Airborne pollen is mainly produced and disseminated during the process of plant flowering, controlled by plant phenology and climatic conditions. As an important bioindicator of plant behavior, airborne pollen can supply information about reproductive phenology, climate and atmospheric circulations. From 2011 to 2013, airborne pollen samples were collected using a volumetric Burkard pollen trap at the Qomolangma Station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS, 28.21°N, 86.56°E; 4276 m a.s.l.), on the northern slope of the Himalayas. The sampler is a volumetric air-suction device capable of continuously gathering pollen and spore particles. Air is drawn in at a speed of 10 l/min, and airborne particles are deposited on a sticky tape mounted on a drum that makes one complete rotation per week. The tape is changed weekly after a complete rotation. Then, the tape is removed and cut into seven pieces, with each piece representing one day of sampling. The pieces are mounted on slides using glycerin and safranin. Identification and counting of pollen grains were performed under an Olympus BX41 microscope at 400× magniﬁcation; all pollen grains on each slide were counted . Pollen concentration was expressed as the daily pollen grains per cubic meter of air using a constant air intake speed of 10 l/min. The pollen concentration and percentage of each pollen taxon in each year were calculated. The pollen sampling and lab process were followed the standard methods to ensure the authenticity and reliability of the data. The pollen data can provides insights into vegetation response to climate change and has significance for interpreting fossil pollen records.
The daily values of air temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation, radiation, water vapor pressure, etc. observed by the comprehensive observation and research station of the west wind belt of mostag.
This data set includes the daily average values of air temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, precipitation, total radiation, p2.5 concentration, short wave radiation, etc. observed by the comprehensive observation and research station of atmosphere and environment of Everest from 2017 to 2018.
This data set includes the daily average data of air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed, wind direction, net radiation, air pressure, etc. of Southeast Tibet station from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2018.
Lun LUO, Liping ZHU
1) The data set driven by the surface meteorological elements of the surface meteorological observation data product (2017-2018) of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau includes four elements: near surface temperature, surface precipitation rate, short wave radiation and long wave radiation. 2) The data set is based on the existing Princeton reanalysis data, GLDAS data, gewex-srb radiation data and TRMM Precipitation Data in the world as the background field, and integrates the conventional meteorological observation data of China Meteorological Administration, and is formed by spatial interpolation. 3) The data is TIFF format, the temporal resolution is daily value, and the spatial resolution is 0.1 °. 4) It is convenient for researchers and students who do not use such assimilation data in NC format. Based on the long-term observation data of each field station in the alpine network and overseas stations in the pan third polar region, a series of data sets of meteorological, hydrological and ecological elements in the pan third polar region are established; the inversion of data products such as meteorological elements, lake water quantity and quality, aboveground vegetation biomass, glacial and frozen soil changes are completed through enhanced observation and sample site verification in key regions; based on the IOT Network technology, the development and establishment of multi station network meteorological, hydrological, ecological data management platform, to achieve real-time access to network data and remote control and sharing.
ZHU Liping, PENG Ping
Near surface atmospheric forcing data were produced by using Wether Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the Heihe River Basin at hourly 0.05 * 0.05 DEG resolution, including the following variables: 2m temperature, surface pressure, water vapor mixing ratio, downward shortwave & upward longwave radiation, 10m wind field and the accumulated precipitation. The forcing data were validated by observational data collected by 15 daily Chinese Meteorological Bureau conventional automatic weather station (CMA), a few of Heihe River eco-hydrological process comprehensive remote sensing observation (WATER and HiWATER) site hourly observations were verified in different time scales, draws the following conclusion: 2m surface temperature, surface pressure and 2m relative humidity are more reliable, especially 2m surface temperature and surface pressure, the average errors are very small and the correlation coefficients are above 0.96; correlation between downward shortwave radiation and WATER site observation data is more than 0.9; The precipitation agreed well with observational data by being verified based on rain and snow precipitation two phases at yearly, monthly, daily time scales . the correlation coefficient between rainfall and the observation data at monthly and yearly time scales were up to 0.94 and 0.84; the correlation between snowfall and observation data at monthly scale reached 0.78, the spatial distribution of snowfall agreed well with the snow fractional coverage rate of MODIS remote sensing product. Verification of liquid and solid precipitation shows that WRF model can be used for downscaling analysis in complex and arid terrain of Heihe River Basin, and the simulated data can meet the requirements of watershed scale hydrological modeling and water resources balance. The data for 2000-2012 was provided in 2013. The data for 2013-2015 was updated in 2016. The data for 2016-2018 was updated in 2019.
This dataset includes the monthly minimum temperature data with 0.0083333 arc degree (~1km) for China from Jan 1901 to Dec 2017. The data form belongs to NETCDF, namely .nc file. The unit of the data is 0.1 ℃. The dataset was spatially downscaled from CRU TS v4.02 with WorldClim datasets based on Delta downscaling method. The dataset was evaluated by 496 national weather stations across China, and the evaluation indicated that the downscaled dataset is reliable for the investigations related to climate change across China. The dataset covers the main land area of China, including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions, and excluding islands and reefs in South China Sea.
The surface air temperature dataset of the Tibetan Plateau is obtained by downscaling the China regional surface meteorological feature dataset (CRSMFD). It contains the daily mean surface air temperature and 3-hourly instantaneous surface air temperature. This dataset has a spatial resolution of 0.01°. Its time range for surface air temperature dataset is from 1979 to 2018. Spatial dimension of data: 73°E-106°E, 23°N-40°N. The surface air temperature with a 0.01° can serve as an important input for the modeling of land surface processes, such as surface evapotranspiration estimation, agricultural monitoring, and climate change analysis.
DING Lirong, ZHOU Ji, WANG Wei
This dataset includes the monthly maximum temperature data with 0.0083333 arc degree (~1km) for China from Jan 1901 to Dec 2017. The data form belongs to NETCDF, namely .nc file. The unit of the data is 0.1 ℃. The dataset was spatially downscaled from CRU TS v4.02 with WorldClim datasets based on Delta downscaling method. The dataset was evaluated by 496 national weather stations across China, and the evaluation indicated that the downscaled dataset is reliable for the investigations related to climate change across China. The dataset covers the main land area of China, including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions, and excluding islands and reefs in South China Sea.
The field observation platform of the Tibetan Plateau is the forefront of scientific observation and research on the Tibetan Plateau. The land surface processes and environmental changes based comprehensive observation of the land-boundary layer in the Tibetan Plateau provides valuable data for the study of the mechanism of the land-atmosphere interaction on the Tibetan Plateau and its effects. This dataset integrates the 2005-2016 hourly atmospheric, soil hydrothermal and turbulent fluxes observations of Qomolangma Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS/CAS), Southeast Tibet Observation and Research Station for the Alpine Environment, CAS (SETORS), the BJ site of Nagqu Station of Plateau Climate and Environment, CAS (NPCE-BJ), Nam Co Monitoring and Research Station for Multisphere Interactions, CAS (NAMORS), Ngari Desert Observation and Research Station, CAS (NADORS), Muztagh Ata Westerly Observation and Research Station, CAS (MAWORS). It contains gradient observation data composed of multi-layer wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, air pressure and precipitation data, four-component radiation data, multi-layer soil temperature and humidity and soil heat flux data, and turbulence data composed of sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and carbon dioxide flux. These data can be widely used in the analysis of the characteristics of meteorological elements on the Tibetan Plaetau, the evaluation of remote sensing products and development of the remote sensing retrieval algorithms, and the evaluation and development of numerical models.
This data set is output from WRF model. The data include ‘LU_INDEX’ (land use category), ‘ZNU’(eta values on half (mass) levels), ‘ZNW’(eta values on full (w) levels)，’ZS’(depths of centers of soil layers), ‘DZS’ (thicknesses of soil layers), ‘VAR_SSO’ (variance of subgrid-scale orography), ‘U’(x-wind component), ‘V’(y-wind component),’W’(z-wind component),’T’(perturbation potential temperature (theta-t0)), ‘Q2’ ('QV at 2 M), ‘T2’ (TEMP at 2 M), ‘TH2’ ('POT TEMP at 2 M), ‘PSFC’ (SFC pressure), ‘U10’ (U at 10 M), ‘V10’ (V at 10 M), ‘QVAPOR’ (Water vapor mixing ratio), ‘QLOUD’ (Cloud water mixing ratio),’QRAIN’ (Rain water mixing ratio), ‘QICE’ (Ice mixing ratio), ‘QSNOW’ (Snow mixing ratio), ‘SHDMAX’ (annual max veg fraction), ‘SHDMIN’ (annual min veg fraction), ‘SNOALB’ (annual max snow albedo in fraction), ‘TSLB’ (soil temperature), ‘SMOIS’ (soil moisture), ‘GRDFLX’ (ground heat flux), ‘LAI’ (Leaf area index),’ HGT’ (Terrain Height), ‘TSK’ (surface skin temperature), ‘SWDOWN’ (downward short wave flux at ground surface), ‘GLW’ (downward long wave flux at ground surface), ‘HFX’ (upward heat flux at the surface), ‘QFX’ (upward moisture flux at the surface), ‘LH’ (latent heat flux at the surface), ‘SNOWC’ (flag indicating snow coverage (1 for snow cover)), and so on. The data is in netCDF format with a spatial resolution of 10 km.
1) Data content: including the central Asian region, the regional scope: 30°N ~ 60°N, 40°E ~ 90°E; 2) Data source: process the CMIP data set and use bilinear interpolation to interpolate the data of different resolution modes to 0.5°× 0.5°，CRU observation data from 1901 to 2014;; 3) Data quality: the time length is long, the data quality is good, and the missing values are marked by 999; 3) Prospect of data application achievement set: the data has been used to evaluate the simulation capability of temperature in central Asia, and the capability of climate system model to simulate historical climate change in central Asia has been evaluated through calculation and analysis of regional mean, relative error, root-mean-square error, Taylor diagram, EOF. 4) data reliability: by comparing and analyzing the annual changes of the observed and simulated data, the data results show a significant warming trend. By carrying out correlation test on the data results, they all pass the 99% reliability test.At the same time, CMIP plan data and CRU data are also common data sets, which are often used in many studies on climate change.
This data is conventional and satellite data of six hour resolution for the Great Lakes region of Central Asia. The conventional data include the observation of ground stations and sounding stations in the Great Lakes region of Central Asia and its surrounding areas (China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Russia, Iran, Pakistan, India, etc.), and the observation elements include temperature, pressure, wind speed and humidity, with the average number of stations in each time It is about 600, and the interval between stations is between 10-100km; the satellite data comes from the cloud guide wind retrieved by polar orbiting satellites (NOAA series and MetOp Series). All the data are from the global telecommunication system (GTS), and the observation data with poor quality are eliminated through quality control. The data can be applied to the data assimilation of the Great Lakes region in Central Asia, and also to the numerical simulation of the Great Lakes region in Central Asia.
The basic data source of this dataset is from the website of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). NOAA satellites are meteorological observation satellites. Provide meteorological environment information including temperature, precipitation, dew point, wind speed, etc. This dataset mainly covers key nodes in the Southeast Asia and Middle East regions. The main steps of data processing are as follows: firstly, the daily maximum temperature data is obtained by screening from a large number of basic meteorological data; the daily maximum temperature relative humidity relationship is integrated, and the daily relative humidity calculation is completed based on the dew point temperature data of the weather station. This data set provides basic information and a strong reference for evaluating the high temperature weather process in key node areas.
GE Yong, LIU Qingsheng
Meteorological data is a group of data reflecting the weather, which can be divided into climate data and weather data. This data set mainly includes the rainfall data and temperature data in the meteorological data (pre represents rainfall and T2 represents temperature in the data set). This data set is from the CRU (climate research unit) global grid data provided by the University of East Anglia in the UK (http://www.cgiar-csi.org/). Cru data set is obtained by interpolating the data of 365 observation stations in Central Asia, which has high accuracy in Central Asia. This data set uses CRU to obtain rainfall and temperature data of five Central Asian countries through ArcGIS batch cutting. Data format: GeoTIFF; spatial resolution: 0.5 °; time scale: Monthly Scale. The meteorological data is widely used and can be integrated with resources in different fields. It plays an important role in the development and construction of transportation, new energy, agriculture, mobile Internet software development and service, public management, smart city based on big data technology, smart transportation, smart food and other fields.
Climatic Research Unit CRU
The temporal resolution of temperature and radiation data in Central Asia is monthly scale, and the spatial resolution is 0.5 degree and 0.05 degree, respectively. The GCS_WGS_1984 projection coordinate system was used. Among them, the downward short wave radiation, air temperature and vapor pressure data of GLDAS, surface temperature / emissivity data of MOD11C3, surface albedo data of MCD43C3 and ASTER_GEDv4.1 are used for radiation data calculation; the temperature data was calculated by MOD06_ L2 cloud products and MOD07_ L2 atmospheric profile data was calculated. This data is based on the advanced remote sensing algorithm and makes full use of the current high-precision remote sensing data and products, which is different from the traditional climate model for the estimation of climate elements. The data can be used to analyze the spatial and temporal variation characteristics of water resources in Central Asia, analyze the supply-demand relationship of agricultural water resources and evaluate the development potential of water resources.
Jinxi SONG, Xiaohui JIANG
The site's daily and monthly statistical data sets are the key parameters reflecting the weather conditions of the site, and are the GSOM data. Meteorology plays an important role in the lithosphere, biosphere, soil circle and the atmosphere, providing a basis for assessing the regional contribution and response of climate factors to the world. This data set takes 34 key node regions of the pan third pole as the study area (Abbas, Astana, Bangkok, etc.),based on the site climate data from 2000 to 2016, the meteorological factors in different regions were counted, and the data series of meteorological observations in key nodes were obtained. The main parameters are: annual average maximum value, average minimum value and average temperature; monthly total precipitation and snowfall.
The land-sea thermal contrast is an important driver for monsoon interannual and interdecadal variability and the monsoon onset. The importance of the thermal contrast between the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the Indian Ocean (IO) in driving the establishment of Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) has been recognized. The South Asian Summer Monsoon (SASM) is primarily a tropical summer monsoon. As a direct dynamic response to the diabatic heating, the difference between upper and lower-layer winds can be closely linked to the strength of the heat source. The upper-layer thermal contrast is more important for the SASM (Sun et al., 2010; Sun and Ding，2011; Dai et al., 2013). Thermal contrast between the TP and the IO at the mid-upper troposphere is closely related to the onset and the variability of ISM. Considering that the temperature above the TP and IO are the two centers which are most sensitive to the change of ISM, a thermal contrast index (TCI) is proposed based on 500-200hPa air temperature: TCI = Nor[T(25°N-38°N, 65°E-95°E) - T(5°S-8°N, 65°E-95°E)] Where Nor represents standardization and T is 500-200hPa air temperature. The TCI is larger, and the ISM is stronger. The TCI can capture the interannual and interdecadal variability of ISM well. The cooperative thermal effect between TP and IO may contributes more to the ISM than the separately temperature of TP or IO. In addition, from the view of climate mean state, the pentad-by-pentad increment of TCI has a 15-pentad lead when the correlation coefficient between it and the ISM index reaches the maximum. And the correlation coefficient between the pentad-by-pentad increment of TCI and the ISM index is significant when the pentad-by-pentad increment of TCI has a 3-pentad lead. The result indicates the advantage of the TCI for prediction of the ISM. Meanwhile, the averaged pentad-by-pentad increment of TCI for the first 25 (TCI25) pentads may be a predictor of the early or late onset of the ISM. The ISM onset will be earlier when the TCI25 is larger.
LI Zhangqun, XIAO Ziniu, ZHAO Liang
In order to understand the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of temperature changes in the Northern Hemisphere, the study used CRU (Climatic Research Unit) grid data to calculate the spatial distribution of the average annual temperature of 30 years (1971-2000). The annual average temperature decreases with the latitude increasing, and varies from greater than 30 °C to less than -25 °C. In the regions of the same latitudes, the annual average temperature in high altitude areas (such as the Tibetan Plateau, the Mongolian Plateau, and the Western Siberian Mountains) presented the trend of low temperature. At the same time, the annual average temperature trend distribution map of the Northern Hemisphere with a resolution of 0.5 ° × 0.5 ° from 1901 to 2016 was completed.
Guoan Yin, Shi Yaya