and precipitation and precipitation was divided into convective (variable RAINC) and non-convective (variable RAINNC) precipitation. The time period includes historical test (1995-2014), near future (2021-2040) and medium future (2041-2060). The future time period includes SSP1-2.6 and SSP5-8.5. The time resolution of the simulation is once every 6 hours, the spatial resolution is 25km, the number of vertical layers is 51, a whole year in 1994 is used as spin up, the SST update is used, and the parameterized scheme combination with good performance in this area is selected. The data set can better reflect the future climate change characteristics of Central Asia and the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and provide guidance for relevant countries to adapt to climate change.
LUO Yong, ZHOU Jiewei, SHI Wen
This data is precipitation data, which is the monthly precipitation product of tropical rainfall measurement mission TRMM 3b43. It integrates the main area of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (25 ~ 40 ° n; 25 ~ 40 ° n); The precipitation data of 332 meteorological stations are from the National Meteorological Information Center of China Meteorological Administration. The reanalysis data set is obtained by the station 3 ° interpolation optimization variational correction method. For the monthly sample data from January 1998 to December 2018, the spatial coverage is 25 ~ 40 ° n; 73 ~ 105 ° e, the spatial resolution is 1 ° * 1 °.
XU Xiangde, SUN Chan
This dataset includes data recorded by the Qinghai Lake integrated observatory network obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of the Subalpine shrub from Janurary 1to December 31, 2020. The site (100°6'3.62"E, 37°31'15.67") was located in the subalpine shrub ecosystem, near the Gangcha County, Qinghai Province. The elevation is 3495m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (HMP155; 3, 5 and 10 m, towards north), wind speed and direction profile (windsonic; 3, 5 and 10 m, towards north), air pressure (PTB110; 3 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 2 m of the platform in west by north of tower), four-component radiometer (CNR4; 6m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, towards south, vertically downward), photosynthetically active radiation (PQS1; 6 m, towards south, each with one vertically downward and one vertically upward, soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates below the vegetation; -0.06 m), soil temperature profile (109; -0.05、-0.10、-0.20、-0.40、-0.80、-1.20、-2.00、-3.00 and -4.00m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.05、-0.10、-0.20、-0.40、-0.80、-1.20、-2.00、-3.00 and -4.00m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_3 m, Ta_5 m, and Ta_10 m; RH_3 m, RH_5 m, and RH_10 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_3 m, Ws_5 m, and Ws_10 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_3 m, WD_5 m and WD_10 m) (°), precipitation (rain) (mm), air pressure (press) (hpa), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_D_up and PAR_D_down) (μmol/ (s m-2)), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, and Gs_3) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_5cm、Ts_10cm、Ts_20cm、Ts_40cm、Ts_80cm、Ts_120cm、Ts_200cm、Ts_300cm、Ts_500cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_5cm、Ms_10cm、Ms_20cm、Ms_40cm、Ms_80cm、Ms_120cm、Ms_200cm、Ms_300cm、Ms_500cm) (%, volumetric water content). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2018/8/31 10:30. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red.
Based on China's daily meteorological elements data set and National Geographic basic data, the extreme precipitation, extreme temperature, drought intensity, drought frequency and other indicators in Hengduan Mountain area were calculated by using rclimdex, nspei and bilinear interpolation methods. The data set includes basic data set of disaster pregnant environment, basic data set of extreme precipitation index, basic data set of extreme temperature index, basic data set of drought intensity and frequency. The data set can provide a basic index system for regional extreme high temperature, precipitation and drought risk assessment.
This dataset includes daily minimum temperature (Tmin), maximum temperature (Tmax) and precipitation (PPT) data of NEX-GDDP (NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections) (v1.0) over the periods of 2000–2009 and 2090–2099. The unit of Tmax and Tmin is K, and the unit of PPT is kgm-2s-1; the background filling value is -999. This dataset is a subset extraction fromthe original data. The original data was downloaded from https://portal.nccs.nasa.gov/datashare/NEXGDDP/BCSD/ in August 2020; The NEX-GDDP data set is obtained from CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) historical climate and General Circulation Models (General Circulation Models) operating in RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) 4.5 scenario mode, including 21 atmospheric circulation models; among them, 2000 –2005 is a historical climate scenario, and 2006–2009 and 2090-2099 are RCP 4.5 scenarios. For the description of the original data, please refer to https://www.nccs.nasa.gov/services/data-collections/land-based-products/nex-gddp.
Shen Miaogen, JIANG Nan
The data set records the precipitation statistics of the main areas in Qinghai Province, and the data are divided by region. The data are collected from the statistical yearbook of Qinghai Province issued by the Bureau of statistics of Qinghai Province. The data set contains 18 data tables with the same structure. For example, the data table in 2001 has nine fields: Field 1: month Field 2: Xining Field 3: Ping An Field 4: source Field 5: chabcha Field 6: colleagues Field 7: Dawu Field 8: Jiegu Field 9: Delingha
Qinghai Provincial Bureau of Statistics
(1) This data is the meteorological data of mustag station in 2019. The observation point is located at 75 ° 03.35'e and 38 ° 24.77'n, with an altitude of 3650m. The parameters include temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, precipitation, radiation and wind speed. (2) Data source and processing method: the data comes from the half-hour data of the automatic weather station of the station. Firstly, the abnormal data in the original records are removed, and then the daily values of these parameters are calculated. (3) The meteorological data can be used in the research of atmospheric science, climatology, physical geography and ecology.
This data is the data of automatic weather station (AWS, Campbell company) set up at the top of the mountain in the west slope of Sejila by the comprehensive observation and research station of Southeast Tibet alpine environment of Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2016. The geographical coordinates are 29.5919 n, 94.6102 e, with an altitude of 4640 m, and the underlying surface is alpine grassland. The data include daily arithmetic mean data of air temperature (℃), relative humidity (%), wind speed (M / s) and air pressure (MB) and daily accumulated value of precipitation. The original data is an average of 30 minutes before October 2018, and an average of 10 minutes after that. The temperature and humidity are measured by hmp155a temperature and humidity probe. The rainfall instrument model is rg3-m, the atmospheric pressure sensor probe is ptb210, and the wind speed sensor is 05103. These probes are 2 m above the ground. In terms of data quality: the obvious abnormal values are eliminated, the battery is damaged due to snow in the first half of 2019, and the data is missing. The missing temperature data is corrected by using the temperature fitting regression of 43900 m at nearby stations, and the data is yellow. Please pay attention when using it; the monitoring of precipitation starts from August 2019. The data station is a high altitude meteorological station in Southeast Tibet, which will be updated from time to time. It can be used by scientific researchers studying ecology, climate, hydrology, glaciers, etc.
This data is the data of the automatic weather station (AWS, Campbell company) set up in Yigong Zangbu basin by the Southeast Tibet alpine environment comprehensive observation and research station of Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2018. The geographic coordinates are 30.1741 n, 94.9334 e, and the altitude is 2282m. The underlying surface is grassland. The data include daily arithmetic mean data of air temperature (℃), relative humidity (%), wind speed (M / s), water vapor pressure (kPa) and air pressure (MB) and daily accumulated value of precipitation. The original data is an average value recorded in 10 minutes. The temperature and humidity are measured by hmp155a temperature and humidity probe. The rainfall instrument is tb4, the atmospheric pressure sensor is ptb210, and the wind speed sensor is 05103. These probes are 2 m above the ground. Data quality: the quality of the original data is better, less missing. The data station is a meteorological station in the lower altitude of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, which will be updated from time to time in the future. It can be used by researchers studying climate, hydrology, glaciers, etc.
The long-time series data set of extreme precipitation index in the arid region of Central Asia contains 10 extreme precipitation index long-time series data of 49 stations. Based on the daily precipitation data of the global daily climate historical data network (ghcn-d), the data quality control and outlier elimination were used to select the stations that meet the extreme precipitation index calculation. Ten extreme precipitation indexes (prcptot, SDII, rx1day, rx5day, r95ptot, r99ptot, R10, R20) defined by the joint expert group on climate change detection and index (etccdi) were calculated 、CWD、CDD）。 Among them, there are 15 time series from 1925 to 2005. This data set can be used to detect and analyze the frequency and trend of extreme precipitation events in the arid region of Central Asia under global climate change, and can also be used as basic data to explore the impact of extreme precipitation events on agricultural production and life and property losses.
YAO Junqiang, CHEN Jing, LI Jiangang
This dataset is the high-resolution downscaled results of three global circulation models (CCSM4, HadGEM2-ES, and MPI-ESM-MR) from CMIP5. The regional climate model applied is the WRF model. The domain of this dataset covers the five countries of Central Asia. Its horizontal resolution is 9km. The future (reference) period is 2031-2050 (1986-2005), which includes the 10 years under 1.5-2℃ global warming. The carbon emission scenario is RCP4.5. The variances are annual mean temperature at 2m and precipitation (cumulus and grid-scale precipitation). This dataset can be used to project the climate in Central Asia.
Gwadar deepwater port is located in the south of Gwadar city in the southwest of Balochistan province, Pakistan. It is 460km away from Karachi in the East and 120km away from the Pakistan Iran border in the West. It is adjacent to the Arabian Sea in the Indian Ocean in the South and the Strait of Hormuz and the Red Sea in the West. It is a port with a strategic position far away from Muscat, the capital of Oman. This data is the measured meteorological data of Gwadar Port meteorological station (62.329494e, 25.233308n). The data time range is 2014-2015, and the data time resolution is one day.
Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) provides a multiple climate model environment, which can be used to predict the future climate change in the key nodes in the Belts and Road to deal with the environmental and climate problems. Key nodes in the Belt and Road are taken as the study regions of this dataset. The ability of 43 climate models in CMIP5 to predict the future climate change in the study regions was assessed and the optimal models under different scenarios were selected according to the RMSE between the prediction results and real observations. This dataset is composed of the prediciton results of precipitation and near-surface air temperature between 2006 and 2065 using the optimal models in monthly temporal frequncy. The spatial resolution of the dataset has been downscaled to 10 km using statistical downscaling method. Data of each period has three bands, namely maximum near-surface air temperature, minimum near-surface air temperature and precipitation. In this data set, the unit of precipitation is kg / (m ^ 2 * s), and the unit of near-surface air temperature is K. This dataset provides data basis for solving environmental and climate problems of the key nodes in the Belts and Road.
LI Xinyan, LING Feng
The data set includes the start time (year, month), location (longitude and latitude), duration (month), drought intensity and vulnerability data of vegetation response to drought in Central Asia from 1982 to 2015, with a spatial resolution of 1 / 12 °. The drought events were identified by the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index at the time scale of 12 months (spei12) < - 1.0. The specific algorithm of drought characteristics and vegetation vulnerability is detailed in the citation. The dataset has been applied in the study of vegetation vulnerability to drought in Central Asia, and has application prospects in the research fields of spatial-temporal characteristics of drought events, drought-vegetation interaction mechanism, drought risk assessment and so on.
1) Data content (including elements and significance): the data includes daily values of temperature (℃), precipitation (mm), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (M / s) 2) Data source and processing method; air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed are daily mean values, precipitation is daily cumulative value; data collection location is 29 ° 39 ′ 25.2 ″ n; 94 ° 42 ′ 25.62 ″ E; 4390m; underlying surface is natural grassland; collector model Campbell Co CR1000, collection time: 10 minutes. Digital automatic data acquisition. The temperature and relative humidity instrument probe is hmp155a; the wind speed sensor is 05103; the precipitation is te525mm; 3) Data quality description; the original data of temperature, relative humidity and wind speed are the average value of 10 minutes, and the precipitation is the cumulative value of 10 minutes; the daily average temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed are obtained by arithmetic average or summation. Due to the limitation of sensors, there may be some errors in winter precipitation. 4) In addition, it is convenient for scientists to update the atmospheric data in the future. This data is updated from time to time every year.
The accuracy of tropical cyclone (tropical storm) track forecasting improved by nearly 50% for lead times of 24–72 h since 1990s. Over the same period forecasting of tropical cyclone intensity showed only limited improvement. Given the limited prediction skill of models of tropical cyclone intensity based on environmental properties, there have been a wealth of studies of the role of internal dynamical processes of tropical cyclones, which are largely linked to precipitation properties and convective processes. The release of latent heat by convection in the inner core of a tropical cyclone is considered crucial to tropical cyclone intensification. 16-year satellite-based precipitation, and clouds top infrared brightness temperature were used to explore the relationship between precipitation, convective cloud, and tropical cyclone intensity change. The 6-hourly TC centers were linearly interpolated to give the hourly and half hourly tropical cyclone center positions, to match the temporal resolution of the precipitation and clouds top infrared brightness temperature. More precipitation is found as storms intensify, while tropical cyclone 24 h future intensity change is closely connected with very deep convective clouds with IR BT < 208 K. Intensifying tropical cyclones follow the occurrence of colder clouds with IR BT < 208 K with greater areal extents. As an indicator of very deep convective clouds, IR BT < 208 K is suggested to be a good predictor of tropical cyclone intensity change（Ruan&Wu，2018，GRL）. The properties of the satellite-based precipitation, and clouds top infrared brightness temperature are therefore suggested to be important measurements to study tropical cyclone intensity, intensity change and their underlying mechanisms. The high resolution of the satellite-based precipitation (3h), and cloud top infrared brightness temperature (half hour) datasets also makes them possible to be used to study tropical cyclone variability associated with diurnal cycle.
The China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor is confronted with security problems related with global warming, mostly including the increasingly serious of degradation of permafrost and land desertification. On one hand, frozen soil degradation has caused frequent disasters such as debris flow, flood, ice and snow damage along the China-Mongolia-Russia transportation and pipeline, which will cause water and soil erosion followed by exposed pipes in frozen soil, in particular in summer. On the other hand, desertification will drive the ecological environment more vulnerable with the compound hazards of soil erosion and sandstorms occurring frequently. Therefore, this dataset will hopefully provide basic climate data for the research on the climate change and its impacts on permafrost and desertification for the China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor. The original data is extracted from ERA5- Land surface climate reanalysis data (ERA5 – Land) (source: https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu). We adopted the inverse distance weight (IDW) method to interpolate the original data with the spatial resolution of 10 km. Based on this dataset, the spatial and temporal distribution pattern of climatic factors are outlined over the past 40 years for the corridor.
Effective evaluation of future climate change, especially prediction of future precipitation, is an important basis for formulating adaptation strategies. This data is based on the RegCM4.6 model, which is compatible with multi-model and different carbon emission scenarios: CanEMS2 (RCP 45 and RCP85), GFDL-ESM2M (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5), HadGEM2-ES (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 And RCP8.5), IPSL-CM5A-LR (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5), MIROC5 (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5). The future climate data (2007-2099) has 21 sets, with a spatial resolution at 0.25 degrees and the temporal resolution at 3 hours (or 6 hours), daily and yearly scales.
PAN Xiaoduo, ZHANG Lei