The stable oxygen isotope ratio (δ 18O) in precipitation is a comprehensive tracer of global atmospheric processes. Since the 1990s, efforts have been made to study the isotopic composition of precipitation at more than 20 stations located on the TP of the Tibetan Plateau, which are located at the air mass intersection between westerlies and monsoons. In this paper, we establish a database of monthly precipitation δ 18O over the Tibetan Plateau and use different models to evaluate the climate control of precipitation δ 18O over TP. The spatiotemporal pattern of precipitation δ 18O and its relationship with temperature and precipitation reveal three different domains, which are respectively related to westerly wind (North TP), Indian monsoon (South TP) and their transition.
This dataset contains measurements of L-band brightness temperature by an ELBARA-III microwave radiometer in horizontal and vertical polarization, profile soil moisture and soil temperature, turbulent heat fluxes, and meteorological data from the beginning of 2016 till August 2019, while the experiment is still continuing. Auxiliary vegetation and soil texture information collected in dedicated campaigns are also reported. This dataset can be used to validate the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite based observations and retrievals, verify radiative transfer model assumptions and validate land surface model and reanalysis outputs, retrieve soil properties, as well as to quantify land-atmosphere exchanges of energy, water and carbon and help to reduce discrepancies and uncertainties in current Earth System Models (ESM) parameterizations. ELBARA-III horizontal and vertical brightness temperature are computed from measured radiometer voltages and calibrated internal noise temperatures. The data is reliable, and its quality is evaluated by 1) Perform ‘histogram test’ on the voltage samples (raw-data) of the detector output at sampling frequency of 800 Hz. Statistics of the histogram test showed no non-Gaussian Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) were found when ELBAR-III was operated. 2) Check the voltages at the antenna ports measured during sky measurements. Results showed close values. 3) Check the instrument internal temperature, active cold source temperature and ambient temperature. 3) Analysis the angular behaviour of the processed brightness temperatures. -Temporal resolution: 30 minutes -Spatial resolution: incident angle of observation ranges from 40° to 70° in step of 5°. The area of footprint ranges between 3.31 m^2 and 43.64 m^2 -Accuracy of Measurement: Brightness temperature, 1 K; Soil moisture, 0.001 m^3 m^-3; Soil temperature, 0.1 °C -Unit: Brightness temperature, K; Soil moisture, m^3 m^-3; Soil temperature, °C/K
Bob Su WEN Jun
The Frequency distribution improved and wind-induced undercatch corrected gridded precipitation in Tibetan Plateau(1980-2009) is a dataset suitable for the Tibetan Plateau . It considers the measurement undercatch caused by wind and optimizes the precipitation frequency distribution by adopting an advanced interpolation method. The data is in NETCDF format, with a temporal resolution of 1 day and a horizontal spatial resolution of 10km. The data can be used as a reference data source for numerical model precipitation frequency correction. This dataset uses daily observations from the China Meteorological Administration and GSOD at 164 stations as the data sources. The construction of the dataset is divided into four steps :(1) firstly, quality control is carried out on the gauge data, including the removal of abnormal values and bad values.(2) Doing wind-induced undercatch correction for every precipitation record.(3) A thin-plate splines interpolation algorithm considering altitude as a covariate is used to interpolate the monthly total precipitation, and the ratio of daily and monthly precipitation was interpolated by the Ordinary Kriging method. The dataset with a spatial resolution of 1km was obtained by multiplying the monthly total precipitation and day to month ratio. (4) Aggregating the 1km dataset to 10km spatial resolution to obtain the final data. Compared with the similar international gridded precipitation dataset, this data highlights for it’s wind-induced undercatch correction of gauge precipitation and the optimized interpolation method to make itself have more accurate frequency distribution. The data is suitable for correction of statistical deviation of precipitation output by numerical model or analysis of precipitation frequency characteristics at grid-box. y. It is more suitable for correcting the statistical deviation of precipitation output by numerical model or analyzing the precipitation frequency characteristics on gridded points.
MA Jiapei LI Hongyi
The data set contains the mass concentration of PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 μ m) in the atmosphere of Shiquanhe national reference climate station (32 ° 30'n, 80 ° 05'e, altitude 4278.6 m). The measuring instrument is RP 1400A vibrating balance micro balance (TEOM). The observation period is from July 8, 2019 to August 2, 2019, and the time resolution is 1 minute. The data is stored in TXT format.
HUANG Jianping ZHANG lei TIAN Pengfei SHI Jinsen
The data set contains the scattering and absorption coefficients of PM2.5 (particles with particle size less than 2.5 μ m) in the atmosphere of Shiquanhe national reference climate station (32 ° 30'n, 80 ° 05'e, altitude 4278.6 m) in Ali Region. The measurement instrument is photoacoustic extinctiomer (pax), the observation period is from July 13, 2019 to August 2, 2019, and the time resolution is 1 minute. The data set can be used to study the scattering and absorption characteristics of PM2.5 over the Tibetan Plateau.
HUANG Jianping ZHANG lei TIAN Pengfei SHI Jinsen
The data set contains the scattering coefficients of PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5 μ m) at 450nm, 550nm and 700nm at Shiquanhe national climate station (32 ° 30'n, 80 ° 05'e, altitude 4278.6 m). The measuring instrument is tsi-3563 integral turbidimeter, the observation period is from July 8, 2019 to August 2, 2019, and the time resolution is 10 seconds. It can be used to study the dependence of PM2.5 scattering coefficient on the wavelength of incident light, which can reflect the particle size distribution of PM2.5.
HUANG Jianping ZHANG lei TIAN Pengfei SHI Jinsen
The data set contains the stable oxygen isotope data of ice core from 1864 to 2006. The ice core was obtained from Noijinkansang glacier in the south of Southern Tibetan Plateau, with a length of 55.1 meters. Oxygen isotopes were measured using a MAT-253 mass spectrometer (with an analytical precision of 0.05 ‰) at the Key Laboratory of CAS for Tibetan Environment and Land Surface Processes, China. Data collection location: Noijinkansang glacier (90.2 ° e, 29.04 ° n, altitude: 5950 m)
The data set contains the off-line sampling data of medium flow aerosols from Shiquanhe national climate station (32 ° 30'n, 80 ° 05'e, altitude 4278.6 m) in Ali Region. The measuring instrument is Laoying 2030 medium flow sampler. The quartz filter membrane samples of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP with a diameter of 90 mm are collected. The samples will be used for chemical components such as elemental carbon, organic carbon, water-soluble ions and metal elements analysis. The sampling period is from July 7, 2019 to August 2, 2019, starting at 09:00 every day, with a total of 81 samples for 23 hours each time. The data is stored in Excel file.
HUANG Jianping ZHANG lei TIAN Pengfei SHI Jinsen
The data set contains the number concentration and size distribution spectrum of particles in the atmosphere of Shiquanhe national climate station (32 ° 30'n, 80 ° 05'e, elevation 4278.6 m) in Ali Region. The instrument is tsi-3321 aerodynamic particle size spectrometer (APS), with 52 particle size channels. The observation period is from July 7, 2019 to August 2, 2019, and the time resolution is 5 minutes. The size distribution spectra of aerosol volume concentration and mass concentration can be obtained by using the data, aerosol spherical hypothesis and aerosol density, and then the characteristics of aerosol particle size distribution in the northwest of Qinghai Tibet Plateau can be studied.
HUANG Jianping ZHANG lei TIAN Pengfei SHI Jinsen
This dataset is derived from the paper: Ding, J., Wang, T., Piao, S., Smith, P., Zhang, G., Yan, Z., Ren, S., Liu, D., Wang, S., Chen, S., Dai, F., He, J., Li, Y., Liu, Y., Mao, J., Arain, A., Tian, H., Shi, X., Yang, Y., Zeng, N., & Zhao, L. (2019). The paleoclimatic footprint in the soil carbon stock of the Tibetan permafrost region. Nature Communications, 10(1), 4195. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-12214-5. This data contains R code and a new estimate of Tibetan soil carbon pool to 3 m depth, at a 0.1° spatial resolution. Previous assessments of the Tibetan soil carbon pools have relied on a collection of predictors based only on modern climate and remote sensing-based vegetation features. Here, researchers have merged modern climate and remote sensing-based methods common in previous estimates, with paleoclimate, landform and soil geochemical properties in multiple machine learning algorithms, to make a new estimate of the permafrost soil carbon pool to 3 m depth over the Tibetan Plateau, and find that the stock (38.9-34.2 Pg C) is triple that predicted by ecosystem models (11.5 ± 4.2 Pg C), which use pre-industrial climate to initialize the soil carbon pool. This study provides evidence that illustrates, for the first time, the bias caused by the lack of paleoclimate information in ecosystem models. The data contains the following fields: Longitude (°E) Latitude (°N) SOCD (0-30cm) (kg C m-2) SOCD (0-300cm) (kg C m-2) GridArea (k㎡) 3mCstcok (10^6 kg C)
DING Jinzhi WANG Tao
This dataset contains daily 0.01°×0.01° land surface soil moisture products in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in 2005, 2010, 2015, 2017, and 2018. The dataset was produced by utilizing the multivariate statistical regression model to downscale the “SMAP Time-Expanded 0.25°×0.25° Land Surface Soil Moisture Dataset in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (SMsmapTE, V1)”. The auxiliary datasets participating in the multivariate statistical regression include GLASS Albedo/LAI/FVC, 1km all-weather surface temperature data in western China by Ji Zhou, and Lat/Lon information.
CHAI Linna ZHU Zhongli LIU Shaomin
This dataset contains land surface soil moisture products with SMAP time-expanded daily 0.25°×0.25°in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Area. The dataset was produced based on the Random Forest method by utilizing passive microwave brightness temperature along with some auxiliary datasets. The temporal resolution of the product in 1980,1985,1990,1995 and 2000 is monthly, by using SMMR, SSM/I, and SSMIS brightness temperature from 19 GHz V/H and 37 GHz V channels. The temporal resolution of the product between June 20, 2002 and Dec 30, 2018 is daily, by utilizing AMSR-E and AMSR2 brightness temperature from 6.925 GHz V/H, 10.65 GHz V/H, and 36.5 GHz V channels. The auxiliary datasets participating in the Random Forest training include the IGBP land cover type, GTOPO30 DEM, and Lat/Lon information.
CHAI Linna ZHU Zhongli LIU Shaomin
1) Data content (including elements and significance): 21 stations (Southeast Tibet station, Namucuo station, Zhufeng station, mustag station, Ali station, Naqu station, Shuanghu station, Geermu station, Tianshan station, Qilianshan station, Ruoergai station (northwest courtyard), Yulong Xueshan station, Naqu station (hanhansuo), Haibei Station, Sanjiangyuan station, Shenzha station, gonggashan station, Ruoergai station（ Chengdu Institute of biology, Naqu station (Institute of Geography), Lhasa station, Qinghai Lake Station) 2018 Qinghai Tibet Plateau meteorological observation data set (temperature, precipitation, wind direction and speed, relative humidity, air pressure, radiation and evaporation) 2) Data source and processing method: field observation at Excel stations in 21 formats 3) Data quality description: daily resolution of the site 4) Data application results and prospects: Based on long-term observation data of various cold stations in the Alpine Network and overseas stations in the pan-third pole region, a series of datasets of meteorological, hydrological and ecological elements in the pan-third pole region were established; Strengthen observation and sample site and sample point verification, complete the inversion of meteorological elements, lake water quantity and quality, above-ground vegetation biomass, glacial frozen soil change and other data products; based on the Internet of Things technology, develop and establish multi-station networked meteorological, hydrological, Ecological data management platform, real-time acquisition and remote control and sharing of networked data.
ZHU Liping PENG Ping
This dataset is collected from the paper: Chen, J.*#, Huang, Y.*#, Brachi, B.*#, Yun, Q.*#, Zhang, W., Lu, W., Li, H., Li, W., Sun, X., Wang, G., He, J., Zhou, Z., Chen, K., Ji, Y., Shi, M., Sun, W., Yang, Y.*, Zhang, R.#, Abbott, R. J.*, & Sun, H.* (2019). Genome-wide analysis of Cushion willow provides insights into alpine plant divergence in a biodiversity hotspot. Nature Communications, 10(1), 5230. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-13128-y. This data contains the genome assembly of alpine species Salix brachista on the Tibetan Plateau, it contains DNA, RNA, Protein files in Fasta format and the annotation file in gff format. Assembly Level: Draft genome in chromosome level Genome Representation: Full Genome Reference Genome: yes Assembly method: SMARTdenovo 1.0; CANU 1.3 Sequencing & coverage: PacBio 125.0; Illumina Hiseq X Ten 43.0; Oxford Nanopore Technologies 74.0 Statistics of Genome Assembly: Genome size (bp): 339,587,529 GC content: 34.15% Chromosomes sequence No.: 19 Organellas sequence No.: 2 Genome sequence No.: 30 Maximum genome sequence length (bp): 39,688,537 Minimum genome sequence length (bp): 57,080 Average genome sequence length (bp): 11,319,584 Genome sequence N50 (bp): 17,922,059 Genome sequence N90 (bp): 13,388,179 Annotation of Whole Genome Assembly: Protein：30,209 tRNA：784 rRNA：118 ncRNA：671 Please see attachments for more details of annotation. The tables in the Supplementary Information of this article can also be found in this dataset. The table list is represented in attachments. The accession no. of genome assembly is GWHAAZH00000000 (https://bigd.big.ac.cn/gwh/Assembly/663/show).
CHEN Jiahui YANG Yongping Richard John Abbott SUN Hang
There are two types of aerosol data in the Tibetan Plateau. Aerosol type data products are the results of aerosol type data fusion by using Meera 2 assimilation data and active satellite CALIPSO products through a series of data preprocessing, quality control, statistical analysis and comparative analysis. The key of the algorithm is to judge the CALIPSO aerosol type. According to CALIPSO aerosol types and quality control, and referring to merra 2 aerosol types, the final aerosol type data (12 kinds) and quality control results were obtained. Considering the vertical and spatial distribution of aerosols, it has high spatial resolution (0.625 ° × 0.5 °) and temporal resolution (month). Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a visible band remote sensing inversion method developed by ourselves, combined with merra-2 model data and NASA's official product mod04. The data coverage time is from 2000 to 2019, with daily temporal resolution and spatial resolution of 0.1 degree. The retrieval method mainly uses the self-developed APRs algorithm to retrieve the aerosol optical depth over the ice and snow. The algorithm takes into account the BRDF characteristics of the ice and snow surface, and is suitable for the inversion of aerosol optical thickness on the ice and snow. The results show that the relative deviation of the data is less than 35%, which can effectively improve the coverage and accuracy of the polar AOD.
GUANG Jie ZHAO Chuanfeng
The coverage time of glacier runoff data set in the five major river source areas of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is from 1971 to 2015, and the time resolution is year by year, covering the source areas of five major rivers (Yellow River source, Yangtze River source, Lancang River source, Nu River source, Yarlung Zangbo River source). The data is based on multi-source remote sensing and measured data. The glacier runoff data is simulated by using the daily scale meteorological data of five major river source areas and their surrounding meteorological stations, the global vegetation products of umd-1km, the igbp-dis soil database, the first and second glacier catalogue data, and the distributed hydrological model vic-cas coupled with the glacier module is used to simulate the glacier runoff data. The simulation results are verified by the site measured data to enhance the quality control. Data indicators include: Glacier runoff (rate of glacier runoff:%), total runoff (mm / a), snow runoff (rate of snow runoff:%), and rainfall runoff rate (rainfall runoff rate:%).
(1) This data set is the carbon flux data set of Shenzha alpine wetland from 2016 to 2019, including air temperature, soil temperature, precipitation, ecosystem productivity and other parameters. (2) The data set is based on the field measured data of vorticity, and adopts the internationally recognized standard processing method of vorticity related data. The basic process includes: outlier elimination coordinate rotation WPL correction storage item calculation precipitation synchronization data elimination threshold elimination outlier elimination U * correction missing data interpolation flux decomposition and statistics. This data set also contains the model simulation data calibrated based on the vorticity correlation data set. (3) the data set has been under data quality control, and the data missing rate is 37.3%, and the missing data has been supplemented by interpolation. (4) The data set has scientific value for understanding carbon sink function of alpine wetland, and can also be used for correction and verification of mechanism model.
Lake sediment is important archive for reconstructing the past climate change, in which the chronological framework of sediments is the basis. Varve is a kind of sedimentary lamina formed in pairs in lake sediments, usually with one year as a cycle. Supported by the projects the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences “Pan-Third Pole Environment Study for a Green Silk Road (Pan-TPE)” and The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research, the authors obtained a 1-meter long sediment gravity core from Jiangco in the central Tibet Plateau, and found well preserved varves. Subsequently, core thin sections were made, and the varve and its thickness were counted and measured to obtain the chronological sequence from 81 A.D. to 2015. The precipitation in this area in the past 2000 years has been reconstructed by using the percentage of coarse-grained layer thickness in the total varve thickness, which represents the precipitation. High resolution and high-precision chronology and precipitation records can provide reliable background of climate and environmental change, and provide reference for paleoclimate simulation and the rise and fall of ancient civilization.
Lake ice is an important parameter of Cryosphere. Its change is closely related to climate parameters such as temperature and precipitation, and can directly reflect climate change. Therefore, lake ice is an important indicator of regional climate parameter change. However, due to the poor natural environment and sparsely populated area, it is difficult to carry out large-scale field observation, The spatial resolution of 10 m and the temporal resolution of better than 30 days were used to monitor the changes of different types of lake ice, which filled in the blank of observation. The hmrf algorithm is used to classify different types of lake ice. The distribution of different types of lake ice in some lakes with an area of more than 25km2 in the three polar regions is analyzed by time series to form the lake ice type data set. The distribution of different types of lake ice in these lakes can be obtained. The data includes the sequence number of the processed lake, the year and its serial number in the time series, and vector The data set includes the algorithm used, sentinel-1 satellite data, imaging time, polar region, lake ice type and other information. Users can determine the change of different types of lake ice in time series according to the vector file.
TIAN Bangsen QIU Yubao
The data set involved geodetic annual glacier-averaged mass balance and mass change data atMt.Xixiabangma areasin the Himalayas from 1974 to 2017. It is stored in the ESRI vector polygon format and is composed of two periods, which includes surface elevation difference between 1974-2000 (DH1974-2000, from KH-9 DEM1974 and SRTM DEM2000), surface elevation difference between 2000-2017(DH2000-2017, by DinSAR techniquesfrom SRTM DEM2000 and TSX/TDX data in 2017). KH-9 DEM is a DEM of the study area in 1974, which was generated from three scenes of optical stereo pairs from KH-9. Geodetic glacier mass change was calculated by DH above, glacier cover vector data from TPG1976/CGI2/RGI6.0 with ice density of 850 ± 60 kg m−3. The attribute data included: GLIMSId means the glacier code from GLIMS data base, Area（km2）is the glacier area by km2, area_m2 is glacier area by (m2）, the glacier name, EC74_2000, the surface elevation change rate from 1974 to 2000(m a-1), EC00_2017, the surface elevation change rate from 2000 to 2017 (m a-1), MB74_2000, the geodetic glacier mass balance between 1974 and 2000（m w.e. a-1），MB00_2017, the geodetic glacier mass balance between 2000 and 2017（m w.e. a-1）.MC74_2000, the geodetic glacier mass change from 1974 to 2000 (m3w.e. a-1), MC00_2017, the geodetic glacier mass change from 2000 to 2017(m3 w.e. a-1). Ut_EC74_00 is the uncertainty of glacier surface elevation change（m a-1） in 1974-2000、Ut_MB74_00, is the uncertainty of glacier mass balance for each glacier（m w.e. a-1）in 1974-2000，Ut_MC74_00, is the uncertainty of glacier mass change for each glacier（m3w.e. a-1）in 1974-2000. Ut_EC00_17，is the uncertainty of glacier surface elevation change in 2000-2017（m a-1），Ut_MB00_17，is the uncertainty of glacier mass balance for each glacier in 2000-2017（m w.e. a-1），Ut_MC00_17 is the uncertainty of glacier mass change for each glacier in 2000-2017（m3 w.e. a-1）.This data set is used for the study glaciers melting and its hydrological effects in the Central Himalayas.It also could be used in studies of climatic change and disasters research in the Himalayas.