Central Asia (referred to as CA) is among the most vulnerable regions to climate change due to the fragile ecosystems, strained water resources, and accelerated glacier melting, which underscores the need of high-resolution climate projection datasets for application to vulnerability, impacts, and adaption assessments in ecological and hydrological systems. We applied three bias-corrected global climate models (GCMs) to conduct 9-km resolution dynamical downscaling in CA. A high-resolution climate projection dataset over CA (the HCPD-CA dataset) is derived from the downscaled results, which contains ten meteorological elements that are widely used to drive ecological and hydrological models. They are daily precipitation (PREC, mm/day), daily mean/maximum/minimum temperature at 2m (T2MEAN/T2MAX/T2MIN, K), daily mean relative humidity at 2m (RH2MEAN, %), daily mean eastward and northward wind at 10m (U10MEAN/V10MEAN, m/s), daily mean downward shortwave/longwave flux at surface (SWD/LWD, W/m2), and daily mean surface pressure (PSFC, Pa). The reference and future periods are 1986-2005 and 2031-2050, respectively. The carbon emission scenario is RCP4.5. The results show the data product has good quality in describing the climatology of all the elements in CA, which ensures the suitability of the dataset for future research. The main feature of projected climate changes in CA in the near-term future is strong warming (annual mean temperature increasing by 1.62-2.02℃) and significant increase in downward shortwave and longwave flux at surface, with minor changes in other elements. The HCPD-CA dataset presented here serves as a scientific basis for assessing the impacts of climate change over CA on many sectors, especially on ecological and hydrological systems.
1) Data content (including elements and significance): 21 stations (Southeast Tibet station, Namucuo station, Zhufeng station, mustag station, Ali station, Naqu station, Shuanghu station, Geermu station, Tianshan station, Qilianshan station, Ruoergai station (northwest courtyard), Yulong Xueshan station, Naqu station (hanhansuo), Haibei Station, Sanjiangyuan station, Shenzha station, gonggashan station, Ruoergai station（ Chengdu Institute of biology, Naqu station (Institute of Geography), Lhasa station, Qinghai Lake Station) 2018 Qinghai Tibet Plateau meteorological observation data set (temperature, precipitation, wind direction and speed, relative humidity, air pressure, radiation and evaporation) 2) Data source and processing method: field observation at Excel stations in 21 formats 3) Data quality description: daily resolution of the site 4) Data application results and prospects: Based on long-term observation data of various cold stations in the Alpine Network and overseas stations in the pan-third pole region, a series of datasets of meteorological, hydrological and ecological elements in the pan-third pole region were established; Strengthen observation and sample site and sample point verification, complete the inversion of meteorological elements, lake water quantity and quality, above-ground vegetation biomass, glacial frozen soil change and other data products; based on the Internet of Things technology, develop and establish multi-station networked meteorological, hydrological, Ecological data management platform, real-time acquisition and remote control and sharing of networked data.
Effective evaluation of future climate change, especially prediction of future precipitation, is an important basis for formulating adaptation strategies. This data is based on the RegCM4.6 model, which is compatible with multi-model and different carbon emission scenarios: CanEMS2 (RCP 45 and RCP85), GFDL-ESM2M (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5), HadGEM2-ES (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 And RCP8.5), IPSL-CM5A-LR (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5), MIROC5 (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5). The future climate data (2007-2099) has 21 sets, with a spatial resolution at 0.25 degrees and the temporal resolution at 3 hours (or 6 hours), daily and yearly scales.
PAN Xiaoduo, ZHANG Lei
CMADS V1.1(The China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Datasets for the SWAT model Version 1.1) Version of the data set introduced the STMAS assimilation algorithm. It was constructed using multiple technologies and scientific methods, including loop nesting of data, projection of resampling models, and bilinear interpolation. The CMADS series of datasets can be used to drive various hydrological models, such as SWAT, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, and the Storm Water Management model (SWMM). It also allows users to conveniently extract a wide range of meteorological elements for detailed climatic analyses. Data sources for the CMADS series include nearly 40,000 regional automatic stations under China’s 2,421 national automatic and business assessment centres. This ensures that the CMADS datasets have wide applicability within the country, and that data accuracy was vastly improved. The CMADS series of datasets has undergone finishing and correction to match the specific format of input and driving data of SWAT models. This reduces the volume of complex work that model builders have to deal with. An index table of the various elements encompassing all of East Asia was also established for SWAT models. This allows the models to utilize the datasets directly, thus eliminating the need for any format conversion or calculations using weather generators. Consequently, significant improvements to the modelling speed and output accuracy of SWAT models were achieved. Most of the source data in the CMADS datasets are derived from CLDAS in China and other reanalysis data in the world. The integration of air temperature (2m), air pressure, humidity, and wind speed data (10m) was mainly achieved through the LAPS/STMAS system. Precipitation data were stitched using CMORPH’s global precipitation products and the National Meteorological Information Center’s data of China (which is based on CMORPH’s integrated precipitation products). The latter contains daily precipitation records observed at 2,400 national meteorological stations and the CMORPH satellite’s inversion precipitation products.The inversion algorithm for incoming solar radiation at the ground surface makes use of the discrete longitudinal method by Stamnes et al.(1988)to calculate radiation transmission. The resolutions for CMADS V1.0, V1.1, V1.2, and V1.3 were 1/3°, 1/4°, 1/8°, and 1/16°, respectively. In CMADS V1.0 (at a spatial resolution of 1/3°), East Asia was spatially divided into 195 × 300 grid points containing 58,500 stations. Despite being at the same spatial resolution as CMADS V1.0, CMADS V1.1 contains more data, with 260 × 400 grid points containing 104,000 stations. For both versions, the stations’ daily data include average solar radiation, average temperature (2m), average pressure, maximum and minimum temperature (2m), specific humidity, cumulative precipitation, and average wind speed (10m). The CMADS comprises other variables for any hydrological model(under 'For-other-model' folder): Daily Average Temperature (2m), Daily Maximum Temperature (2m), Daily Minimum Temperature (2m), Daily cumulative precipitation (20-20h), Daily average Relative Humidity, Daily average Specific Humidity, Daily average Solar Radiation, Daily average Wind (10m), and Daily average Atmospheric Pressure. Introduction to metadata of CMADS CMADS storage path description:(CMADS was divided into two datesets) 1.CMADS-V1.0 For-swat --specifically driving the SWAT model 2.CMADS-V1.0 For-other-model --specifically driving the other hydrological model(VIC,SWMM,etc.) CMADS-- For-swat-2009 folder contain:(Station and Fork ) 1).Station Relative-Humidity-58500 Daily average relative humidity(fraction) Precipitation-58500 Daily accumulated 24-hour precipitation(mm) Solar radiation-58500 Daily average solar radiation(MJ/m2) Tmperature-58500 Daily maximum and minimum 2m temperature(℃) Wind-58500 Daily average 10m wind speed(m/s) Where R, P, S, T, W+ dimensional grid number - the number of longitude grid is the station in the above five folders respectively.(Where R,P,S,T,W respective Daily average relative humidity,Daily cumulative precipitation(24h),Daily mean solar radiation(MJ/m2),Daily maximum and minimum temperature(℃) and Daily mean wind speed (m/s)) respectively.Data format is (.dbf) 2).Fork (Station index table over East Asia) PCPFORK.txt (Precipitation index table) RHFORK.txt (Relative humidity index table) SORFORK.txt (Solar radiation index table) TMPFORK.txt (Temperature index table) WINDFORK.txt (Wind speed index) CMADS-- For-swat-2012 folder contain:(Station and Fork ) Storage structure is consistency with For-swat- 2009 .However, all the data in this directory are only available in TXT format and can be readed by SWAT2012. 3) For-other-model (Includes all weather input data required by the any hydrologic model (daily).) Atmospheric-Pressure-txt Daily average atmospheric pressure(hPa) Average-Temperature-txt Daily average 2m temperature(℃) Maximum-Temperature-txt Daily maximum 2m temperature(℃) Minimum-Temperature-txt Daily minimum 2m temperature(℃) Precipitation-txt Daily accumulated 24-hour precipitation (mm) Relative-Humidity-txt Daily average relative humidity(fraction) Solar-Radiation-txt Daily average solar radiation(MJ/m2) Specific-Humidity-txt Daily average Specific Humidity(g/kg) Wind-txt Daily average 10m wind speed(m/s) Data storage information: data set storage format is .dbf and .txt Other data information: Total data:45GB Occupied space: 50GB Time: From year 2008 to year 2014 Time resolution: Daily Geographical scope description: East Asia Longitude: 60° E The most east longitude: 160°E North latitude: 65°N Most southern latitude: 0°N Number of stations: 58500 stations Spatial resolution: 1/3 * 1/3 * grid points Vertical range: None
Meng Xianyong, Wang Hao
This data set is the result of dynamic downscaling simulation of CORDEX region 8 (Central Asia) using WRF model driven by MPI-ESM-HR1.2 model data in CMIP6 plan. The data include 2m temperature (variable T2) and precipitation and precipitation was divided into convective (variable RAINC) and non-convective (variable RAINNC) precipitation. The time period includes historical test (1995-2014), near future (2021-2040) and medium future (2041-2060). The future time period includes SSP1-2.6 and SSP5-8.5. The time resolution of the simulation is once every 6 hours, the spatial resolution is 25km, the number of vertical layers is 51, a whole year in 1994 is used as spin up, the SST update is used, and the parameterized scheme combination with good performance in this area is selected. The data set can better reflect the future climate change characteristics of Central Asia and the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and provide guidance for relevant countries to adapt to climate change.
LUO Yong, ZHOU Jiewei, SHI Wen
Ec-earth-heihe USES the output of the global model of ec-earth as the driving field to simulate the 6-hour data of the Heihe river basin in 2006-2080 under the scenarios of 1980-2005 and RCP4.5.Spatial scope: the grid center of the simulation area is located at (40.30n, 99.50e), the horizontal resolution is 3 km, and the number of simulated grid points in the model is 161 (meridional) X 201 (zonal). Projection: LAMBERT conformal projection, two standard latitudes of 30N and 60N. Time range: from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2010, with an interval of 6 hours. Description of file contents: monthly storage by grads without format.Except the maximum and minimum temperature as the daily scale, the other variables are all 6-hour data. MATLAB can be used to read, visible tmax_erain_xiong_heihe.m file description. Data description of heihe river basin: 1) Anemometer west wind (m/s) abbreviation usurf 2) Anemometer south wind(m/s), abbreviation vsurf 3) Anemometer temperature (deg K) abbreviation tsurf 4) maximal temperature (deg K) abbreviation tmax 5) minimal temperature (deg K) abbreviated tmin 6) Anemom specific humidity (g/kg) abbreviation qsurf 7) Accumulated precipitation (mm/hr) abbreviation precip 8) Accumulated evaporation (mm/hr) abbreviation evap 9) Accumulated sensible heat (watts/m**2/hr) abbreviation sensible 10) Accumulated net infrared radiation (watts/m * * 2 / hr) abbreviation netrad File name definition: Abbreviation-ec-earth-6hour，YTD For example, precip-ec-earth-6hour.198001，Is the data of 6-hour precipitation in January, 1980 (1) historical 6-hour data driven by the ec-earth global climate model from 1980 to 2005 (2) produce 6-hour data of heihe river basin under the scenario of RCP 4.5 for the global climate model ec-earth from 2006 to 2080
This dataset includes daily minimum temperature (Tmin), maximum temperature (Tmax) and precipitation (PPT) data of NEX-GDDP (NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections) (v1.0) over the periods of 2000–2009 and 2090–2099. The unit of Tmax and Tmin is K, and the unit of PPT is kgm-2s-1; the background filling value is -999. This dataset is a subset extraction fromthe original data. The original data was downloaded from https://portal.nccs.nasa.gov/datashare/NEXGDDP/BCSD/ in August 2020; The NEX-GDDP data set is obtained from CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) historical climate and General Circulation Models (General Circulation Models) operating in RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) 4.5 scenario mode, including 21 atmospheric circulation models; among them, 2000 –2005 is a historical climate scenario, and 2006–2009 and 2090-2099 are RCP 4.5 scenarios. For the description of the original data, please refer to https://www.nccs.nasa.gov/services/data-collections/land-based-products/nex-gddp.
Shen Miaogen, JIANG Nan
Based on China's daily meteorological elements data set and National Geographic basic data, the extreme precipitation, extreme temperature, drought intensity, drought frequency and other indicators in Hengduan Mountain area were calculated by using rclimdex, nspei and bilinear interpolation methods. The data set includes basic data set of disaster pregnant environment, basic data set of extreme precipitation index, basic data set of extreme temperature index, basic data set of drought intensity and frequency. The data set can provide a basic index system for regional extreme high temperature, precipitation and drought risk assessment.
This dataset includes data recorded by the Qinghai Lake integrated observatory network obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of the Subalpine shrub from Janurary 1to December 31, 2020. The site (100°6'3.62"E, 37°31'15.67") was located in the subalpine shrub ecosystem, near the Gangcha County, Qinghai Province. The elevation is 3495m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (HMP155; 3, 5 and 10 m, towards north), wind speed and direction profile (windsonic; 3, 5 and 10 m, towards north), air pressure (PTB110; 3 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 2 m of the platform in west by north of tower), four-component radiometer (CNR4; 6m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, towards south, vertically downward), photosynthetically active radiation (PQS1; 6 m, towards south, each with one vertically downward and one vertically upward, soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates below the vegetation; -0.06 m), soil temperature profile (109; -0.05、-0.10、-0.20、-0.40、-0.80、-1.20、-2.00、-3.00 and -4.00m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.05、-0.10、-0.20、-0.40、-0.80、-1.20、-2.00、-3.00 and -4.00m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_3 m, Ta_5 m, and Ta_10 m; RH_3 m, RH_5 m, and RH_10 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_3 m, Ws_5 m, and Ws_10 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_3 m, WD_5 m and WD_10 m) (°), precipitation (rain) (mm), air pressure (press) (hpa), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_D_up and PAR_D_down) (μmol/ (s m-2)), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, and Gs_3) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_5cm、Ts_10cm、Ts_20cm、Ts_40cm、Ts_80cm、Ts_120cm、Ts_200cm、Ts_300cm、Ts_500cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_5cm、Ms_10cm、Ms_20cm、Ms_40cm、Ms_80cm、Ms_120cm、Ms_200cm、Ms_300cm、Ms_500cm) (%, volumetric water content). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2018/8/31 10:30. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red.
Monthly meteorological data of Sanjiangyuan includes 32 national standard meteorological stations. There are 26 variables: average local pressure, extreme maximum local pressure, date of extreme maximum local pressure, extreme minimum local pressure, date of extreme minimum local pressure, average temperature, extreme maximum temperature, date of extreme maximum temperature, extreme minimum temperature and date of extreme minimum temperature, average temperature anomaly, average maximum temperature, average minimum temperature, sunshine hours, percentage of sunshine, average relative humidity, minimum relative humidity, date of occurrence of minimum relative humidity, precipitation, days of daily precipitation >=0.1mm, maximum daily precipitation, date of maximum daily precipitation, percentage of precipitation anomaly, average wind speed, maximum wind speed, date of maximum wind speed, maximum wind speed, wind direction of maximum wind speed, wind direction of maximum wind speed and occurrence date of maximum wind speed. The data format is txt, named by the site ID, and each file has 26 columns. The names and units of each column are explained in the SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_MON_readme.txt file. site_id lat lon elv name_cn 52754 37.33 100.13 8301.50 Gangcha 52833 36.92 98.48 7950.00 Wulan 52836 36.30 98.10 3191.10 Dulan 52856 36.27 100.62 2835.00 Qiapuqia 52866 36.72 101.75 2295.20 Xining 52868 36.03 101.43 2237.10 Guizhou 52908 35.22 93.08 4612.20 Wudaoliang 52943 35.58 99.98 3323.20 Xinghai 52955 35.58 100.75 8120.00 Guinan 52974 35.52 102.02 2491.40 Tongren 56004 34.22 92.43 4533.10 Togton He 56018 32.90 95.30 4066.40 Zaduo 56021 34.13 95.78 4175.00 Qumalai 56029 33.02 97.02 3681.20 Yushu 56033 34.92 98.22 4272.30 Maduo 56034 33.80 97.13 4415.40 Qingshui River 56038 32.98 98.10 9200.00 Shiqu 56043 34.47 100.25 3719.00 Guoluo 56046 33.75 99.65 3967.50 Dari 56065 34.73 101.60 8500.00 Henan 56067 33.43 101.48 3628.50 Jiuzhi 56074 34.00 102.08 3471.40 Maqu 56080 35.00 102.90 2910.00 Hezuo 56106 31.88 93.78 4022.80 Suo County 56116 31.42 95.60 3873.10 Dingqing 56125 32.20 96.48 3643.70 Nangqian 56128 31.22 96.60 3810.00 Leiwuqi 56137 31.15 97.17 3306.00 Changdu 56151 32.93 100.75 8530.00 Banma 56152 32.28 100.33 8893.90 Seda
WANG Xufeng, National Meteorological Information Center
This data set is the data set of climate elements in Hoh Xil area of Qinghai Province, covering the data of 14 observation stations, recording the climate observation data in 1990 in detail. Hoh Xil area in Qinghai Province has a high terrain with an average altitude of over 5000m. The climate is cold, the air is thin and the natural environment is bad. The vast area is still no man's land, known as "forbidden zone for human beings". Due to less interference from human activities, most of the area still maintains its original natural state. Its special geographical location, crustal structure and natural environment, as well as the unique composition of the biological flora, have been the focus of domestic surgical circles. The original data of the data set is digitized from the book "natural environment of Hoh Xil, Qinghai Province". The climate observation data include solar radiation, temperature, precipitation, air pressure, wind speed, etc. This data set provides basic data for the study of Hoh Xil area in Qinghai Province, and has reference value for the research in related fields.
The surface air temperature dataset of the Tibetan Plateau is obtained by downscaling the China regional surface meteorological feature dataset (CRSMFD). It contains the daily mean surface air temperature and 3-hourly instantaneous surface air temperature. This dataset has a spatial resolution of 0.01°. Its time range for surface air temperature dataset is from 1979 to 2018. Spatial dimension of data: 73°E-106°E, 23°N-40°N. The surface air temperature with a 0.01° can serve as an important input for the modeling of land surface processes, such as surface evapotranspiration estimation, agricultural monitoring, and climate change analysis.
DING Lirong, ZHOU Ji, WANG Wei
The meteorological elements distribution map of the plateau, which is based on the data from the Tibetan Plateau National Weather Station, was generated by PRISM model interpolation. It includes temperature and precipitation. Monthly average temperature distribution map of the Tibetan Plateau from 1961 to 1990 (30-year average values): t1960-90_1.e00，t1960-90_2.e00，t1960-90_3.e00，t1960-90_4.e00，t1960-90_5.e00， t1960-90_6.e00，t1960-90_7.e00，t1960-90_8.e00，t1960-90_9.e00，t1960-90_10.e00， t1960-90_11.e00，t1960-90_12.e00 Monthly average temperature distribution map of the Tibetan Plateau from 1991 to 2020 (30-year average values): t1991-20_1.e00，t1991-20_2.e00，t1991-20_3.e00，t1991-20_4.e00，t1991-20_5.e00， t1991-20_6.e00，t1991-20_7.e00，t1991-20_8.e00，t1991-20_9.e00，t1991-20_10.e00， t1991-20_11.e00，t1991-20_12.e00， Precipitation distribution map of the Tibetan Plateau from 1961 to 1990 (30-year average values): p1960-90_1.e00，p1960-90_2.e00，p1960-90_3.e00，p1960-90_4.e00，p1960-90_5.e00， p1960-90_6.e00，p1960-90_7.e00，p1960-90_8.e00，p1960-90_9.e00，p1960-90_10.e00， p1960-90_11.e00，p1960-90_12.e00 Precipitation distribution map of the Tibetan Plateau from 1991 to 2020 (30-year average values): p1991-20_1.e00，p1991-20_2.e00，p1991-20_3.e00，p1991-20_4.e00，p1991-20_5.e00， p1991-20_6.e00，p1991-20_7.e00，p1991-20_8.e00，p1991-20_9.e00，p1991-20_10.e00， p1991-20_11.e00，p1991-20_12.e00， The temporal coverage of the data is from 1961 to 1990 and from 1991 to 2020. The spatial coverage of the data is 73°~104.95° east longitude, 26.5°~44.95° north latitude, and the spatial resolution is 0.05 degrees×0.05 degrees (longitude×latitude), and it uses the geodetic coordinate projection. Name interpretation: Monthly average temperature: The average value of daily average temperature in a month. Monthly precipitation: The total precipitation in a month. Dimensions: The file format of the data is E00, and the DN value is the average value of monthly average temperature (×0.01°C) and the average monthly precipitation (×0.01 mm) from January to December. Data type: integer Data accuracy: 0.05 degrees × 0.05 degrees (longitude × latitude). The original sources of these data are two data sets of 1) monthly mean temperature and monthly precipitation observation data from 128 stations on the Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding areas from the establishing times of the stations to 2000 and 2) HadRM3 regional climate scenario simulation data of 50×50 km grids on the Tibetan Plateau, that is, the monthly average temperature and monthly precipitation simulation values from 1991 to 2020. From 1961 to 1990, the PRISM (Parameter elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model) interpolation method was used to generate grid data, and the interpolation model was adjusted and verified based on the site data. From 1991 to 2020, the regional climate scenario simulation data were downscaled to generate grid data by the terrain trend surface interpolation method. Part of the source data came from the results of the GCM model simulation; the GCM model used the Hadley Centre climate model HadCM2-SUL. a) Mitchell JFB, Johns TC, Gregory JM, Tett SFB (1995) Climate response to increasing levels of greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols. Nature, 376, 501-504. b) Johns TC, Carnell RE, Crossley JF et al. (1997) The second Hadley Centre coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM: model description, spinup and validation. Climate Dynamics, 13, 103-134. The spatial interpolation of meteorological data adopted the PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model) method: Daly, C., R.P. Neilson, and D.L. Phillips, 1994: A statistical-topographic model for mapping climatological precipitation over mountainous terrain. J. Appl. Meteor., 33, 140~158. Due to the difficult observational conditions in the plateau area and the lack of basic research data, there were deletions of meteorological data in some areas. After adjustment and verification, the accuracy of the data was only good enough to be used as a reference for macroscale climate research. The average relative error rate of the monthly average temperature distribution of the Tibetan Plateau from 1961 to 1990 was 8.9%, and that from 1991 to 2020 was 9.7%. The average relative error rate of precipitation data on the Tibetan Plateau from 1961 to 1990 was 20.9%, and that from 1991 to 2020 was 22.7%. The area of missing data was interpolated, and the values of obvious errors were corrected.
Near surface atmospheric forcing data were produced by using Wether Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the Heihe River Basin at hourly 0.05 * 0.05 DEG resolution, including the following variables: 2m temperature, surface pressure, water vapor mixing ratio, downward shortwave & upward longwave radiation, 10m wind field and the accumulated precipitation. The forcing data were validated by observational data collected by 15 daily Chinese Meteorological Bureau conventional automatic weather station (CMA), a few of Heihe River eco-hydrological process comprehensive remote sensing observation (WATER and HiWATER) site hourly observations were verified in different time scales, draws the following conclusion: 2m surface temperature, surface pressure and 2m relative humidity are more reliable, especially 2m surface temperature and surface pressure, the average errors are very small and the correlation coefficients are above 0.96; correlation between downward shortwave radiation and WATER site observation data is more than 0.9; The precipitation agreed well with observational data by being verified based on rain and snow precipitation two phases at yearly, monthly, daily time scales . the correlation coefficient between rainfall and the observation data at monthly and yearly time scales were up to 0.94 and 0.84; the correlation between snowfall and observation data at monthly scale reached 0.78, the spatial distribution of snowfall agreed well with the snow fractional coverage rate of MODIS remote sensing product. Verification of liquid and solid precipitation shows that WRF model can be used for downscaling analysis in complex and arid terrain of Heihe River Basin, and the simulated data can meet the requirements of watershed scale hydrological modeling and water resources balance. The data for 2000-2012 was provided in 2013. The data for 2013-2015 was updated in 2016. The data for 2016-2018 was updated in 2019.
The data set records the average temperature in the main areas of Qinghai Province, and the data are divided by region. The data are collected from the statistical yearbook of Qinghai Province issued by the Bureau of statistics of Qinghai Province. The data set contains 18 data tables with the same structure. For example, the data table in 2001 has nine fields: Field 1: month Field 2: Xining Field 3: Ping An Field 4: source Field 5: chabcha Field 6: colleagues Field 7: Dawu Field 8: Jiegu Field 9: Delingha
Qinghai Provincial Bureau of Statistics
Xiaodongkemadi glacier, located in Tanggula Mountain, is a continental glacier. The glacier is a compound valley glacier formed by the confluence of a southward main glacier (also known as dadongkemadi glacier) and a Southwest Branch glacier (also known as xiaodongkemadi glacier). The daily temperature and humidity observation data of 6 points in xiaodongkemadi, 4 points in Yangbajing and 4 points in hariqin from 2012 to 2015.
This data is based on the modified radiosonde observation data of 2008 used by Chen et al. 2016, Chen et al. 2011 and Chen et al. 2013. The vertical resolution of the processed atmospheric wind speed, wind direction, temperature, relative humidity and pressure is 20m. The data of three observation stages in 2008 are processed, namely iop1, IOP2 and iop3. Iop1 started from February 25, 2008 to March 19, 2008, IOP2 from May 13, 2008 to June 12, 2008, and iop3 from July 7, 2008 to July 16, 2008.
CHEN Xuelong, MA Yaoming
The data are collected from the automatic weather station (AWS, Campbell company) in the moraine area of the 24K glacier in the Southeast Tibet Plateau, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The geographic coordinates are 29.765 ° n, 95.712 ° E and 3950 m above sea level. The data include daily arithmetic mean data of air temperature (℃), relative humidity (%), wind speed (M / s), net radiation (w / m2), water vapor pressure (kPa) and air pressure (mbar). In the original data, an average value was recorded every 30 minutes before October 2018, and then an average value was recorded every 10 minutes. The temperature and humidity are measured by hmp155a temperature and humidity probe. The net radiation probe is nr01, the atmospheric pressure sensor probe is ptb210, and the wind speed sensor is 05103. These probes are 2 m above the ground. Data quality: the data has undergone strict quality control. The original abnormal data of 10 minutes and 30 minutes are removed first, and then the arithmetic mean of each hour is calculated. Finally, the daily value is calculated. If the number of hourly data is less than 24, the data is removed, and the corresponding date data in the data table is empty. In addition to the lack of some parameter data due to the thick snow and low temperature in winter and spring, the data can be used by scientific researchers who study climate, glacier and hydrology through strict quality control.
This data is the data of the automatic weather station (AWS, Campbell company) set up in Yigong Zangbu basin by the Southeast Tibet alpine environment comprehensive observation and research station of Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2018. The geographic coordinates are 30.1741 n, 94.9334 e, and the altitude is 2282m. The underlying surface is grassland. The data include daily arithmetic mean data of air temperature (℃), relative humidity (%), wind speed (M / s), water vapor pressure (kPa) and air pressure (MB) and daily accumulated value of precipitation. The original data is an average value recorded in 10 minutes. The temperature and humidity are measured by hmp155a temperature and humidity probe. The rainfall instrument is tb4, the atmospheric pressure sensor is ptb210, and the wind speed sensor is 05103. These probes are 2 m above the ground. Data quality: the quality of the original data is better, less missing. The data station is a meteorological station in the lower altitude of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, which will be updated from time to time in the future. It can be used by researchers studying climate, hydrology, glaciers, etc.
This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from Bajitan Gobi station in the flux observation matrix from 13 May to 21 September, 2012. The site (100.30420° E, 38.91496° N) was located in a Gobi surface, which is near Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1562 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (HMP45AC; 5 m and 10 m, towards north), air pressure (PTB110; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), wind speed (03001; 5 m and 10 m, towards north), wind direction (03001; 10 m, towards north), a four-component radiometer (CNR1; 6 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (IRTC3; 6 m, vertically downward), soil temperature profile (AV-10T; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), soil moisture profile (ECh2o-5; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), and soil heat flux (HFT3; 3 duplicates, 0.06 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and Ta_10 m, RH_5 m and RH_10 m) (℃ and %, respectively), air pressure (press, hpa), precipitation (rain, mm), wind speed (Ws_5 m and Ws_10 m, m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m, °), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2 and Gs_3, W/m^2), soil temperature profile (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, and Ts_100 cm, ℃), and soil moisture profile (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, and Ms_100 cm, %). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.
LIU Shaomin, LI Xin, XU Ziwei