The change of observation environment and instruments may affect the observation results, that is, the heterogeneity of climate observation data. Instrument replacement and station migration can bring about relatively large changes in observation results, which are relatively easy to detect and correct, and have been solved relatively well. However, the instrument sensitivity drift and the observation environment change slowly, so it is more difficult to detect and correct because of its relatively small amplitude, but its impact gradually accumulates, so it is more important to study the long-term change trend. A detection metho was proposed for gradual inhomogeneity of surface solar radiation, ground temperature, air temperature, wind speed, precipitation and other observation data in China, and realizes the inspection / correction of gradual inhomogeneity of these data. We use sunshine hours to calculate solar radiation, and perform homogenization and accuracy calibration to prepare high-quality solar radiation data sets; Using four times a day and hourly air temperature and ground temperature observations, a new data set of daily average land surface temperature and ground temperature is prepared; The geostrophic wind and reanalysis wind speed calculated from the atmospheric pressure observation are used to homogenize the wind speed observation; The observed precipitation is corrected by using the observed wind speed and precipitation type discrimination results. The surface solar radiation, ground temperature, air temperature and precipitation have been in the past 60 years, and the surface wind speed has been in 1972.
The annual emission data of conventional air pollutants (PM2.5, SO2, NH3, NOX) under different carbon neutralization technologies and air pollutant end treatment scenario combinations from 2017 to 2060, generated based on the computable general equilibrium model and the base year emission inventory, are used for the policy scenario analysis of the future coordinated treatment of carbon dioxide and air pollution in China. This data has been applied to the evaluation of the health synergy benefits of the carbon neutral technology path, as the data input of the health impact assessment model, to estimate the premature death, incidence rate and the resulting life expectancy loss, and to monetize these health impacts. The health common interests of monetization are compared with the corresponding emission reduction costs to explore the cost-effectiveness of different carbon neutral technology combinations.
WANG Can , ZHANG Shihui
Provide the spatial distribution of the annual emissions of BC, CH4, CO2, CO, NH3, NMVOC, NOx, OC and SO2 from agriculture, energy exploitation, industrial and fuel combustion, surface transportation, residential and commercial housing, solvent production, waste disposal and international shipping in China from 1990 to 2015, in kg/m2/yr. The spatial precision is 0.5 °, and the geographic coordinate system is WGS84. The data comes from the CEDs data set. The historical homogenized land use data of China is obtained by linear time interpolation, Chinese regional mask extraction and coordinate system transformation of the original data, and saved in geotiff file format. The methods and standards of data over the years are consistent, the coverage is complete, and the collection and processing process is traceable and reliable.
WANG Can , WANG Jiachen
Provide detailed spatial distribution of population data in China from 1990 to 2015 year by year. The data is 1km grid data, with population pop as the indicator. The grid data comprehensively considers multiple factors for weight distribution to realize the spatialization of population, which is convenient for data sharing and spatial statistical analysis. The data comes from the Resource and Environmental Science and Data Center of the Institute of Geographic Science and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The annual data is obtained by linear interpolation of the original data, and saved in geotiff file format. The methods and standards of data over the years are consistent, the coverage is complete, and the collection and processing process is traceable and reliable.
WANG Can , WANG Jiachen
Provide detailed spatial distribution of land cover types in China from 1990 to 2015, with spatial accuracy of 0.25 ° and geographic coordinate system of WGS84. Each grid shows the ratio of land use type to grid area (0-1). The data comes from the global land use spatial distribution map of the University of Maryland. The historical homogenized land use data of China is obtained by linear interpolation of the original data, extraction of Chinese regional mask and transformation of coordinate system, and saved in geotiff file format. The methods and standards of data over the years are consistent, the coverage is complete, and the collection and processing process is traceable and reliable. It has realized the homogenization of existing population data products, providing a basis for analyzing the laws of human elements, the interaction mechanism of human elements and natural elements.
WANG Can , WANG Jiachen
The data set includes the observation data of river water level and velocity at No. 6 point in the dense observation of runoff in the middle reaches of Heihe River from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014. The observation point is located in Gaoya National Hydrological Station, zhaojiatunzhuang, Ganzhou District, Zhangye City, Gansu Province. The riverbed is sandy gravel with stable section. The longitude and latitude of the observation point are n39 ° 08'06.35 ", E100 ° 25'58.23", 1420 m above sea level, and 50 m wide river channel. Hobo pressure water level gauge is used for water level observation, with acquisition frequency of 60 minutes. Data description includes the following two parts: Water level observation, 60 minutes in unit (cm) in 2014; Data covers the period of January 1, 2014 solstice December 31, 2014; Flow observation, unit (m3); According to the monitoring flow of different water levels, the flow curve of water levels was obtained, and the change process of runoff was obtained by observing the process of water levels.The missing data are uniformly represented by the string -6999. For information of hydrometeorological network or station, please refer to Li et al.(2013), and for observation data processing, please refer to He et al.(2016).
HE Xiaobo, LIU Shaomin, LI Xin, XU Ziwei
This data integrates a variety of current natural geographic map data, and combines land suitability evaluation, crop growth model, scenario analysis and other methods to generate China's biomass resources and energy technology potential on a 1km grid scale from 2015 to 2100, with a temporal resolution of 5 years and a spatial resolution of 1km. The data set includes 3 categories and 11 types of biomass resources (the residues include dry land agricultural residues, paddy field agricultural residues, forest residues, shrub residues, orchard residues and grassland residues, the wastes include livestock manure, MSW and COD, and the energy crops include sweet sorghum and switchgrass), fully covering the types of biomass that can be used as resources. The data format is raster data (. tiff), which can be opened using ArcGIS, R/Python and other programming languages. Biomass is a dependent resource for negative carbon technology in China's carbon neutral technology system in the future. The biomass data developed in this research has three advantages: wide coverage (nationwide), fine spatial resolution (1km grid), and wide time span (2015-2100). It can provide detailed quantitative data for China to formulate low-carbon emission reduction strategies and deploy biomass energy technology strategies.
CAI Wenjia , NIE Yaoyu , WANG Rui
Terrestrial actual evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential ecohydrological process linking the land surface energy, water and carbon cycles, and plays a critical role in the earth system. This global ET dataset is obtained based on ETMonitor model, which combines parameterizations for different processes and land cover types, with multi-source satellite data as input. Several open accessed remote sensing variables, e.g., LAI, FVC, albedo, surface soil moisture, dynamic surface water cover and snow/ice cover, were used as input to estimate daily ET. The meteorological variables from ERA5 reanalysis dataset were also adopted. The ETMonitor model is applied at daily scale to estimate the ET components at 1-km resolution, including vegetation transpiration, soil evaporation, canopy precipitation interception loss, water surface evaporation and snow/ice sublimation on daily step, and the total actual ET is estimated as the sum of these components. Overall, the actual ET estimated by ETMonitor agreed well with ground measurements from 251 flux towers across various ecosystems and climate zones globally, with high correlation (0.75), low bias (0.08mm/d), and low root mean square error (0.93 mm/d). The estimated ET showed reasonable spatial patterns, and superior in presenting the spatial variation of ET especially in the mountain regions and in the arid irrigated cropland regions. The ET estimation is conducted at daily temporal step and 1km spatial resolution. For easier publication, the daily/1-km ET from ETMonitor (https://doi.org//10.12237/casearth.6253cddc819aec49731a4bc2) was summed to obtain monthly ET in this dataset. The data type is 16-bit signed integer, the scale factor is 0.1, and the unit is mm/month. The missing values were filled by -1.
ZHENG Chaolei , JIA Li , HU Guangcheng
This dataset contains the annual variation of runoff from the major hydrological stations in the Yarlung Zangbo River (annual average runoff volume, annual extremum ratio, coefficient of variation, etc.). It can be used to study the hydrological characteristics of the Yarlung Zangbo River. The original data are the national hydrological station data, and the quality requirements are the same as the national standards. Spatial Coverage: 4 hydrological stations in the main streams of the Yarlung Zangbo River basin, which are Lazi, Nugesha, Yangcun and Nuxia. This data sheet has five fields. Field 1: Station Name Field 2: Annual average runoff volume Field 3: Annual Extreme Ratio Field 4: Coefficient of variation Field 5: Data Series Length
Solar global and direct radiation are measured by radiation sensors (Model TBQ-4-1, TBS-2, China), and temperature and humidity are measured by a HOBO weather station (Model H21, onset company, USA). This dataset is solar radiation and meteorological variables, including solar globla and direct radiation in the wavelength range of 270-3200nm, unit: w/m2. The units of temperature, humidity and water vapor pressure are ℃, %, hPa, respectively. The dataset of solar radiation and meteorological elements come from the measurements of data providers. Data coverage time is 2013-2016. The data set can be used to study the solar radiation and its change mechanism in a subtropical region, China.
Meteorological forcing dataset for Arctic River Basins includes five elements: daily maximum, minimum and average temperature, daily precipitation and daily average wind speed. The data is in NetCDF format with a horizontal spatial resolution of 0.083°, covering Yenisy, Lena, ob, Yukon and Mackenzie catchments. The data can be used to dirve hydrolodical model (VIC model) for hydrological process simulation of the Arctic River Basins. The further quality control were made for daily observation data from Global Historical Climatology Network Daily database(GHCN-D), Global Summary of the Day (GSPD),The U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN),Adjusted and homogenized Canadian climate data (AHCCD) and USSR / Russia climate data set (USSR / Russia). The thin plate spline interpolating method, which similar to the method used in PNWNAmet datasets (Werner et al., 2019), was employed to interpolate daily station data to 5min spatial resolution daily gridded forcing data using WorldClim and ClimateNA monthly climate normal data as a predictor.
ZHAO Qiudong, WU Yuwei
Long term surface soil moisture (SSM) data with stable and consistent quality are critical for global environment and climate change monitoring. L band radiometers onboard the recently lunched Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission can provide the state-of-the-art accuracy SSM, but the short temporal coverage of the data records has limited its applications in long-term studies. While Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) and AMSR2 series provide long term observational records of multi-frequency radiometers (C, X, and K bands). This dataset contains 20 years (2002-2022) global spatio-temporal consistent surface soil moisture. The resolution is 36 km at daily scale, the projection is EASE-Grid2, and the data unit is m3 / m3. This dataset adopts the soil moisture neural network retrieval algorithm developed by Yao et al. (2017). This study transfers the merits of SMAP to AMSR-E/2 through using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in which SMAP standard SSM products serve as training targets with AMSR-E/2 brightness temperature (TB) as input. Finally, long term soil moisture data are output. This dataset can reproduce the spatial and temporal distribution of SMAP soil moisture, with comparable accuracy as SMAP soil moisture product. This dataset also compares well with in situ SSM observations at 14 dense validation networks globally, with accuracy of 5% volumetric water content, and outperforms AMSR-E/2 standard SSM products from JAXA and LPRM. This global observation-driven dataset spans nearly two decades at present, and is extendable though the ongoing AMSR2 and upcoming AMSR3 missions for long-term studies of climate extremes, trends, and decadal variability.
YAO Panpan, LU Hui
This data set includes 2002/04-2019/12 Greenland ice sheet mass changes derived from satellite gravimetry measurements. The satellite gravimetry data come from the joint NASA/DLR Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment mission twin satellites (GRACE, 2002/04 to 2017/06) and its successor, GRACE Follow-On (GRACE-FO, 2018/06 to present). In order to fill the data gap between GRACE and GRACE-FO, we further utilize gravity field solutions derived from high-low GNSS tracking data of ESA's Swarm 3-satellite constellation whose primary scientific objective is geomagnetic surveying. The data set is provided in Matlab data format, the ice sheet mass changes are transformed to equivalent water height in meters, expressed on 0.25°x0.25° grid with monthly temporal resolution. This data set can be used to study the characteristics of Greenland ice sheet mass changes in recent two decades and their relation with the global climate change.
Based on GRACE Level-1b satellite gravity data, a time series of mass change over Greenland for the period 2002 to 2016, with a spatial resolution of 1 degree × 1 degree and a time resolution of one month was developed by the satellite gravity team led by Professor Shen Yunzhong from Tongji University. The reference time of this time series is the mean time span between January 2004 and December 2009. During data processing, ICE5G model was used to reduce the effect of GIA, and the contribution of GAD was added back by using AOD1B RL06 from GFZ
From 1982 to 2015, the NDVI change data sets of different types of permafrost regions in the northern hemisphere have a temporal resolution of once every five years, covering the entire Arctic countries with a spatial resolution of 8km. Based on multi-source remote sensing, simulation, statistics and measured data, the regulation and service functions of Permafrost on Ecosystem in the northern hemisphere are quantified by using GIS and ecological methods, All the data are under quality control.
In recent years, the Antarctic Ice Sheet experiences substantial surface melt, and a large amount of meltwater formed on the ice surface. Observing the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of surface meltwater is a crucial task for understanding mass balance across the Antarctic Ice Sheet. This dataset provides a 30 m surface meltwater coverage, extracted from Landsat images, in the typical ablation zone of the ice sheet (Alexandria Island, Antarctic Peninsula) from 2000 to 2019. The projection of this dataset is South Polar Stereographic. The formats of the dataset are vector (.shp) and raster (.tif).
Data content: national economy_ Industrial value added (monthly) (2010-2019) Data source and processing method: the original industrial economic data of China (including the third pole) from the official website of the world bank and sina.com from 2010 to 2019 are obtained through data sorting, screening and cleaning. The data start time is from 2010 to 2019 in Microsoft Excel (xlsx) format.
Data content: Foreign Economic and trade_ Total import and export of goods (1952-2019) and foreign economic and trade_ Total import and export by trade (1981-2019) Data sources and processing methods: the original data of China's foreign trade and investment from 2015 to 2019 (including the third pole) were obtained from the official website of the world bank and sina.com, and the foreign trade and investment data set of China (including the third pole) from 1952 to 2019 was obtained through data sorting, screening and cleaning. The data start time is from 1952 to 2019 in Microsoft Excel (xlsx) format.
Data content: annual GDP statistics (1990-2019), quarterly cumulative GDP statistics (1990-2019) and GDP (2010-2019) Data sources and processing methods: the original macroeconomic data of China (including the third pole) from the official website of the world bank and sina.com from 1990 to 2019 are obtained through data sorting, screening and cleaning. The data are stored in Microsoft Excel (xlsx) format.
In recent years, the melting of the Antarctic ice sheet has accelerated, and a large amount of surface melt water has appeared on the surface of the Antarctic ice sheet. Understandings of the spatial distribution and dynamics of surface melt water on the Antarctic ice sheet is of great significance for the study of the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet. This dataset is 2000-2020 surface melt water dataset of Antarctica Ice Sheet typical melting area (Prydz bay) based on 10-30m Landsat-7, 8 and Sentinel-2 images. The projections are polar azimuthal projections in vector format (ESRI Shapefile) and raster format (GeoTIFF) and the time is Southern Hemisphere summer (December-to-February).