(1) This data set is the carbon flux data set of Shenzha alpine wetland from 2016 to 2019, including air temperature, soil temperature, precipitation, ecosystem productivity and other parameters. (2) The data set is based on the field measured data of vorticity, and adopts the internationally recognized standard processing method of vorticity related data. The basic process includes: outlier elimination coordinate rotation WPL correction storage item calculation precipitation synchronization data elimination threshold elimination outlier elimination U * correction missing data interpolation flux decomposition and statistics. This data set also contains the model simulation data calibrated based on the vorticity correlation data set. (3) the data set has been under data quality control, and the data missing rate is 37.3%, and the missing data has been supplemented by interpolation. (4) The data set has scientific value for understanding carbon sink function of alpine wetland, and can also be used for correction and verification of mechanism model.
The coverage time of glacier runoff data set in the five major river source areas of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is from 1971 to 2015, and the time resolution is year by year, covering the source areas of five major rivers (Yellow River source, Yangtze River source, Lancang River source, Nu River source, Yarlung Zangbo River source). The data is based on multi-source remote sensing and measured data. The glacier runoff data is simulated by using the daily scale meteorological data of five major river source areas and their surrounding meteorological stations, the global vegetation products of umd-1km, the igbp-dis soil database, the first and second glacier catalogue data, and the distributed hydrological model vic-cas coupled with the glacier module is used to simulate the glacier runoff data. The simulation results are verified by the site measured data to enhance the quality control. Data indicators include: Glacier runoff (rate of glacier runoff:%), total runoff (mm / a), snow runoff (rate of snow runoff:%), and rainfall runoff rate (rainfall runoff rate:%).
Lake ice is an important parameter of Cryosphere. Its change is closely related to climate parameters such as temperature and precipitation, and can directly reflect climate change. Therefore, lake ice is an important indicator of regional climate parameter change. However, due to the poor natural environment and sparsely populated area, it is difficult to carry out large-scale field observation, The spatial resolution of 10 m and the temporal resolution of better than 30 days were used to monitor the changes of different types of lake ice, which filled in the blank of observation. The hmrf algorithm is used to classify different types of lake ice. The distribution of different types of lake ice in some lakes with an area of more than 25km2 in the three polar regions is analyzed by time series to form the lake ice type data set. The distribution of different types of lake ice in these lakes can be obtained. The data includes the sequence number of the processed lake, the year and its serial number in the time series, and vector The data set includes the algorithm used, sentinel-1 satellite data, imaging time, polar region, lake ice type and other information. Users can determine the change of different types of lake ice in time series according to the vector file.
TIAN Bangsen QIU Yubao
Lake sediment is important archive for reconstructing the past climate change, in which the chronological framework of sediments is the basis. Varve is a kind of sedimentary lamina formed in pairs in lake sediments, usually with one year as a cycle. Supported by the projects the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences “Pan-Third Pole Environment Study for a Green Silk Road (Pan-TPE)” and The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research, the authors obtained a 1-meter long sediment gravity core from Jiangco in the central Tibet Plateau, and found well preserved varves. Subsequently, core thin sections were made, and the varve and its thickness were counted and measured to obtain the chronological sequence from 81 A.D. to 2015. The precipitation in this area in the past 2000 years has been reconstructed by using the percentage of coarse-grained layer thickness in the total varve thickness, which represents the precipitation. High resolution and high-precision chronology and precipitation records can provide reliable background of climate and environmental change, and provide reference for paleoclimate simulation and the rise and fall of ancient civilization.
1) Data content (including elements and significance): 19 stations (South-East Tibetan station, Namucuo station, Qomolangma station, Medog station, Ngari station, Naqu station（ITPCAS）, Golmud station, Tianshan station, Qilianshan station, Ruoergai station(NIEER) , Yulong Xueshan station, Naqu station(NIEER), Haibei Station, Sanjiangyuan station, Shenzha station, Ruoergai station (CIB), Naqu station(IG SNRR), Lhasa station，Qinghai lake station) Meteorological observation data sets (temperature, precipitation, wind direction and wind speed, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, radiation and evaporation) of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau in 2019 2) Data source and processing method: field observation excel format of 19 stations in Alpine network 3) Data quality description: Daily resolution of stations 4) Achievements and prospects of data application: Based on the long-term observation data of the field stations in the alpine network and the overseas stations in the pan third polar region, a series of data sets of meteorological, hydrological and ecological elements in the pan third polar region are established; through the intensive observation and sample plot verification in key areas, the meteorological elements, lake water and water quality, aboveground vegetation biomass, glacier and frozen soil changes are completed According to the inversion of products; based on the technology of Internet of things, the meteorological, hydrological and ecological data management platform with multi station networking is developed to realize real-time acquisition, remote control and sharing of online data.
ZHU Liping PENG Ping
Pollen and spores extracted from sediment are considered as the important proxy in reconstructing past vegetation and climate, and which plays essential role in investigating environmental evolution during the Quaternary. Accurate identification of pollen and spore is the base for palynological research, which determines it is quite necessary to establish modern atlas for pollen and spore. Supported by the projects the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences “Pan-Third Pole Environment Study for a Green Silk Road (Pan-TPE)” and The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research, authors completed the vegetation and soil surveys in 2018 for the alpine meadow in the east Tibetan Plateau (including Yushu Prefecture, Changdu City, Ganzi prefecture, Naqu City) and alpine forest in the southeast Tibetan Plateau (Linzhi City) , and collected 401 specimens for anther of flowering plants and sporangium of ferns. Pollen and spores were extracted and from these specimens using the standard acid-alkali approach and acetolysis (9:1 mixture of acetic anhydride and sulphuric acid) treatment, and further were refrigerated in glycerin. More than two photographs were took for each pollen and spore type, using the LEICA-dm-2500 optical microscope and its imaging system with scale. The atlas of pollen and spore morphology will be a valuable reference for palynology research and teaching.
CAO Xianyong TIAN Fang LI Kai NI Jian
1) data content (including elements and significance): transparency data of 152 lakes greater than 50 km2 in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau in 2000-2019 (Saybolt disk value) 2) Data source and processing method: the data inversion is based on the high-precision transparency inversion model and modis-modocga product data. The remote sensing data is converted into the remote sensing reflectivity R ﹐ RS inversion transparency value, and the annual mean value is calculated. The average value of 3 × 3 pixels in the geometric center of the lake represents the lake. For the case where the geometric center is located outside the lake, the open water area of the lake is taken for calculation. 3) Data quality description: annual average value of lakes. 4) Results and prospects of data application: climate change may change Lake transparency, while the change of Lake transparency will play a feedback role in regional climate change. In this study, the inversion of Lake transparency in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau provides basic data for the energy exchange of the lake air interface.
ZHU Liping PENG Ping
1) area data of 317 lakes larger than 10 km2 in 1976, 1990, 2000, 2005 and 2013 were obtained based on multi temporal Landsat images; 2) Combining SRTM DEM and Landsat images, the data of lake water volume change in 1976-1990, 1990-2000, 2000-2005 and 2005-2013 were obtained; 3) The accuracy of Lake area is controlled in one pixel, and the accuracy of water volume change is about 5%; 4) This data has been applied to the study of recent changes in lake water volume in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and the results have been published in remote sensing of environment. In other future studies, this data can also be used as basic data, as well as in the analysis of changes in ecological environment, climate change, Lake water quality, etc
ZHU Liping PENG Ping
1) The data set driven by the surface meteorological elements of the surface meteorological observation data product (2017-2018) of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau includes four elements: near surface temperature, surface precipitation rate, short wave radiation and long wave radiation. 2) The data set is based on the existing Princeton reanalysis data, GLDAS data, gewex-srb radiation data and TRMM Precipitation Data in the world as the background field, and integrates the conventional meteorological observation data of China Meteorological Administration, and is formed by spatial interpolation. 3) The data is TIFF format, the temporal resolution is daily value, and the spatial resolution is 0.1 °. 4) It is convenient for researchers and students who do not use such assimilation data in NC format. Based on the long-term observation data of each field station in the alpine network and overseas stations in the pan third polar region, a series of data sets of meteorological, hydrological and ecological elements in the pan third polar region are established; the inversion of data products such as meteorological elements, lake water quantity and quality, aboveground vegetation biomass, glacial and frozen soil changes are completed through enhanced observation and sample site verification in key regions; based on the IOT Network technology, the development and establishment of multi station network meteorological, hydrological, ecological data management platform, to achieve real-time access to network data and remote control and sharing.
ZHU Liping PENG Ping
This data set includes a monthly composite of 30 m × 30 m surface vegetation coverage products in the Qilian Mountain Area in 2019. In this paper, the maximum value composition (MVC) method is used to synthesize monthly NDVI products and calculate FVC by using the reflectance data of Landsat 8 and sentinel 2 red and near infrared channels. The data is monthly synthesized by Google Earth engine cloud platform, and the index is calculated by the model. The missing pixels are interpolated with good quality, which can be used in environmental change monitoring and other fields.
1) Data content: this data is the placenta umbilical cord endothelial cells (HUVEC) transcriptome data of high altitude Tibetan and lowland Han population generated during the implementation of the project, including the RNA-seq data of 3 high altitude Tibetan HUVEC and 3 lowland Han placenta HUVEC. Each RNA-seq data is 6G sequencing depth, which can be used to study the effect of high altitude Tibetan population and lowland Han population for gene expression patterns at hypoxic environment. 2) Data source and processing method: own data, the pair end 150bp sequencing method using Illumina x-ten sequencing platform. 3) Data quality: 6G data depth, q30 > 90%. 4) Results and prospects of data application: the data will be used to validate the gene expression pattern of high altitude hypoxia adaptation gene to hypoxia environment at the cell level.
The data includes the runoff components of the main stream and four tributaries in the source area of the Yellow River. In 2014-2016, spring, summer and winter, based on the measurement of radon and tritium isotopic contents of river water samples from several permafrost regions in the source area of the Yellow River, and according to the mass conservation model and isotope balance model of river water flow, the runoff component analysis of river flow was carried out, and the proportion of groundwater supply and underground ice melt water in river runoff was preliminarily divided. The quality of the data calculated by the model is good, and the relative error is less than 20%. The data can provide help for the parameter calibration of future hydrological model and the simulation of hydrological runoff process.
The average altitude of the Tibetan Plateau is more than 4000 meters. The harsh environment such as high cold and low oxygen poses a huge challenge to human survival. However, since the late Paleolithic period, Tibetan people in the plateau have reached the Plateau, and in the Neolithic period, people began to permanently settled on the high-altitude areas on a large scale. The history of population migration in this process has become the focus of different fields. In order to analyze the genetic structure of Tibetan population from the perspective of the whole genome and trace back the history of human settlement on the plateau, we obtained the whole genome variation data of 20 Tibetan individuals. The SNP typing of 20 samples was carried out by DNA array method, and about 700000 loci (including nuclear genome, mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome) of each sample were obtained. Based on the above data, relevant biological information analysis (mainly including chip site quality control analysis, Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplotype analysis) was carried out. This data is helpful to analyze the genetic structure of Tibetan population from the perspective of nuclear genome, Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. By comparing with the data of people around the plateau, we can trace the migration and settlement history of the plateau population comprehensively.
The data set includes the mass balances of Hailuogou Glacier, Parlung No.94 Glacier, Qiyi glacier, Xiaodongkemadi Glacier, Muztagh No.15 Glacier, Meikuang Glacier and NM551 Glacier in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau from 1975 to 2013. Based on several mass balance observations collected from World Glacier Inventory (https://nsidc.org/data/g10002/versions/1) and The Third Pole Environment Database (http://en.tpedatabase.cn/, doi:10.11888/GlaciologyGeocryology.tpe.96.db) by Tandong Yao and the meteorological data obtained from Global Land Assimilation System (GLDAS), the mass balances of the above seven glaciers from 1975 to 2013 are reconstructed by using the glacier material balance calculation formula. This reconstruction data is based on the published glacier material balance data to calibrate the parameters in the glacier material balance formula, and to reconstruct the long-time series material balance by using the glacier material balance formula, in which the parameter calibration results and the reconstruction results of the long-time series data are compared with the relevant research results, demonstrating the rationality of the data results Please refer to the following papers. The data can be used to study the change of water resources in the glacial region, expand the data set of Glacier Mass Balance in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and provide reference for the future research of Glacier Mass Balance reconstruction.
The surface air temperature dataset of the Tibetan Plateau is obtained by downscaling the China regional surface meteorological feature dataset (CRSMFD). It contains the daily mean surface air temperature and 3-hourly instantaneous surface air temperature. This dataset has a spatial resolution of 0.01°. Its time range for surface air temperature dataset is from 2000 to 2015. Spatial dimension of data: 73°E-106°E, 23°N-40°N. The surface air temperature with a 0.01° can serve as an important input for the modeling of land surface processes, such as surface evapotranspiration estimation, agricultural monitoring, and climate change analysis.
DING Lirong ZHOU Ji
By archaeological investigation and excavation in Tibetan Plateau and Hexi corridor, we discovered more than 40 Neolithic and Bronze Age sites, including Zongri, Sanjiaocheng, Huoshiliang, Ganggangwa, Yigediwonan, Shaguoliang, Guandi, Maolinshan, Dongjicuona, Nuomuhong, Qugong, Liding and so on. In this dataset, there are some basic informations about these sites, such as location, longitude, latitude, altitude, material culture and so on. On this Basis, we identified animal remains, plant fossil, selected some samples for radiocarbon dating, optically stimulated luminescence dating, stable carbon, nitrogen isotopes, polle, fungal sporen and environmental proxies. This dataset provide important basic data for understanding when and how prehistoric human lived in the Tibetan Plateau during the Neolithic and Bronze Age.
DONG Guanghui YANG Xiaoyan Lü Hongliang LIU Xiangjun HOU Guangliang
By archaeological investigation and excavation in Tibetan Plateau, we discovered 14 Paleolithic sites, including 151, Baishiya karst cave，Meilongdapu cave, Hejishihuotang and Tangda. In this dataset, there are some basic informations about these sites, such as location, longitude, latitude, altitude, material culture and so on. On this Basis, we identified and analysed stone artifacts, animal remains and plant fossil, and obtained a batch of dating data of uranium series, radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence. This dataset provide important basic data for understanding when and how prehistoric human lived in the Tibetan Plateau during the Paleolithic.
CHEN Fahu ZHANG Dongju LIU Xiangjun HOU Guangliang
The field observation platform of the Tibetan Plateau is the forefront of scientific observation and research on the Tibetan Plateau. The land surface processes and environmental changes based comprehensive observation of the land-boundary layer in the Tibetan Plateau provides valuable data for the study of the mechanism of the land-atmosphere interaction on the Tibetan Plateau and its effects. This dataset integrates the 2005-2016 hourly atmospheric, soil hydrothermal and turbulent fluxes observations of Qomolangma Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS/CAS), Southeast Tibet Observation and Research Station for the Alpine Environment, CAS (SETORS), the BJ site of Nagqu Station of Plateau Climate and Environment, CAS (NPCE-BJ), Nam Co Monitoring and Research Station for Multisphere Interactions, CAS (NAMORS), Ngari Desert Observation and Research Station, CAS (NADORS), Muztagh Ata Westerly Observation and Research Station, CAS (MAWORS). It contains gradient observation data composed of multi-layer wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, air pressure and precipitation data, four-component radiation data, multi-layer soil temperature and humidity and soil heat flux data, and turbulence data composed of sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and carbon dioxide flux. These data can be widely used in the analysis of the characteristics of meteorological elements on the Tibetan Plaetau, the evaluation of remote sensing products and development of the remote sensing retrieval algorithms, and the evaluation and development of numerical models.
Black carbon is an important light absorbing substance, which has an important impact on climate change. This data set contains the data of black carbon concentration and sedimentation flux in the core of six lakes (gun Yong lake, Tanggula lake, linggecuo, Ranwu lake, gokyo, gosainkunda) on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and the south slope of the Himalayas. The carbon concentration of Huxin black was determined by digestion filtration thermoluminescence method. This dataset is an excel file, which can be opened directly by using Excel. This data set is helpful to study the history of atmospheric black carbon deposition in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and its surrounding areas and to further analyze the sources of atmospheric black carbon. It can be used as the basic data for the study of atmospheric black carbon transport and climate effect assessment.
This dataset includes the concentrations and spatial pattern of organic carbon (OC) and Elemental carbon (EC) in the carbonaceous aerosol (CA) of the Tibetan Plateau and surroundings. OC and EC were measured by Desert Research Institute Model 2001 Thermal/Optical Carbon Analyzer. The limit of detection (LOD) for OC and EC were 0.43 and 0.12 ug/cm2, respectively. In addition, MAC was also calculated for assessing the effect of EC. This dataset will provide the informations of CA contamination and background values over the Tibetan Plateau and surroundings.