This vegetation water content data set is derived from the ground synchronous observation in the Luanhe River Basin soil moisture remote sensing experiment, including 55 sampled plots.The vegetation types involved in these sampled plots include grass, corn, potatoes, naked oats and carrots. The data measurement time is from September 13, 2018 to September 26, 2018.
ZHENG Xingming, JIANG Tao
Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the important parameters of the interface between the earth's surface and atmosphere. It is not only the direct reflection of the interaction between the surface and the atmosphere, but also has a complex feedback effect on the earth atmosphere process. Therefore, land surface temperature is not only a sensitive indicator of climate change and an important prerequisite for mastering the law of climate change, but also a direct input parameter of many models, which has been widely used in many fields, such as meteorology, climate, environmental ecology, hydrology and so on. With the deepening and refinement of Geosciences and related fields, there is an urgent need for all weather LST based on satellite remote sensing. The generation principle of this dataset is a satellite thermal infrared remote sensing reanalysis data integration method based on a new land surface temperature time decomposition model. The main input data of the method are Aqua MODIS LST products and GLDAS data, and the auxiliary data include vegetation index and surface albedo provided by satellite remote sensing. The method makes full use of the high-frequency and low-frequency components of land surface temperature and the spatial correlation of land surface temperature provided by satellite thermal infrared remote sensing and reanalysis data, and finally reconstructs a high-quality all-weather land surface temperature data set. The evaluation results show that this data set has good image quality and accuracy, which is not only seamless in space, but also highly consistent with the amplitude and spatial distribution of 1 km daily Aqua MODIS LST products widely used in current academic circles. When MODIS LST is used as reference, the mean deviation (MBE) of the data set is 0.08k to 0.16k, and the standard deviation of deviation (STD) is 1.12k to 1.46k. Compared with the daily 1km AATSR LST product released by ESA, the MBE and STD of the product are -0.21k to 0.25k and 1.27k to 1.36k during the day and night. Based on the measured data of 15 stations in Heihe River Basin, Northeast China, North China and South China, the test results show that the MBE is -0.06k to -1.17k, and the RMSE is 1.52k to 3.71k, and there is no significant difference between clear sky and non clear sky. The time resolution of this data set is twice a day, the spatial resolution is 1km, and the time span is from 2000 to 2020; The spatial scope includes the main areas of China's land (including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, excluding the islands in the South China Sea) and the surrounding areas (72 ° E-135 ° E，19 ° N-55 ° N）。 This dataset is abbreviated as trims LST (thermal and reality integrating modem resolution spatial sealing LST) for users to use. It should be noted that the spatial subset of trims LST, trims lst-tp (1 km daily land surface temperature data set in Western China, trims lst-tp; 2000-2020) V2) has also been released in the national Qinghai Tibet Plateau scientific data center to reduce the workload of data download and processing for relevant users.
ZHANG Xiaodong, ZHOU Ji, TANG Wenbin, DING Lirong, MA Jin, ZHANG Xu
1) Significance: construction land is one of the highest performance of human activities. The consumption of natural resources and the change of ecological environment can be closely linked with the development of construction land. This data reflects the evolution of high-precision construction land with 30 m spatial resolution from 1990 to 2019 in 7 provinces/municipalities directly under the central government of China, which are also important areas for rapid urbanization. 2) Data sources: Landsat series satellite data; China regional surface meteorological element driven data set (1979-2018) 3) Processing method: supervised classification method is adopted, random forest algorithm and Fourier transform are used to process characteristic bands, and control points are classified based on visual interpretation. 3-1) Obtaining spectral features: First, screen out Landsat images with transport volume <20%, and superimpose these images in units of 3 years, and then take the median of each superimposed pixel as the target pixel for pixel stitching. Obtain cloud-free images of the entire study area. This method can also better remove the banding influence of Landsat7 data. 3-2) Acquisition of time features: each pixel that has been superimposed for 3 years is screened for cloud cover, and discrete Fourier transform is performed following the minimum mean square error fitting principle to obtain the time latitude of each pixel. "Crest", "Trough" and "Phase". This method can better eliminate the influence of “bare land” on the extraction of construction land, because bare land may be covered by vegetation in spring and summer, and its time characteristics are quite different from construction land. 3-3) Extraction of meteorological and terrain features: The meteorological features are calculated from the China Regional Ground Meteorological Elements Driven Data Set (1979-2018): the data set is superimposed at the same time interval as Landsat, and each image is obtained The average value of yuan is used as the meteorological feature (due to the lack of meteorological data for 2019, the meteorological feature of the last period only calculates the average value of 2017 and 2018). Topographic features (elevation, slope) use SRTM-30m data. The detailed method and code can be seen as follows: https://github.com/wangjinzhulala/North_ China_ Plain_ GEE_ Organized 4) Data quality: the overall accuracy of all years is better than 94%. 5) Application prospects: Simulation of regional urban expansion; estimation of environmental impact of urbanization; quantification of food security and sustainable development.
Gwadar deep water port is located in the south of Gwadar city in the southwest of Balochistan province, Pakistan. It is 460km away from Karachi in the East and 120km away from Pakistan Iran border in the West. It is adjacent to the Arabian Sea in the Indian Ocean in the South and the Strait of Hormuz and Red Sea in the West. It is a port with strategic position far away from Muscat, capital of Oman. This data includes the median values of 343 landsat8 data in each 30 meter grid of Gwadar Port Area and its surrounding area from 2014 to 2015. The data includes 12 bands with a spatial resolution of 30 meters, of which the thermal infrared band is 100 meters and the resampling resolution is 30 meters.
Remote sensing image refers to the film or photo recording the electromagnetic wave size of various ground objects, mainly divided into aerial photo and satellite photo. The 1-5m remote sensing data set of Yangon deep water port area is from gaofen-2 satellite, with the highest resolution of 1m and the lowest resolution of 5m, including a total of 7 regional images. There are four images in each region, which are band composite images of 5m level and 1m level. The accuracy of 5m level image can meet the needs of most research purposes, and the amount of data is smaller; the accuracy of 1m level image is higher, which can be used for synthesis, verification and other purposes, but the amount of data is larger than 5m level data. In practical use, we can choose 5m or 1m images according to the needs of researchers.
GE Yong, LI Qiangzi, LI Yi
The meter resolution remote sensing image data of hanbantota area is composed of data fusion and splicing of different satellites. Multispectral remote sensing images with resolution between 0.5 m and 1 m from 2018 to 2019 are selected, and cloud free data with similar time are selected, and the result data set is formed by cutting and splicing according to the research area. The spatial resolution of the data is about 0.6 meters. The data is mainly used to study the high-precision extraction of disaster bearing body elements, such as port facilities, roads and so on. The extracted thematic elements will be used as the basic data of storm surge exposure and vulnerability analysis.
This dataset includes the Antarctica ice sheet mass balance estimated from satellite gravimetry data, April 2002 to December 2019. The satellite measured gravity data mainly come from the joint NASA/DLR mission, Gravity Recovery And Climate Exepriment (GRACE, April 2002 to June 2017), and its successor, GRACE-FO (June 2018 till present). Considering the ~1-year data gap between GRACE and GRACE-FO, we extra include gravity data estimated from GPS tracking data of ESA's Swarm 3-satellite constellation. The GRACE data used in this study are weighted mean of CSR, GFZ, JPL and OSU produced solutions. The post-processing includes: replacing GRACE degree-1, C20 and C30 spherical harmonic coefficients with SLR estimates, destriping filtering, 300-km Gaussian smoothing, GIA correction using ICE6-G_D (VM5a) model, leakage reduction using forward modeling method and ellipsoidal correction.
Yu Zhang, Shum C.K.
High Asia is very sensitive to climate change, and is a hot area of global change research. The changes of temperature and precipitation will be reflected in the freezing and thawing time of ice and snow. Satellite microwave remote sensing can provide continuous monitoring ability of ice and snow surface state in time and space. When a small part of ice and snow begins to melt, micro liquid water will also be reflected in active and passive microwave remote sensing signals. In the microwave band, the dielectric constant of ice and liquid water is very different, so it provides a basic theory for the microwave remote sensing monitoring of ice and snow melting. In the case of passive microwave, when ice and snow begin to melt and liquid water appears, its absorption and emissivity increase rapidly, so its emissivity, brightness temperature and backscatter coefficient will also change rapidly. This data set is the initial time of ice and snow melting in the high Asia region retrieved by using the satellite microwave radiometer and scatterometer observations from 1979 to 2018. The passive microwave remote sensing data are SMMR on satellite (1979-1987) and SSM / i-ssmis radiometer on DMSP (1988 present). The active microwave remote sensing data is the QuikSCAT satellite scatterometer (2000-2009).
XIONG Chuan, SHI Jiancheng, YAO Ruzhen, LEI Yonghui, PAN Jinmei
This data includes the daily average water temperature data at different depths of Nam Co Lake in Tibet which is obtained through field monitoring. The data is continuously recorded by deploying the water quality multi-parameter sonde and temperature thermistors in the water with the resolution of 10 minutes and 2 hours, respectively, and the daily average water temperature is calculated based on the original observed data. The instruments and methods used are very mature and data processing is strictly controlled to ensure the authenticity and reliability of the data; the data has been used in the basic research of physical limnology such as the study of water thermal stratification, the study of lake-air heat balance, etc., and to validate the lake water temperature data derived from remote sensing and different lake models studies. The data can be used in physical limnology, hydrology, lake-air interaction, remote sensing data assimilation verification and lake model research.
The long-term evolution of lakes on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) could be observed from Landsat series of satellite data since the 1970s. However, the seasonal cycles of lakes on the TP have received little attention due to high cloud contamination of the commonly-used optical images. In this study, for the first time, the seasonal cycle of lakes on the TP were detected using Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data with a high repeat cycle. A total of approximately 6000 Level-1 scenes were obtained that covered all large lakes (> 50 km2) in the study area. The images were extracted from stripmap (SM) and interferometric wide swath (IW) modes that had a pixel spacing of 40 m in the range and azimuth directions. The lake boundaries extracted from Sentinel-1 data using the algorithm developed in this study were in good agreement with in-situ measurements of lake shoreline, lake outlines delineated from the corresponding Landsat images in 2015 and lake levels for Qinghai Lake. Upon analysis, it was found that the seasonal cycles of lakes exhibited drastically different patterns across the TP. For example, large size lakes (> 100 km2) reached their peaks in August−September while lakes with areas of 50−100 km2 reached their peaks in early June−July. The peaks of seasonal cycles for endorheic lakes were more pronounced than those for exorheic lakes with flat peaks, and glacier-fed lakes with additional supplies of water exhibited delayed peaks in their seasonal cycles relative to those of non-glacier-fed lakes. Large-scale atmospheric circulation systems, such as the westerlies, Indian summer monsoon, transition in between, and East Asian summer monsoon, were also found to affect the seasonal cycles of lakes. The results of this study suggest that Sentinel-1 SAR data are a powerful tool that can be used to fill gaps in intra-annual lake observations.
ZHANG Yu, ZHANG Guoqing
This data set uses SMMR (1979-1987), SSM / I (1987-2009) and ssmis (2009-2015) daily brightness temperature data, which is generated by double index (TB V, SG) freeze-thaw discrimination algorithm. The classification results include four types: frozen surface, melted surface, desert and water body. The data covers the source area of three rivers, with a spatial resolution of 25.067525 km. It is stored in geotif format in the form of ease grid projection. Pixel values represent the state of freezing and thawing: 1 for freezing, 2 for thawing, 3 for deserts, 4 for water bodies. Because all TIF files in the dataset describe the scope of Sanjiangyuan National Park, the row and column number information of these files is unchanged, and the excerpt is as follows (where the unit of cellsize is m): ncols 52 nrows 28 cellsize 25067.525 nodata_value 0
The Qinghai Tibet Plateau is a sensitive region of global climate change. Land surface temperature (LST), as the main parameter of land surface energy balance, characterizes the degree of energy and water exchange between land and atmosphere, and is widely used in the research of meteorology, climate, hydrology, ecology and other fields. In order to study the land atmosphere interaction over the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, it is urgent to develop an all-weather land surface temperature data set with long time series and high spatial-temporal resolution. However, due to the frequent cloud coverage in this region, the use of existing satellite thermal infrared remote sensing land surface temperature data sets is greatly limited. Compared with the previous version released in 2019, Western China Daily 1km spatial resolution all-weather land surface temperature data set (2003-2018) V1, this data set (V2) adopts a new preparation method, namely satellite thermal infrared remote sensing reanalysis data integration method based on new land surface temperature time decomposition model. The main input data of the method are Aqua MODIS LST products and GLDAS data, and the auxiliary data include vegetation index and surface albedo provided by satellite remote sensing. This method makes full use of the high frequency and low frequency components of land surface temperature and the spatial correlation of land surface temperature provided by satellite thermal infrared remote sensing and reanalysis data. The evaluation results show that this data set has good image quality and accuracy, which is not only seamless in space, but also highly consistent with the amplitude and spatial distribution of 1 km daily Aqua MODIS LST products widely used in current academic circles. When MODIS LST was used as the reference value, the mean deviation (MBE) of the data set in daytime and nighttime was -0.28 K and -0.29 K respectively, and the standard deviation (STD) of the deviation was 1.25 K and 1.36 K respectively. The test results based on the measured data of six stations in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and Heihe River Basin show that under clear sky conditions, the data set is highly consistent with the measured LST in daytime / night, and its MBE is -0.42-0.25 K / - 0.35-0.19 K; The root mean square error (RMSE) was 1.03 ~ 2.28 K / 1.05 ~ 2.05 K; Under the condition of non clear sky, the MBE of this data set in daytime / night is -0.55 ~ 1.42 K / - 0.46 ~ 1.27 K; The RMSE was 2.24-3.87 K / 2.03-3.62 K. Compared with the V1 version of the data, the two kinds of all-weather land surface temperature show the characteristics of seamless (i.e. no missing value) in the spatial dimension, and in most areas, the spatial distribution and amplitude of the two kinds of all-weather land surface temperature are highly consistent with MODIS land surface temperature. However, in the region where the brightness temperature of AMSR-E orbital gap is missing, the V1 version of land surface temperature has a significant systematic underestimation. The mass of trims land surface temperature is close to that of V1 version outside AMSR-E orbital gap, while the mass of trims is more reliable inside the orbital gap. Therefore, it is recommended that users use V2 version. The time span of this data set is from 2000 to 2020 and will be updated continuously; The time resolution is twice a day (corresponding to the two transit times of aqua MODIS in the daytime and at night); The spatial resolution is 1 km. In order to facilitate the majority of colleagues to carry out targeted research around the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and its adjacent areas, and reduce the workload of data download and processing, the coverage of this data set is limited to Western China and its surrounding areas (72 ° E-104 ° E，20 ° N-45 ° N）。 Therefore, this dataset is abbreviated as trims lst-tp (thermal and reality integrating modem resolution spatial seamless LST – Tibetan Plateau) for user's convenience.
ZHANG Xiaodong, ZHOU Ji, TANG Wenbin, DING Lirong, MA Jin, ZHANG Xu
The Tibetan Plateau Glacier Data –TPG2017 is a glacial coverage data on the Tibetan Plateau from selected 210 scenes of Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images with 30-m spatial resolution from 2013 to 2018, among of which 90% was in 2017 and 85% in winter. Therefore, 2017 was defined as the reference year for the mosaic image. Glacier outlines were digitized on-screen manually from the 2017 image mosaic, relying on false-colour image composites (RGB by bands 654), which allowed us to distinguish ice/snow from cloud. Debris-free ice was distinguished from the debris and debris-covered ice by its higher reflectance. Debris-covered ice was not delineated in this data. The delineated glacier outlines were compared with band-ratio (e.g. TM3/TM5) results, and validated by overlapping them onto Google Earth imagery, SRTM DEM, topographic maps and corresponding satellite images. For areas with mountain shadows and snow cover, they were verified by different methods using data from different seasons. For glaciers in deep shadow, Google EarthTM imagery from different dates was used as the reference for manual delineation. Steep slopes or headwalls were also excluded in the TPG2017. Areas that appeared in any of these sources to have the characteristics of exposed ground/basement/bed rock were manually delineated as non-glacier, and were also cross-checked with CGI-1 and CGI-2. Steep hanging glaciers were included in TPG2017 if they were identifiable on images in all other three epochs (i.e. TPG1976, TPG2001, and TPG2013). The accuracy of manual digitization was controlled within one half-pixel. All glacier areas were calculated on the WGS84 spheroid in an Albers equal-area map projection centred at (95°E, 30°N) with standard parallels at 15°N and 65°N. Our results showed that the relative deviation of manual interpretation was less than 3.9%.
This dataset was derived from long-term daily snow depth in China based on the boundary of the three-river-source area. The snow depth ranges from 0 to 100 cm, and the temporal coverage is from January 1 1980 to December 31 2020. The spatial and temporal resolutions are 0.25o and daily, respectively. Snow depth was produced from satellite passive microwave remote sensing data which came from three different sensors that are SMMR, SSM/I and SSMI/S. Considering the systematic bias among these sensors, the inter-sensor calibrations were performed to obtain temporal consistent passive microwave remote sensing data. And the long-term daily snow depth in China were produced from this consistent data based on the spectral gradient method.For header file information, refer to the data set header.txt.
Gf-2 satellite is the first civil optical remote sensing satellite independently developed by China with a spatial resolution better than 1 meter. It is equipped with two high-resolution 1-meter panchromatic and 4-meter multi-spectral cameras, and the spatial resolution of the sub-satellite can reach 0.8 meters. This data set is the remote sensing image data of 6 jing gaofen-2 satellite in 2017.The folder list is: GF2_PMS1_E100.5_N37.2_20171013_L1A0002678101 GF2_PMS1_E100.5_N37.4_20171013_L1A0002678097 GF2_PMS1_E100.6_N37.6_20171013_L1A0002678096 GF2_PMS2_E100.3_N37.4_20170810_L1A0002534662 File naming rules: satellite name _ sensor name _ center longitude _ center latitude _ imaging time _L****
China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application
Sentine-1 SAR data were used to monitor the permafrost of Biuniugou in Heihe River Basin of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Based on the Sentine-1 SAR image of Bison Valley from 2014 to 2018, the active layer thickness in the study area was estimated by using the small baseline set time series InSAR (DSs-SBAS) frozen soil deformation monitoring method based on distributed radar target, combined with SAR backscattering coefficient, MODIS surface temperature and Stefan model. The results show that the thickness of active layer is between 0.8 m and 6.6 m, with an average of about 3.3 M. It is of great significance to carry out large-scale and high-resolution monitoring.
The “Long-term series of daily global snow depth” was produced using the passive microwave remote sensing data. The temporal range is 1980~2018, and the coverage is the global land. The spatial resolutions is 25,067.53 m and the temporal resolution is daily. A dynamic brightness temperature gradient algorithm was used to derive snow depth. In this algorithm, the spatial and temporal variations of snow characteristics were considered and the spatial and seasonal dynamic relationships between the temperature difference between 18 GHz and 36 GHz and the measured snow depth were established. The long-term sequence of satellite-borne passive microwave brightness temperature data used to derive snow depth came from three sensors (SMMR, SSM/I and SSMI/S), and there is a certain system inconsistency among them. So, the inter-sensor calibration was performed to improve the temporal consistency of these brightness temperature data before snow depth derivation. The accuracy analysis shows that the relative deviation of Eurasia snow depth data is within 30%. The data are stored as a txt file every day, each file is a 1383*586 snow depth matrix, and each snow depth represents a 25,067.53m* 25,067.53m grid. The projection of this data is EASE-Grid, and following is the file header which describes the projection detail. File header: ncols 1383 nrows 586 xllcorner -17334193.54 yllcorner -7344787.75 cellsize 25,067.53 NODATA_value -1
CHE Tao, LI Xin, DAI Liyun
Global warming and human activities have led to the degradation of permafrost and the collapse of permafrost, which have seriously affected the construction of permafrost projects and the ecological environment. Based on high-resolution satellite images, the permafrost of oboling in Heihe River Basin of Qinghai Tibet Plateau is taken as the research area, and the object-oriented classification technology of machine learning is used to extract the thermal collapse information in the research area. The results show that from 2009 to 2019, the number of thermal collapse increased from 12 to 16, and the total area increased from 14718.9 square meters to 28579.5 square meters, nearly twice. The combination of high spatial resolution remote sensing and object-oriented classification method has a broad application prospect in the monitoring of thermal thawing and collapse of frozen soil.
This dataset is the data of human activities in the key areas of Qilian Mountain in 2018, spatial resolution 2m. This dataset focuses on mine mining, urban expansion, cultivated land development, hydropower construction, and tourism development in the key areas of Qilian Mountain.Through high-resolution remote sensing images, compare the changes before and after the statistics. For the maps of the landforms in the Qilian Mountains, check and verify them one by one; re-interpret the plots that are suspicious of the map; collect the relevant data in the field that cannot be reflected by the images, check and correct the location. At the same time, unified input and editing of map attribute information. Generating a data set of human activities in the key areas of the Qilian Mountains in 2018.
QI Yuan，ZHANG Jinlong，JIA Yongjuan，ZHOU Shengming，WANG Hongwei
This dataset is blended by two other sets of data, snow cover dataset based on optical instrument remote sensing with 1km spatial resolution on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (1989-2018) produced by National Satellite Meteorological Center, and near-real-time SSM/I-SSMIS 25km EASE-grid daily global ice concentration and snow extent (NISE, 1995-2018) provided by National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC, U.S.A). It covers the time from 1995 to 2018 (two periods, from January to April and from October to December) and the region of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (17°N-41°N, 65°E-106°E) with daily product, which takes equal latitude and longitude projection with 0.01°×0.01° spatial resolution, and characterizes whether the ground is covered by snow. The input data sources include daily snow cover products generated by NOAA/AVHRR, MetOp/AVHRR, and alternative to AVHRR taken from TERRA/MODIS corresponding observation, and snow extent information of NISE derived from observation by SSM/I or SSMIS of DMSP satellites. The processing method of data collection is as following: first, taking 1km snow cover product from optical instruments as initial value, and fully trusting its snow and clear sky without snow information; then, under the aid of sea-land template with relatively high resolution, replacing the pixels or grids where is cloud coverage, no decision, or lack of satellite observation, by NISE's effective terrestrial identification results. For some water and land boundaries, there still may be a small amount of cloud coverage or no observation data area that can’t be replaced due to the low spatial resolution of NISE product. Blended daily snow cover product achieves about 91% average coincidence rate of snow and non-snow identification compared to ground-based snow depth observation in years. The dataset is stored in the standard HDF4 files each having two SDSs of snow cover and quality code with the dimensions of 4100-column and 2400-line. Complete attribute descriptions is written in them.
ZHENG Zhaojun, CAO Guangzhen
Snow cover dataset is produced by snow and cloud identification method based on optical instrument observation data, covering the time from 1989 to 2018 (two periods, from January to April and from October to December) and the region of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (17°N-41°N, 65°E-106°E) with daily product, which takes equal latitude and longitude projection with 0.01°×0.01° spatial resolution, and characterizes whether the ground under clear sky or transparent thin cloud is covered by snow. The input data sources include AVHRR L1 data of NOAA and MetOp serials of satellites, and L1 data corresponding to AVHRR channels taken from TERRA/MODIS. Decision Tree algorithm (DT) with dynamic thresholds is employed independent of cloud mask and its cloud detection emphasizes on reserving snow, particularly under transparency cirrus. It considers a variety of methods for different situations, such as ice-cloud over the water-cloud, snow in forest and sand, thin snow or melting snow, etc. Besides those, setting dynamic threshold based on land-surface type, DEM and season variation, deleting false snow in low latitude forest covered by heavy aerosol or soot, referring to maximum monthly snowlines and minimum snow surface brightness temperature, and optimizing discrimination program, these techniques all contribute to DT. DT discriminates most snow and cloud under normal circumstances, but underestimates snow on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in October. Daily product achieves about 95% average coincidence rate of snow and non-snow identification compared to ground-based snow depth observation in years. The dataset is stored in the standard HDF4 files each having two SDSs of snow cover and quality code with the dimensions of 4100-column and 2400-line. Complete attribute descriptions is written in them.
ZHENG Zhaojun, CHU Duo
The data set is remote sensing image of Resource 3 No. 02 (ZY3-02). ZY3-02 was successfully launched from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center at 11:17 on May 30, 2016 by Long March 4 B carrier rocket. China-made satellite imagery will be further strengthened in the areas of land surveying and mapping, resource survey and monitoring, disaster prevention and mitigation, agriculture, forestry and water conservancy, ecological environment, urban planning and construction, transportation and other fields. List of files: ZY302_PMS_E98.8_N37.4_201707_L1A0000156704 ZY302_PMS_E100.4_N37.0_20171127_L1A0000217243 ZY302_TMS_E99.5_N37.0_20170717_L1A0000160059 ZY302_TMS_E100.3_N36.6_20171127_L1A0000217279 ZY302_TMS_E100.4_N37.0_20170529_L1A0000139947 Folder Naming Rules: Satellite Name Sensor Name Central Longitude Central Latitude Acquisition Time L1****
China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application
This data set is the remote sensing data of gaofan-1 satellite, including the data of two scenes of PMS1 camera on 2017-8-13 and 2017-10-5, one scene of PMS2 camera on 2017-5-27, and one scene of WFV2 and WFV3 camera on September 23, 2018.File list: GF1_PMS1_E99.1_N37.2_20170813_L1A0002539236 GF1_PMS1_E101.2_N36.4_20171005_L1A0002653985 GF1_PMS2_E100.3_N37.7_20170527_L1A0002384098 GF1_WFV2_E98.4_N37.6_20180927_L1A0003481737 GF1_WFV3_E100.4_N37.3_20180927_L1A0003481706
The major deserts in China include the Taklamakan Desert, Gurban Tunggut Desert, Qaidam Desert, Kumtag Desert, Badain Jaran Desert, Tengger Desert, Ulan Buh Desert, Hobq Desert, MU US Desert, Hunshandake Desert, Hulunbuir Sands, and Horqin Sands. All the desert boundaries were derived from Google Earth Pro® via manual interpretation. We delineated the desert boundaries using the Digital Global Feature Imagery and SpotImage (2011, 10 m resolution) collections of Google Earth Pro®, whose spatial resolution is finer than 30 m. The acquisition time of most images was in 2011.
China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application
The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM) is a global digital elevation data product jointly released by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of America (NASA) and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan (METI). The DEM data were based on the observation results of NASA’s new generation of Earth observation satellite, TERRA, and generated from 1.3 million stereo image pairs collected by ASTER (Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radio meter) sensors, covering more than 99% of the land surface of the Earth. These data were downloaded from the ASTER GDEM data distribution website. For the convenience of using the data, based on framing the ASTER GDEM data, we used Erdas software to splice and prepare the ASTER GDEM mosaic of the Tibetan Plateau. This data set contains three data files: ASTER_GDEM_TILES ASTERGDEM_MOSAIC_DEM ASTERGDEM_MOSAIC_NUM The ASTER GDEM data of the Tibetan Plateau have an accuracy of 30 meters, the raw data are in tif format, and the mosaic data are stored in the img format. The raw data of this data set were downloaded from the ASTERGDEM website and completely retained the original appearance of the data. ASTER GDEM was divided into several 1×1 degree data blocks during distribution. The distribution format was the zip compression format, and each compressed package included two files. The file naming format is as follows: ASTGTM_NxxEyyy_dem.tif ASTGTM_NxxEyyy_num.tif xx is the starting latitude, and yyy is the starting longitude. _dem.tif is the dem data file, and _num.tif is the data quality file. ASTER GDEM TILES: The original, unprocessed raw data are retained. ASTERGDEM_MOSAIC_DEM: Inlay the dem.tif data using Erdas software, and parameter settings use default values. ASRERGDEM_MOSAIC_NUM: Inlay the num.tif data using Erdas software, and parameter settings use default values. The original raw data are retained, and the accuracy is consistent with that of the ASTERGDEM data distribution website. The horizontal accuracy of the data is 30 meters, and the elevation accuracy is 20 meters. The mosaic data are made by Erdas, and the parameter settings use the default values.
METI, National Aeronautics and Space Administration
The data set is NDVI data of long time series acquired by NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor. The time range of the data set is from 1982 to 2015. In order to remove the noise in NDVI data, maximum synthesis and multi-sensor contrast correction are carried out. A NDVI image is synthesized every half month. The data set is widely used in the analysis of long-term vegetation change trend. The data set is cut out from the global data set, so as to carry out the research and analysis of the source areas of the three rivers separately. The data format of this data set is GeoTIFF with spatial resolution of 8 km and temporal resolution of 2 weeks, ranging from 1982 to 2015. Data transfer coefficient is 10000, NDVI = ND/10000.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
The data set is MODIS vegetation index data (MOD13Q1). The source areas of the three rivers are extracted to carry out the research and analysis of the source areas of the three rivers separately. MOD13Q1 is a 16-day composite vegetation index, including normalized vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI). The spatial scope of Sanjiang Source covers two MODIS files (h25v05 and h26v05). Data storage format is hdf. Each file contains 12 bands: Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Data Quality (VI Quality), Red Reflectance, Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR Reflectance), Blue Reflectance, Mid Infrared Reflectance, Observation. Viewzenith angle, sun zenith angle, relative azimuth angle, composite day of the year and pixel reliability. The data format of this data set is hdf, spatial resolution is 250m, temporal resolution is 16 days, time range: February 2000 to October 2018.
Kamel Didan*, Armando Barreto Munoz, Ramon Solano, Alfredo Huete
The data set is extracted from the NDVI data of long time series acquired by VEGETATION sensor on SPOT satellite. The time range of the data set is from May 1998 to 2013. In order to remove the noise in NDVI data, the maximum synthesis is carried out. A NDVI image is synthesized every 10 days. The data set is cut out from the global data set, so as to carry out the research and analysis of the source areas of the three rivers separately. The data format of this data set is geotiff, spatial resolution is 1 km, temporal resolution is 10 days, time range: May 1998 to December 2013.
Image Processing Centre for SPOT-VGT
The data set is NDVI data of long time series acquired by SeaWiFS. The time range of the data set is from September 1997 to 2007. In order to remove the noise in NDVI data, the maximum synthesis is carried out. A NDVI image is synthesized every 15 days. The data set is cut out from the global data set, so as to carry out the research and analysis of the source areas of the three rivers separately. The data format of this data set is geotiff, spatial resolution is 4 km, temporal resolution is 15 days, time range: 256 days in 1997 to 365 days in 2007.
Charles R. Mcclain
The “long-term series of daily snow depth in Eurasia” was produced using the passive microwave remote sensing data. The temporal range is 1980~2016, and the coverage is the Eurasia continent. The spatial resolutions is 0.25° and the temporal resolution is daily. A dynamic brightness temperature gradient algorithm was used to derive snow depth. In this algorithm, the spatial and temporal variations of snow characteristics were considered and the spatial and seasonal dynamic relationships between the temperature difference between 18 GHz and 36 GHz and the measured snow depth were established. The long-term sequence of satellite-borne passive microwave brightness temperature data used to derive snow depth came from three sensors (SMMR, SSM/I and SSMI/S), and there is a certain system inconsistency among them. So, the inter-sensor calibration was performed to improve the temporal consistency of these brightness temperature data before snow depth derivation. The accuracy analysis shows that the relative deviation of Eurasia snow depth data is within 30%. The data are stored as a txt file every day, each file includes a file header (projection mode) and a 720*332 snow depth matrix, and each snow depth represents a 0.25°*0.25° grid. For details of the data, please refer to data specification “Snow depth dataset of Eurasian (Version 1.0) (1980-2016).doc”
CHE Tao, DAI Liyun
Wildfires can strongly affect the frozen soil environment by burning surface vegetation and soil organic matter. Vegetation affected by fire can take many years to return to mature pre-fire levels. In this data set, the effects of fires on vegetation regrowth in a frozen-ground tundra environment in the Anaktuvuk River Basin on the North Slope of Alaska were studied by quantifying changes in C-band and L-band SAR backscatter data over 15 years (2002-2017). After the fire, the C- and L-band backscattering coefficients increased by 5.5 and 4.4 dB, respectively, in the severe fire area compared to the unburned area. Five years after the fire, the difference in C-band backscattering between the fire zone and the unburned zone decreased, indicating that the post-fire vegetation level had recovered to the level of the unburned zone. This long recovery time is longer than the 3-year recovery estimated from visible wavelength-based NDVI observations. In addition, after 10 years of vegetation recovery, the backscattering of the L-band in the severe fire zone remains approximately 2 dB higher than that of the unburned zone. This continued difference may be caused by an increase in surface roughness. Our analysis shows that long-term SAR backscattering data sets can quantify vegetation recovery after fire in an Arctic tundra environment and can also be used to supplement visible-wavelength observations. The temporal coverage of the backscattering data is from 2002 to 2017, with a time resolution of one month, and the data cover the Anaktuvuk River area on the North Slope of Alaska. The spatial resolution is 30~100 m, the C- and L-band data are separated, and a GeoTIFF file is stored every month. For details on the data, see SAR Backscattering Data of the Anaktuvuk River Basin on the North Slope of Alaska - Data Description.
A remote sensing image mosaic was generated for Greenland by processing a collection of 108 scenes of Landsat 8 OLI remote sensing images from 2014 to 2015 with DN correction, cloud removal correction, planetary reflectance correction, reflectance and RGB value conversion, image synthesis and merging, etc. The spatial resolution of the entire image is 30 m, and the stereographic projection method is adopted.
The data set includes estimated data on the SOS (start of season) and the EOS (end of season) of vegetation in Sanjiangyuan based on the MODIS 16-day synthetic NDVI product (MOD13A2 collection 6). Two common phenological estimation methods were adopted: the threshold extraction method based on polynomial fitting (the term “poly” was included in the file names) and the inflection point extraction method based on double logistic function fitting (the term “sig” was included in the file names). These data can be used to analyse the relationship between vegetation phenology and climate change. The temporal coverage ranges from 2001 to 2014, and the spatial resolution is 1 km.
The data set contains NPP products data produced by the maximum synthesis method of the three source regions of the Yellow River, the Yangtze River and the Lancang River. The data of remote sensing products MOD13Q1, MOD17A2, and MOD17A2H are available on the NASA website (http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/). The MOD13Q1 product is a 16-d synthetic product with a resolution of 250 m. The MOD17A2 and MOD17A2H product data are 8-d synthetic products, the resolution of MOD17A2 is 1 000 m, and the resolution of MOD17A2H is 500 m. The final synthetic NPP product of MODIS has a resolution of 1 km. The downloaded MOD13Q1, MOD17A2, and MOD17A2H remote sensing data products are in HDF format. The data have been processed by atmospheric correction, radiation correction, geometric correction, and cloud removal. 1) MRT projection conversion. Convert the format and projection of the downloaded data product, convert the HDF format to TIFF format, convert the projection to the UTM projection, and output NDVI with a resolution of 250 m, EVI with a resolution 250 m, and PSNnet with resolutions of 1 000 m and 500 m. 2) MVC maximum synthesis. Synthesize NDVI, EVI, and PSNnet synchronized with the ground measured data by the maximum value to obtain values corresponding to the measured data. The maximum synthesis method can effectively reduce the effects of clouds, the atmosphere, and solar elevation angles. 3) NPP annual value generated from the NASA-CASA model.
Kamel Didan*, Armando Barreto Munoz, Ramon Solano, Alfredo Huete
The data set includes the estimated data of the SOS (start of season) and the EOS (end of season) of vegetation in Sanjiangyuan based on 10-day synthetic NDVI products from the SPOT satellite. Two common phenological estimation methods were adopted: the threshold extraction method based on polynomial fitting (the term “poly” was included in the file names) and the inflection point extraction method based on double logistic function fitting (the term “sig” was included in the file names). These data can be used to analyse the relationship between vegetation phenology and climate change. The temporal coverage is from 1999 to 2013, and the spatial resolution is 1 km.
WANG Xufeng, WANG Xufeng, WANG Xufeng
The data set includes the estimated data on the SOS (start of season) and the EOS (end of season) of vegetation in Sanjiangyuan based on GIMMS3g version 1.0, the latest version of the GIMMS NDVI data set. Two common phenological estimation methods were adopted: the threshold extraction method based on polynomial fitting (the term “poly” was included in the file names) and the inflection point extraction method based on double logistic function fitting (the term “sig” was included in the file names). These data can be used to analyse the relationship between vegetation phenology and climate change. The temporal coverage ranges from 1982 to 2015, and the spatial resolution is 8 km.
The SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) data were obtained from the Endeavour space shuttle jointly launched by NASA and NIMA in February 2000. The SRTM system on the Endeavour had been collecting data for 222 hours and 23 minutes. It covered more than 80% of the global land surface from 60° north latitude to 56° south Latitude, including the whole territory of China. The radar image data acquired by the program have been processed for more than two years to form a digital terrain elevation model. The raw data of this data set were downloaded from the SRTM data distribution website (http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org). For the convenience of using the data, based on the framing of STRM data, we use Erdas software to splice and prepare the STMR mosaic of the Tibetan Plateau. The accuracy is 30 meters, and the data are in geoTIFF format. The raw data of this data set was downloaded from the SRTM data distribution website (http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org). The SRTM data provides a file for each latitude and longitude square. There are two kinds of longitude files, which are 1 arc-second and 3 arc-second, denoted SRTM1 and SRTM3, or 30-m and 90-m data. This data set comprises SRTM3 data with a resolution of 90 m, and the version is SRTM V4.1 (GeoTIFF format).
Global Land Cover Network
This is the vegetation index (NDVI) for Maduo County in July, August and September of 2016. It is obtained through calculation based on the multispectral data of GF-1. The spatial resolution is 16 m. The GF-1 data are processed by mosaicking, projection coordinating, data subsetting and other methods. The maximum synthesis is then conducted every month in July, August, and September.
LI Fei, Fei Li, Zhijun Zhang
This is the 1976, 1991, 2000, and 2010 vector data set of glaciers and glacial lakes in the Boqu Basin in Central Himalaya based on Landsat satellite images. The data source is from Landsat remote images. 1976: LM21510411975306AAA05, LM21510401976355AAA04 1991: LT41410401991334XXX02, LT41410411991334XXX02 2000: LE71410402000279SGS00, LE71400412000304SGS00, LE71410402000327EDC00, LE71410412000327EDC00 2010: LT51400412009288KHC00, LT51410402009295KHC00, LT51410412009311KHC00, LT51410402011237KHC00. The boundaries of glaciers and glacial lakes are extracted manually from the various remote sensing images. The extraction error of the boundaries of glaciers and glacial lakes is estimated to be 0.5 pixels. Data file: Glacial_1976: Glacier vector data in 1976 Glacial_1991: Glacier vector data in 1991 Glacial_2000: Glacier vector data in 2000 Glacial_2010: Glacier vector data in 2010 Glacial_Lake_1976: Glacial lake vector data in 1976年 Glacial_Lake_1991: Glacial lake vector data in 1991 Glacial_Lake_2000: Glacial lake vector data in 2000 Glacial_Lake_2010: Glacial lake vector data in 2010 The glacial lake vector data fields include Number, name, latitude and longitude, altitude, area, orientation, type of glacial lake, length, width, and distance from the glacier.
The Tibetan Plateau Glacier Data –TPG2013 is a glacial coverage data on the Tibetan Plateau around 2013. 128 Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images were selected with 30-m spatial resolution, for comparability with previous and current glacier inventories. Besides, about 20 images acquired in 2014 were used to complete the full coverage of the TP. The most frequent year in this period was defined as the reference year for the mosaic image: i.e. 2013. Glacier outlines were digitized on-screen manually from the 2013 image mosaic, relying on false-colour image composites (RGB by bands 654), which allowed us to distinguish ice/snow from cloud. Debris-free ice was distinguished from the debris and debris-covered ice by its higher reflectance. Debris-covered ice was not delineated in this data. [To minimize the effects of snow or cloud cover on glacierized areas, high-resolution (30 m spatial resolution and 4-day repetition cycle) images were also used for reference in glacier delineation from the Chinese satellites HJ-1A and HJ-1B, which were launched on Sep.6th 2008. Both carried as payload two 4-band CCD cameras with swath width 700 km (360 km per camera). All HJ-1A/1B data in 2012, 2013 and 2014 (65 scenes, Fig.S1, Table S1) were from China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application (CRESDA; http://www.cresda.com/n16/n92006/n92066/n98627/index.html). Each scene was orthorectified with respect to the 30m-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and Landsat images.] The delineated glacier outlines were compared with band-ratio (e.g. TM3/TM5) results, and validated by overlapping them onto Google Earth imagery, SRTM DEM, topographic maps and corresponding satellite images. Topographic maps from the 1970s and all available satellite images (including Google EarthTM imagery and HJ-1A/1B satellite data) were used as base reference data. For areas with mountain shadows and snow cover, they were verified by different methods using data from different seasons. For glaciers in deep shadow, Google EarthTM imagery from different dates was used as the reference for manual delineation. Steep slopes or headwalls were also excluded in the TPG2013. Areas that appeared in any of these sources to have the characteristics of exposed ground/basement/bed rock were manually delineated as non-glacier, and were also cross-checked with CGI-1 and CGI-2. Steep hanging glaciers were included in TPG2013 if they were identifiable on images in all three epochs (i.e. TPG1976, TPG2001, and TPG2013). The accuracy of manual digitization was controlled within one half-pixel. All glacier areas were calculated on the WGS84 spheroid in an Albers equal-area map projection centred at (95°E, 30°N) with standard parallels at 15°N and 65°N. Our results showed that the relative deviation of manual interpretation was less than 3.9%.
The variation in the duration of snow on the Tibetan Plateau is relatively great, and the high mountainous areas around the plateau are rich in snow and ice resources. Taking full account of the terrain of the Tibetan Plateau and the snow characteristics in the mountains, the data set adopted AVHRR data to gradually realize generating data products for daily, ten-day, and monthly snow cover areas while maintaining the snow classification accuracy. These data included the daily/10-day/monthly snow cover area data for the Tibetan Plateau from 2007 to 2015, the average accuracy of which is 0.92. It can provide reliable data for snow changes during the historical periods of the Tibetan Plateau.
The data set of lake dynamics on the Tibetan Plateau was mainly derived from Landsat remote sensing data. Band ratio and the threshold segmentation method were applied. The temporal coverage of the data set was from 1984 to 2016, with a temporal resolution of 5 years. It covered the whole Tibetan Plateau at a spatial resolution of 30 meters. The water body area extraction method mainly adopted the band ratio (B4/B2) or water body index to construct the classification tree. The algorithm construction considered the spatial and temporal variations of the spectral characteristics of the water body and adjusted the threshold of the decision tree by the slope and the slope aspect information of the water body. The long-term sequence satellite-borne data came from different sensors, e.g., Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, and OLI. The minimum unit for extracting water body information was 2*2 pixels, and all water body areas less than 0.36*10^-2 Km² were removed. The water body information extracted by high-resolution remote sensing data and the verification of the water body checkpoint determined by visual interpretation indicated that the overall accuracy of the water body area information for the Tibetan Plateau was above 95%. The data were saved as a shape file, and projected by Albers projection, with a central meridian of 105 ° and a double standard latitude of 25 ° and 47 °.
SONG Kaishan, DU Jia
The NDVI data set is the sixth version of the MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index product (2001-2016) jointly released by NASA EOSDIS LP DAAC and the US Geological Survey (USGS EROS). The product has a temporal resolution of 16 days and a spatial resolution of 0.05 degrees. This version is a Climate Modeling Grid (CMG) data product generated from the original NDVI product (MYD13A2) with a resolution of 1 kilometer. Please indicate the source of these data as follows in acknowledgments: The MOD13C NDVI product was retrieved online courtesy of the NASA EOSDIS Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), USGS/Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, The [PRODUCT] was (were) retrieved from the online [TOOL], courtesy of the NASA EOSDIS Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), USGS/Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.
The NDVI data set is the latest release of the long sequence (1981-2015) normalized difference vegetation index product of NOAA Global Inventory Monitoring and Modeling System (GIMMS), version number 3g.v1. The temporal resolution of the product is twice a month, while the spatial resolution is 1/12 of a degree. The temporal coverage is from July 1981 to December 2015. This product is a shared data product and can be downloaded directly from ecocast.arc.nasa.gov. For details, please refer to https://nex.nasa.gov/nex/projects/1349/.
The National Center for Atmospheric Research
This dataset is the spatial distribution map of the marshes in the source area of the Yellow River near the Zaling Lake-Eling Lake, covering an area of about 21,000 square kilometers. The data set is classified by the Landsat 8 image through an expert decision tree and corrected by manual visual interpretation. The spatial resolution of the image is 30m, using the WGS 1984 UTM projected coordinate system, and the data format is grid format. The image is divided into five types of land, the land type 1 is “water body”, the land type 2 is “high-cover vegetation”, the land type 3 is “naked land”, and the land type 4 is “low-cover vegetation”, and the land type 5 is For "marsh", low-coverage vegetation and high-coverage vegetation are distinguished by vegetation coverage. The threshold is 0.1 to 0.4 for low-cover vegetation and 0.4 to 1 for high-cover vegetation.
HUANG Xiaodong, DAI Liyun
The data sets include four sets of data obtained from the Scanning Multi-channel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) sensors using passive microwave remote sensing inversion. SMMR was aboard the Nimbus-7 satellite, and its working period was from October 26, 1978 to July 8, 1987. Since July 1987, the data provided by the SSM/I and the SSMIS aboard the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite group have been used. The first three data sets contain sea ice concentration data, covering the Antarctic region with a spatial resolution of 25 km: (1) The data were obtained from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Version 1 by applying the NASA Team algorithm inversion. The temporal coverage is from November 1978 to February 2017, with a temporal resolution of one month. A bin file is stored every month. (2) The data source is the same as the first set. The temporal coverage is from 1978-10-26 to 2017-2-28. The temporal resolution is two days, and the spatial resolution is 25 km. A folder was stored every year, and a bin file was stored every other day. (3) The data were obtained from near-real-time DMSP SSMIS by applying the NASA Team algorithm inversion. The temporal coverage is from 2015-1-1 to 2018-2-3, and the temporal resolution is one day. A bin file is stored every day. Each file consists of a 300-byte file title (data time information, projection pattern, file name) and a 316*332 matrix. The fourth set of data is the sea ice coverage and sea ice area time series. The temporal coverage is from November 1978 to December 2017. This data set is a time series sequence of sea ice coverage and sea ice area in the Antarctic. The temporal resolution is one month, and an ASCII file is stored every month. Each file consists of a file title (time, data type), a 39*1 sea ice cover matrix and a 39*1 sea ice area matrix. For further details on the data, please visit the US Ice and Snow Data Center NSIDC website - Data Description http://nsidc.org/data/NSIDC-0051; http://nsidc.org/data/NSIDC-0081; http://nsidc.org/data/G02135
LI Shuanglin, LIU Na
The global Cryosat-2 GDR dataset is generated by the European Space Agency (ESA); it has a temporal coverage from 2010 to 2016 and covers the globe. On April 8, 2010, the ESA launched the Cryosat-2 high-tilt polar orbit satellite. The satellite is equipped with an SAR Interferometer Radar Altimeter (SIRAL), which is mainly used to monitor polar ice thickness and sea ice thickness changes, and, furthermore, to study the effects of melting polar ice on global sea level rise and that of global climate change on Antarctic ice thickness. The altimeter operates in the Ku-band and at a frequency of 13.575 GHz, it includes three measurement modes. One is a low-resolution altimeter measurement mode (LRM) that points to the subsatellite point to obtain all surface observations for land, sea, and ice sheets; its processing is similar to ENVISAT/RA-2, with an orbital resolution of 5 to 7 km. The second is the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measurement mode, which is mainly used to improve the accuracy and resolution of sea ice observations; it can make the resolution along the orbit reach approximately 250 m. The third is the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), which is mainly used to improve the accuracy of areas with complex terrain such as the edges of ice sheets or ice shelves. The CryoSat -2/SIRAL data products mainly include 0-level data, 1b-level data, 2-level data and high-level data. The Cryosat-2/SIRAL products consist of two files: an XML head file (.HDR) and a data product file (.DBL). The HDR file is an auxiliary ASCII file for fast identification and retrieval of the data files. 1b-level products are stored separately according to the measurement modes, and the data recording formats of different modes are also different. Each waveform in LRM mode and SAR mode has 128 sampling points, while that in SARIn mode has 512 sampling points. 2-level GDR products are available for most scientific applications, including measurement time, geographic location, altitude, and more. In addition, the altitude information in GDR products has been obtained through instrumental calibration, transmission delay corrections, geometric corrections, and geophysical corrections (such as atmospheric corrections and tidal corrections). The GDR products are single global full-track data, that is, the measurement results of the three modes. After different processing, they are combined in chronological order; thereby, the data recording formats are unified. The data in the three modes use different waveform retracking algorithms to obtain altitude values. In the latest updated Baseline C data, the LRM mode data use three algorithms: Refined CFI, UCL and Refined OCOG.
SHEN Guozhuang, FU Wenxue
The Sentinel-1A/B satellite uses a near-polar sun-synchronous orbit with an orbital altitude of 693 km, an orbital inclination of 98.18°, and an orbital period of 99 minutes. It is equipped with a C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) with a designed service life of 7 years (12 years expected). Sentinel-l has a variety of imaging methods that enable different polarization modes such as single-polarization and dual-polarization. Sentinel-1A SAR has four working modes: Strip Map Mode (SM), Extra Wide Swath (EW), Interferometric Wide Swath (IW) and Wave Mode (WV). Satellite A was successfully launched in April 2014. The revisit period of the same region was 12 days. Satellite B successfully operated on orbit in April 2016. The current revisiting period reached 3 to 6 days. After the operation of two satellites, the S1 data acquisition frequency in the Antarctic region increased greatly. This data set comprises the Sentinel-1 SAR data for the Antarctic ice sheet and the Greenland Ice Sheet area. The data band comprises C-band extra wide multiview data with a resolution of 20 m*40 m. The temporal resolution is 12 days and is related to the round-trip period, the width is 400 km, the noise level is -25 dB, and the radiation measurement accuracy is 1.0 dB. The annual temporal coverage of these data is October to the next March in the Antarctic and April to September in Greenland, and the spatial coverage comprises the Antarctic ice sheet ice shelf area and Greenland ice sheet.
The Tibetan Plateau Glacial Data -TPG1976 is a glacial coverage data on the Tibetan Plateau in the 1970s. It was generated by manual interpretation from Landsat MSS multispectral image data. The temporal coverage was mainly from 1972 to 1979 by 60 m spatial resolution. It involved 205 scenes of Landsat MSS/TM. There were 189 scenes（92% coverage on TP）in 1972-79，including 116 scenes in 1976/77 (61% of all the collected satellite data).As high quality of MSS data is not accessible due to cloud and snow effects in the South-east Tibetan Plateau, earlier Landsat TM data was collected for usage, including 14 scenes of 1980s（1981,1986-89,which covers 6.5% of TP） and 2 scenes in 1994（by 1.5% coverage on TP）.Among all satellite data，77% was collected in winter with the minimum effects of cloud and seasonal snow. The most frequent year in this period was defined as the reference year for the mosaic image: i.e. 1976. Glacier outlines were digitized on-screen manually from the 1976 image mosaic, relying on false-colour image composites (MSS: red, green and blue (RGB) represented by bands 321; TM: RGB by bands 543), which allowed us to distinguish ice/snow from cloud. Debris-free ice was distinguished from the debris and debris-covered ice by its higher reflectance. Debris-covered ice was not delineated in this data. The delineated glacier outlines were compared with band-ratio results, and validated by overlapping them onto Google Earth imagery, SRTM DEM, topographic maps and corresponding satellite images. For areas with mountain shadows and snow cover, they were verified by different methods using data from different seasons. For glaciers in deep shadow, Google EarthTM imagery from different dates was used as the reference for manual delineation. Steep slopes or headwalls were also excluded in the TPG1976. Areas that appeared in any of these sources to have the characteristics of exposed ground/basement/bed rock were manually delineated as non-glacier, and were also cross-checked with CGI-1 and CGI-2. Steep hanging glaciers were included in TPG1976 if they were identifiable on images in all three epochs (i.e. TPG1976, TPG2001, and TPG2013). The accuracy of manual digitization was controlled within one half-pixel. All glacier areas were calculated on the WGS84 spheroid in an Albers equal-area map projection centred at (95°E, 30°N) with standard parallels at 15°N and 65°N. Our results showed that the relative deviation of manual interpretation was less than 6.4% due to the 60 m spatial resolution images.
YE Qinghua, WU Yuwei