In the past 50 years, under the background of global climate change, with the increase of population and economic development, Eurasian grassland has been seriously degraded. One belt, one road surface, is a key indicator of grassland quality. Its spatial temporal pattern and distribution can directly reflect the degradation of grassland. Effective assessment of grassland quality is of great significance for the sustainable development of the countries along the border and the promotion of China's "one belt and one road" strategy. In previous studies, there is room for improvement in accuracy and accuracy of spatial and temporal distribution of soil properties. With the development of geographic information system, global positioning system, various sensors and soil mapping technology, digital soil mapping has gradually become an efficient method to express the spatial distribution of soil. Based on soil landscape science and spatial autocorrelation theory, this study combined multi-source sample data and environmental covariate data, and used machine learning model to predict the spatial distribution of surface soil attributes of warm grassland in Eurasia around 2000. In order to solve the problem of soil sample standardization, the equal area spline function was used to fit the soil properties of different profiles to the soil properties of 20 cm in the surface layer, and the soil particle distribution parameter model was used to transform the classification standards of different soil textures into the United States system. In order to solve the problem of insufficient number of soil samples, pseudo expert observation points were used to supplement soil organic matter and sand content samples in under sampling area; stepwise regression combined with support vector machine model was used, and effective soil bulk density simulation samples were screened by calculating threshold. According to the characteristics of complex terrain and climate conditions, combined with multi-source remote sensing data, ngboost model is applied to mine the relationship between soil attributes and environmental landscape factors (topography, climate, vegetation, soil type, etc.) and spatial location based on sample points, and to predict soil organic matter, sand content and bulk density in the study area from 1980 to 1999 and 2000 to 2019 respectively, and the uncertainty of corresponding indicators is given Spatial distribution of sex. The spatial distribution trend of the simulated soil attribute indexes is consistent with the actual situation. Before 2000, the soil organic matter content, bulk density and sand content were 0.64, 0.35 and 0.44 respectively, and the RMSE were 0.25, 0.07 and 13.94 respectively; after 2000, the RMSE were 0.79, 0.77 and 0.86 respectively, and the RMSE were 0.2, 0.13 and 6.61 respectively. The results show that this method can effectively retrieve the soil physical and chemical properties of temperate grassland in Eurasia, and provide a basis for the evaluation of grassland degradation and the construction of grassland quality evaluation system.
This data set mainly includes the whole rock SR Nd isotopic data of 83 magmatic rocks from the Hoh Xil- basin to Lhasa block in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The samples are mainly distributed in Hoh Xil- lake, Guoganjianian in the South Qiangtang, Dugur, Nasongduo and Saga counties in the Gangdise. Rock samples include olivine leucite, quartz monzonite, diorite and granite. The data mainly come from published articles or articles in the acceptance stage. MC-ICP-MS was used to measure SR Nd isotopes in Guangzhou Institute of geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences and other key laboratories. The published articles of the data set have been included in high-level SCI or Ni journals, and the data results are true and reliable. In the future, it can be used to study the lithospheric evolution and magmatic genesis of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
TANG Gongjian DAN Wei QI Yue WANG Jun ZHOU Jinsheng
The EPMA data set of single mineral of magmatic rocks in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is mainly based on the main data of single mineral in some areas of the Hoh Xil Lhasa plate, and the single mineral test points are more than 1000. The samples were distributed in Hoh Xil lake, Baohu Lake in South Qiangtang and Narusongduo area in Gangdise. Cameca sxlivefe electron microprobe was used for single mineral electron probe. The data comes from published articles or in the acceptance stage. The data were published in SCI or Ni journals, including American mineralogist and Journal of petroleum. The main testing units are Guangzhou Institute of geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Institute of mineral resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences. The data set can be used to study the petrogenesis of magmatic rocks in different areas of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
TANG Gongjian QI Yue WANG Jun ZHOU Jinsheng
Temporal aliasing caused by the incomplete reduction of high frequency atmosphere and ocean variability contributes as a major error source in the time-variable gravity field products recovered from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and GRACE-Follow On (GRACE-FO), and likely future gravity missions. The current state-of-the-art of satellite gravity data processing makes use of de-aliasing products to reduce high-frequency mass anomalies, for example, the most recent official Atmosphere and Ocean De-aliasing products (AOD1B-RL06) are applied to model non-tidal mass changes in the ocean and atmosphere. The products already achieved a temporal resolution of 3 hours that greatly improved the quality of gravity inversion compared to the previous releases. In this study, we explore a refined mass integration approach of the atmosphere that considers geometrical, physical, and numerical modifications of the current AOD1B method. Then, the newly available ERA-5 global climate data of 31 km spatial and 1-hour temporal resolution are used to produce a new set of non-tidal atmosphere de-aliasing product (HUST-ERA5) that is computed in terms of spherical harmonics up to degree/order 100 covering 2002 onwards. Despite of an overall agreement with the AOD1B-RL06 (correlation of low-degree coefficients are all greater than 0.99), discrepancy is still distinguished for spatial-temporal analysis, i.e., a better consistency of HUST-ERA5 from 2007 to 2010. The factors contributing the differences, including the input data, method and temporal resolution, are therefore respectively analyzed and quantified through extensive assessments. We find the difference of HUST-ERA5 and AOD1B-RL06 has led to a mean variation of 7.34 nm/s on the the LRI (Laser Ranging Interferometry) range-rate residual on Jan 2019, which is close to the LRI precision already. This impact is invisible for GRACE(-FO) gravity inversion because of the less accurate onboard KBR(K-band ranging) instrument, however, it will be nonnegligible and should be considered when the LRI completely replaces KBR in the future gravity mission. In addition, HUST-ERA5 can also be widely used in LEO satellite orbit determination and superconducting gravimeter atmospheric correction.
YANG Fan LUO Zhicai
Lithofacies analysis is an important research method to explore the source region, background, and nature of sedimentary basins. Through the systematic investigation of several late Cretaceous strata in Nepal, situated on the south flank of the Himalayas, the Tulsipur and Butwal sections conducted detailed lithology and sedimentary facies analysis. Continuous strata include the Taltang Fm. , Amile Fm. , Bhainskati Fm. and Dumri Fm. from bottom to top. The lithology contains terrigenous clastic rocks such as conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone and mudstone, chemical rocks such as limestone and siliceous rock, as well as special lithology such as coal seam, carbonaceous layer and oxidation crust. Both sections have various colors and sedimentary structures, which are good materials for the analysis of lithofacies evolution. According to the characteristics of lithofacies and sedimentary assemblage revealed that the Nepal sedimentary environment evolution during the late Cretaceous, which experienced the marine, fluvial, lacustrine, and delta evolution process.
In 1970, land use was visually interpreted from MSS images, with an overall interpretation accuracy of more than 90%. Land classification was carried out in accordance with the land use classification system of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. For detailed classification rules, please read the data description document. The 2005 and 2015 data sets were collected from the European Space Agency (ESA) Data acquisition of global land cover types includes five Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) and Xinjiang, China. There are 22 land use types in the data set. The IPCC land use classification system is adopted. Please refer to the documentation for specific classification details.
ZHANG Chi Geping Luo
The long-time series data set of extreme precipitation index in the arid region of Central Asia contains 10 extreme precipitation index long-time series data of 49 stations. Based on the daily precipitation data of the global daily climate historical data network (ghcn-d), the data quality control and outlier elimination were used to select the stations that meet the extreme precipitation index calculation. Ten extreme precipitation indexes (prcptot, SDII, rx1day, rx5day, r95ptot, r99ptot, R10, R20) defined by the joint expert group on climate change detection and index (etccdi) were calculated 、CWD、CDD）。 Among them, there are 15 time series from 1925 to 2005. This data set can be used to detect and analyze the frequency and trend of extreme precipitation events in the arid region of Central Asia under global climate change, and can also be used as basic data to explore the impact of extreme precipitation events on agricultural production and life and property losses.
YAO Junqiang CHEN Jing LI Jiangang
The gridded desertification risk data of Iranian plateau in 2019 was calculated based on the environmentally sensitive area index (ESAI) methodology. The ESAI approach incorporates soil, vegetation, climate and management quality and is one of the most widely used approaches for monitoring desertification risk. Based on the ESAI framework, fourteen indicators were chosen to consider four quality domains. Each quality index was calculated from several indicator parameters. The value of each parameter was categorized into several classes, the thresholds of which were determined according to previous studies. Then, sensitivity scores between 1 (lowest sensitivity) and 2 (highest sensitivity) were assigned to each class based on the importance of the class’ role in land sensitivity to desertification and the relationships of each class to the onset of the desertification process or irreversible degradation. A more comprehensive description of how the indicators are related to desertification risk and scores is provided in the studies of Kosmas (Kosmas et al., 2013; Kosmas et al., 1999). The main indicator datasets were acquired from the Harmonized World Soil Database of the Food and Agriculture Organization, Climate Change Initiative (CCI) land cover of the European Space Agency and NOAA’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The raster datasets of all parameters were resampled to 500m and temporally assembled to the yearly values. Despite the difficulty of validating a composite index, two indirect validations of desertification risk were conducted according to the spatial and temporal comparison of ESAI values, including a quantitative analysis of the relationship between the ESAI and land use change between sparse vegetation and grasslands and a quantitative analysis of the relationship between the ESAI and net primary production (NPP). The verification results indicated that the desertification risk data is reliable in Iranian plateau in 2019.
Guided by the theory of plate tectonics, paleogeography, petroliferous basin analysis and sedimentary basin dynamics, we have collected a large number of data and achievements of geological research and petroleum geology in recent years, including strata, sedimentation, paleontology, paleogeography, paleoenvironment, paleoclimate, structure, oil and gas (potash) geology and other basic materials, especially paleomagnetism, Paleogene Based on the data of detrital zircon and geochemistry, combined with the results of typical measured stratigraphic sections, the lithofacies and climate paleogeographic pattern of Cretaceous were restored and reconstructed, and two lithofacies paleogeographic maps of early and late Cretaceous of Pan tertiary and two climate paleogeographic maps of early and late Cretaceous of Pan tertiary were obtained, aiming at discussing the influence of paleogeography, paleostructure and paleoclimate In order to reveal the geological conditions and resource distribution of oil and gas formation, and provide scientific basis and technical support for China's overseas and domestic oil and gas exploration deployment.
The data set is the surface element data of Muli coal mining area in Qinghai Tibet Plateau from 2000 to 2020, which is issued every five years, with a total of five periods; it includes four sub Atlas: surface albedo, vegetation index, vegetation coverage and soil moisture, with a total of 40 image data (20 original grid data + 20 RGB composite data). The data set is a rectangular area, which is defined according to the four boundaries of the southeast, northwest and north of Muli coal mine. The surface albedo is based on landsat8 and landsat5 Remote sensing satellite, according to the annual average value calculated by Mr. Liang Shunlin's method; vegetation index using normalized vegetation index NDVI, using the maximum value synthesis method to produce the annual maximum NDVI image; vegetation coverage is based on the annual maximum NDVI composite image, using pixel binary model to calculate the annual value; soil moisture is based on TVDI method, using soil moisture measurement Data and regression method were used to make the average soil volume water content in August of each period. The data are all in grid format, and the spatial resolution is 30 meters. The data set has a certain guiding and reference significance for the study of the changes of surface elements in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and provides a certain value reference for the study of the changes of water resources in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
LIU Zhenwei CHEN Shaohui
Soil moisture is one of the core variables in the water cycle. Although its variation is very small, for a precipitation process, soil moisture directly determines the transformation of precipitation into evaporation, runoff and groundwater, which is very important to finely simulate spatial-temporal dynamics of various variables in hydrological process and to accurately estimate water inflow in the upper reaches of Heihe River. This dataset includes soil moisture and temperature data observed by 40 nodes from July 2013 to December 2017. Each node in Babao River Basin has soil moisture observation at depth of 4cm and 20cm; some nodes also include observations at depth of 10 cm. The data observation frequency is 1 hour. The dataset can provide ground -based observations for hydrological simulation, data assimilation and remote sensing verification.
JIN Rui KANG Jian
Zircon HF-O data sets of magmatic rocks in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau are mainly based on zircon HF-O isotopic data of local areas from the South Qiangtang to Lhasa plate. Zircon HF-O test points are mainly concentrated in guoganjianian mountain, baohu, Duguer of South Qiangtang and saga County of Lhasa plate. The rocks are mainly mafic dyke swarms, gneissic granite and diorite. Zircon HF-O was measured by MC-ICP-MS and Sims, respectively. The data comes from published articles or in the acceptance stage. The data were published in SCI or Ni journals, including geology, BSA bulletin and Journal of petroleum, and the data results were true and reliable. The main testing unit is Guangzhou Institute of geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The data set can be used to study the petrogenesis and lithospheric evolution of magmatic rocks in different areas of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
TANG Gongjian DAN Wei WANG Jun QI Yue
The data set is a 2015 heat wave risk data set in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with a spatial resolution of 30m and a temporal resolution of year. Heat wave risk refers to the probability or loss possibility of harmful consequences caused by the interaction between heat wave hazard (possible heat wave events in the future), heat wave exposure (total population, livelihood and assets in the area where heat wave events may occur) and heat wave vulnerability (the tendency of the disaster bearing body to suffer adverse effects when affected by heat wave events) . The risk assessment method of heat wave is "hazard-exposure-vulnerability". The data set has been proved by experts, which can provide support for regional high temperature heat wave risk assessment.
YANG Fei YIN Cong
The data set is a 2015 heat wave hazard, exposure and vulnerability data set in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with a spatial resolution of 30m and a temporal resolution of yearly. Heat wave hazard is an index to measure the severity of heat wave event, which is expressed by surface temperature; heat wave exposure refers to the degree that human, livelihood and economy may be adversely affected, which is expressed by nighttime lighting data, and population density. The population older than 65 and younger than 5 years old constitute vulnerable groups; heat wave vulnerability is a measure of increased / reduced risk in the environment. The distance from road / hospital and ambulance station / water body, NDVI, impervious layer and slum area are used to represent the vulnerability of high temperature heat wave. The data set has been proved by experts, which can provide support for regional high temperature heat wave risk assessment.
YANG Fei YIN Cong
The single mineral dating data set of magmatic rocks in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is mainly zircon dating in some areas of the Hoh Xil Lhasa plate, with 34 zircon dating samples. The samples are mainly from baohu, guoganjianianshan and Dugur areas of South Qiangtang, Saga county and narusongduo areas of Lhasa plate. The rocks are mainly quartz monzonite, granite and diorite. The zircon dating methods include Sims and LA-ICPMS. The data comes from published articles or in the acceptance stage. The data were published in SCI or Ni journals, including geology, BSA bulletin and Journal of petroleum, and the data results were true and reliable. The main testing unit is Guangzhou Institute of geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The data set can be used to study the age of magmatic rocks in different areas of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
TANG Gongjian DAN Wei ZHOU Jinsheng QI Yue WANG Jun
This data set mainly includes the non-traditional B-Mo isotopic data of Himalayan Leucogranites, which is mainly used to study the mechanism of B-Mo isotopic fractionation during the melting process, and is of great significance to the genetic study of Himalayan Leucogranites. The rocks are mainly from the granite in the Cuonadong area. Among them, there are 34 Mo samples and 48 B samples, including repeated samples. MC-ICP-MS was used for B-Mo isotopic analysis. ICP-AES and MC-ICP-MS were used for B and Mo contents in solution. The testing unit is Guangzhou Institute of geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The data are from accepted articles published in the Journal of geochimica et cosmochimica Acta, and the data are true and reliable. It can be applied to the study of unconventional isotope fractionation and the genesis of magmatic rocks.
The data set is the land cover data set of 2010 and 2020. The spatial range is Dhaka City, Bangladesh. The spatial resolution is 30m and the temporal resolution is year. The data comes from globeland30 (Global geographic information public goods, http://www.globallandcover.com/ ）, acquired after mosaic and reorganization. The data accuracy evaluation of the source data is led by Tongji University and Institute of aerospace information innovation, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The overall accuracy of the data is more than 83.50%. The data set can provide high-precision basic geographic information for related research, and has important applications in resource and environment bearing state identification, natural disaster risk assessment, disaster prevention and mitigation, etc.
YANG Fei YIN Cong
The data of farmland distribution on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were extracted on the basis of the land use dataset in China (2015). The dataset is mainly based on landsat 8 remote sensing images, which are generated by manual visual interpretation. The land use types mainly include the cultivated land, which is divided into two categories, including paddy land (1) and dry land (2). The spatial resolution of the data is 30m, and the time is 2015. The projection coordinate system is D_Krasovsky_1940_Albers. And the central meridian was 105°E and the two standard latitudes of the projection system were 25°N and 47°N, respectively. The data are stored in TIFF format, named “farmland distribution”, and the data volume is 4.39GB. The data were saved in compressed file format, named “30 m grid data of farmland distribution in agricultural and pastoral areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in 2015”. The data can be opened by ArcGIS, QGIS, ENVI, and ERDAS software, which can provide reference for farmland ecosystem management on the QTP.
LIU Shiliang SUN Yongxiu LI Mingqi
The Grassland Degradation Assessment Dataset in agricultural and pastoral areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is a data set based on the 500m Global Land Degradation Assessment Data (2015), which is evaluated according to the degree of grassland degradation or improvement. In this dataset, the grassland degradation of the QTP was divided into two evaluation systems. At the first level, the grassland degradation assessment was divided into 3 types, including no change type, improvement type and degradation type. At the second level, the grassland degradation assessment on the QTP was divided into 9 types, among which the type with no change was class 1, represented by 0. There were 4 types of improvement: slight improvement (3), relatively significant improvement (6), significant improvement (9) and extremely significant improvement (12). The degradation types can be divided into 4 categories: slight degradation (-3), relatively obvious degradation (-6), obvious degradation (-9) and extremely obvious degradation (-12). This dataset covers all grassland areas on the QTP with a spatial resolution of 500m and a time of 2015. The projection coordinate system is D_Krasovsky_1940_Albers. The data are stored in TIFF format, named “grassdegrad”, and the data volume is 94.76 MB. The data were saved in compressed file format, named “500 m grid data of grassland degradation assessment in agricultural and pastoral areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in 2015”. The file volume is 2.54 MB. The data can be opened by ArcGIS, QGIS, ENVI, and ERDAS software, which can provide reference for grassland ecosystem management and restoration on the QTP.
LIU Shiliang SUN Yongxiu LIU Yixuan
The data set was obtained from UAV aerial photography during the field investigation of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau in August 2020. The data size is 10.1 GB, including more than 11600 aerial photos. The shooting sites mainly include Lhasa, Shannan, Shigatse and other areas along the road, residential areas and surrounding areas. The aerial photos mainly reflect the local land use / cover type, facility agriculture distribution, grassland coverage and other information. The aerial photos have longitude, latitude and altitude information, which can provide better verification information for land use / cover remote sensing interpretation, and can also be used for vegetation coverage estimation, and provide better reference information for land use research in the study area.
LV Changhe LIU Yaqun