This data set contains soil texture data of typical soil samples in Heihe River Basin from July 2012 to August 2013. The collection method of typical soil sample points in Heihe River Basin is representative sampling, which means that the typical soil types in the landscape area can be collected, and the representative sample points should be collected as much as possible. According to the soil system classification of China, soil samples of each profile are taken based on the diagnostic layer and diagnostic characteristics.
Xiaodong Song Ganlin Zhang
Agricultural irrigation, which accounts for about 80% of human water consumption, is the most important part of human water resources management and closely related to human survival and development.Irrigation is also an important part of the water cycle. Large-scale irrigation can affect the water cycle and even the local climate by affecting evapotranspiration.Excessive diversion of irrigation water will lead to unsustainable utilization of water resources, and at the same time, will reduce river flow and aquifer water reserves, thus harming the ecological environment. Therefore, determining the spatial and temporal distribution and variation of irrigation is critical to studying past human water use, the impact of irrigation on ecological and hydrological processes, the environment and climate, and the development of future irrigation plans. By integrating the irrigation amount of channel diversion water and irrigation amount of groundwater intake from different data sources, and combining the evapotranspiration data of land surface model CLM4.5 simulation and remote sensing inversion, a set of spatio-temporal continuous surface water and groundwater irrigation amount data set with spatial resolution of 30 arcseconds (0.0083 degrees) on the scale of 1981-2013 in heihe river basin was made. It has been verified that this data set has a high reliability from 2000 to 2013, and a lower reliability from 1981 to 1999 than from 2000 to 2013 due to the absence of remote sensing data and the absence of soil utilization changes. The document is described as follows: Monthly surfacewater irrigation volume file name: monthly_surfacewater_irrigation gation_1981-2013.nc Monthly groundwater_irrigation gation_1981-2013.nc The data is in netcdf format.There are three dimensions, which are month, lat, and lon. Where, month is a month, and the value is 0-395, representing each month from 1981 to 2013. Lat is grid latitude information, and lon is grid longitude information.
This set of data is the simulation result of the newly developed land eco-hydrological model CLM_LTF.This model is on top of the land-surface process model CLM4.5 developed by NCAR, coupling the groundwater lateral flow module and considering the role of human irrigation. The model runs from 1981 to 2013, with a spatial resolution of 30 arc seconds (0.0083 degrees), a time step of 1,800 seconds, and a simulation range of the heihe river basin.Air force in 1981-2012 is used by the Chinese academy of sciences institute of the qinghai-tibet plateau of qinghai-tibet plateau more layers of data assimilation and simulation center development areas of China high space-time resolution ground meteorological elements drive data set, air is forced to use 2013 national meteorological information center of wind pressure high resolution made by the wet precipitation temperature radiation data set.The land cover data is a 1km land cover grid data set for the MICLCover heihe river basin, and the irrigation data is shown in "monthly 30-arcsecond resolution surface water and groundwater irrigation data set for the heihe river basin 1981-2013" of the scientific data center for cold and dry regions.The mode output is the monthly average. The document is described as follows: Groundwater depth data: heihe_zwt.nc 2cm soil moisture data: heihe_h2osoi_2cm. nc 100cm soil moisture data: heihe_h2osoi_100cm.nc Evaporation data: Heihe_evaptanspiration. Nc The data is in netcdf format.There are three dimensions, which are month, lat, and lon. Where, month is a month, and the value is 0-395, representing each month from 1981 to 2013. Lat is grid latitude information, and lon is grid longitude information. The data is stored in the data variable. The underground water depth data is in m, the soil moisture data is in m^3/m^3, and the evapotranspiration data is in mm/month
This dataset is the spatial distribution map of the marshes in the source area of the Yellow River near the Zaling Lake-Eling Lake, covering an area of about 21,000 square kilometers. The data set is classified by the Landsat 8 image through an expert decision tree and corrected by manual visual interpretation. The spatial resolution of the image is 30m, using the WGS 1984 UTM projected coordinate system, and the data format is grid format. The image is divided into five types of land, the land type 1 is “water body”, the land type 2 is “high-cover vegetation”, the land type 3 is “naked land”, and the land type 4 is “low-cover vegetation”, and the land type 5 is For "marsh", low-coverage vegetation and high-coverage vegetation are distinguished by vegetation coverage. The threshold is 0.1 to 0.4 for low-cover vegetation and 0.4 to 1 for high-cover vegetation.
DAI Liyun Xiaodong Huang
A high-resolution remote sensing image mosaic of the entire Antarctic was generated by synthesizing the 1073 images taken by American Landsat 7 during 1999 to 2003 and the medium-resolution MODIS image (taken in 2005) covering south of 82.5°southern latitude. Based on the mosaic, combined with the needs of Antarctic scientific research, Antarctica land cover was divided into six types using the combination method of computer automatic interpretation and artificial assistance. They were blue ice, fissures, bare rocks, water bodies, moraines and firns, and the areas and proportions of the above types were 225,207.29 square kilometers (1.651%), 7153.36 square kilometers (0.052%), 72,958.04 square kilometers (0.535%), 189.43 square kilometers (0.001%), 310.76 square kilometers (0.003%), and 13337392.66 square kilometers (97.758%), respectively. The map is a satellite image map of approximate true color synthesis, and the regions of various cover types are represented by different color blocks. The map mainly provides a reference for popular scientific research, geography education and science popularization.
1 High resolution gridded West Antarctic surface mass balance dataset, its project is Polar Stereographic Projection 2. The kriging like interpolation method is used to reconstruct the high‐spatial resolution surface mass balance (SMB) over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) from 1800 to 2010, based on ice core records, the outputs of the European Centre for Medium‐Range Weather Forecasts “Interim” reanalysis (ERA‐Interim) as well as the latest polar version of the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO2.3p2). 3. Its accuracy is higher than reanalysis data. 4. Temporal resolution: 1800-2010; Temporal resolution: 1 year; Spatial coverage : the whole West Antarctic Ice Sheet, Spatial resolution: 25km х 25km
The contents of this data set are as follows: Ⅰ. Document (specific documents in the data set) Ⅱ. Fgmodel (model data) Ⅲ. Grid DEM, Hillshade (the digital elevation model and hillshade data) Ⅳ. Map (thumbnail) V. Meteoro (meteorological data) 1. Snowdpt (snow depth): (1) Data source: snow depth observation data and passive microwave data; (2) Attribute fields: geocoding, weather station number, weather station name, and cartographic symbols; (3) Main content: snow depth 2. Precitpt (precipitation): (1) Data source: Tibetan Plateau precipitation data; (2) Attribute fields: geocoding, weather station number, weather station name, and cartographic symbols; (3) Monthly average precipitation 3. Temprt (temperature): (1) Data source: Tibetan Plateau temperature data; (2) Attribute fields: geocoding, weather station number, weather station name, and cartographic symbols; (3) Monthly average temperature VI. QZHIGHW (Qinghai-Tibet Highway Data) Ⅶ. Vector two folders: Albers and Geo 1. frozengd (frozen soil type map): (1) Data source: Map of Snow, Ice, and Frozen Ground in China (1: 4000000), Map of Permafrost on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (1:3000000); (2) Attribute fields: geocoding, zone name, annual average ground temperature (°C), permafrost thickness (m), and cartographic symbols; (3) Description of major geographical elements: permafrost and seasonally frozen soil 2. hydrogeo (hydrogeological map): (1) Data source: Geologic Map of China (1: 4000000); (2) Attribute fields: geocoding, hydrogeological classification, hydrogeological subcategories, and cartographic symbols; (3) Major geographical elements: hydrogeological phenomena 3. quadgeo (Quaternary geological map): (1) Data source: Quaternary geological Map of China (1:2500000); (2) Attribute fields: geocoding, sedimentary facies, geological time, sedimentary type, and cartographic symbols; (3) Major geographic elements: Quaternary geological type 4. lake (lake map): (1) Data source: Topographic Map of the Tibetan Plateau (1:4000000); (2) Attribute fields: geocoding, category, and cartographic symbols; (3) Major geographic elements: lake distribution 5. stream (drainage map): (1) Data source: Topographic Map of the Tibetan Plateau (1:4000000); (2) Major geographic elements: river distribution 6. vegetat (vegetation data): (1) Data source: Vegetation Map of China (1:4000000); (2) Attribute fields: geocoding, main category, subcategory, minor subcategory, and cartographic symbols; (3) Major geographical description: vegetation type 7. formap (frozen soil type map) 8. Quatgla (ancient glaciers) 9. station (weather station): (1) Data source: Tibetan Plateau meteorological station coordinate data; (2) Spatial distribution of meteorological stations Ⅷ. borehole (borehole drilling data) Code Description Drilling position Drilling histogram name 211122001 Drilling 1 mileage 1041KM+200M z1 211122002 Drilling 2 mileage 1041KM+800M z2 Data projection: Projection: Albers False_Easting: 0.000000 False_Northing: 0.000000 Central_Meridian: 90.000000 Standard_Parallel_1: 27.30.000000 Standard_Parallel_2: 37.30.000000 Latitude_Of_Origin: 0.000000 Linear Unit: Metre (1.000000) Please refer to the documentation for detailed data properties.
The dataset is a 30-minute eddy covariance flux observation data from nine flux stations in the Three Poles, including the data of ecosystem Net Carbon Exchange (NEE), Gross Primary Productivity(GPP), and Ecosystem Respiration (ER) . The time coverage of the data is from 2000 to 2016. The main steps of data pre-processing include outlier removal (±3σ), coordinate axis rotation(three-dimensional wind rotation), Webb-Pearman-Leuning correction, outlier elimination, carbon flux interpolation and decomposition. And missing data is interpolated by the nonlinear empirical formula between CO2 flux value(Fc) and environmental factors.
NIU Ben ZHANG Yangjian FLUXNET
At present, based on the proposed SAR ice sheet freeze-thaw detection algorithm using change detection and decision tree algorithm, the monthly average ice sheet freeze-thaw is detected using sentinel-1 EW SAR data. At the same time, using the developed production module of freeze-thaw products based on big data platform, the international first production of Antarctic ice sheet and Greenland ice sheet freeze-thaw products. Through the development of automatic weather station temperature data, the ice sheet freeze-thaw detection accuracy reaches 90%. At present, the acquisition time of data products is mainly the summer of the north and south poles, among which the Antarctic ice sheet products are January, February, March, October, November, December and Greenland products are may, June, July, August, September and October.
River lake ice phenology is sensitive to climate change and is an important indicator of climate change. 308 excel file names correspond to Lake numbers. Each excel file contains six columns, including daily ice coverage information of corresponding lakes from July 2002 to June 2018. The attributes of each column are: date, lake water coverage, lake water ice coverage, cloud coverage, lake water coverage and lake ice coverage after cloud treatment. Generally, the ice cover area ratio of 0.1 and 0.9 is used as the basis to distinguish the lake ice phenology. The excel file contained in the data set can further obtain four lake ice phenological parameters: Fus, fue, bus, bue, and 92 lakes. Two parameters, Fus and bue, can be obtained.
The coverage time of microwave radiometer ice sheet freeze-thaw data set is updated to 2016-2019, with a spatial resolution of 25 km; the remote sensing inversion method based on microwave radiometer adopts the improved wavelet based ice sheet freeze-thaw detection algorithm, which takes into account the change of ice sheet freeze-thaw brightness temperature characteristics in time. First, the long-time brightness temperature data of all ice sheet areas in Greenland is small by using wavelet transform. The multi-scale decomposition of wave is used to analyze the edge information at different scales. Thirdly, the edge information of ice sheet melting and refreezing is separated from the noise by ANOVA. Based on the extracted edge information of long-term brightness and temperature change of ice sheet, the optimal edge threshold of dry snow and wet snow classification is determined by using the generalized Gaussian model, so as to detect the melting area of Greenland ice sheet. Finally, based on the principle of space automatic error correction, the error results caused by noise are detected by using the space neighborhood error correction operator, and the error is corrected manually. The brightness and temperature data of passive microwave in long time series come from SMMR, SSM / I and SSMI / s sensors. To ensure simultaneous interpreting of the brightness temperature of different sensors, simultaneous interpreting of different sensor brightness temperatures is made before freezing and thawing. Through the verification of the actual measurement site, it shows that the detection accuracy of Greenland ice sheet freeze-thaw is more than 70%.
The microwave radiometer data set comprises brightness temperature data from SMMR (1978-1987), SSM/I (1987-2009) and SSMIS (2009-2015), with temporal coverage from 1978 to 2015 and a spatial resolution of 25 km. Each Antarctic data file consists of 316*332 grids, and each Arctic freeze-thaw data file consists of 304*448 grids. The microwave scatterometer data set comprises backscattering data from QScat (2000-2009) and ASCAT (2009-2015), with a temporal coverage from 2000 to 2015 and a spatial resolution of 4.45 km. Each Antarctic data file consists of 1940*1940 grids, and each Arctic data file consists of 810*680 grids. The temporal resolution of the data set is one day, and the data cover both Antarctica and Arctic ice sheets.
Liang Lei Li Xinwu
The data set of prokaryotic microorganism distribution in the snow and ice of the Arctic Antarctic and the Tibetan Plateau provides the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence collected by the experimental group led by Yongqin Liu from the NCBI database during 2010 to 2018. The keywords for NCBI database search are Antarctic, Arctic Tibetan, and Glacier. The collected sequences were calculated using the DOTOUR software to obtain the similarities between sequences, the sequences with similarities above 97% were clustered into one OTU, and the OTU representative sequence was defined. The OTU representative sequence was compared with the RDP database by the "Classifier" software and was identified as level one when the reliability exceeded 80%. After acquiring the sequence, the GPS coordinates of the sample were obtained by reading the sample information in the sequence file. These data contain the sequence of 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments for each sequence, evolutionary classification, and sample GPS coordinates. Compared with sequences based on high-throughput sequencing, these data have a longer sequence and more accurate classification. It is significant for comparing the evolutionary information of three-pole microorganisms and understanding the evolution of psychrophilic microorganisms.
Because of its unique natural conditions and geographical location, the Arctic region plays a very important role in global change. Polar sea ice, as an important influencing factor of climate change, is a sensitive instrument of global climate change. The Yellow River Station, one of China's research stations in the Arctic, focuses on supporting the three scientific fields of global change and its regional response, the polar space environment and space climate, and the life characteristics and processes in the polar environment, providing an important platform for China's in-depth scientific research activities in the Arctic. Therefore, the product data set of data validation for key areas of Arctic sea ice in recent years is constructed to monitor the key areas of Arctic sea ice.
Chen Fu Qiu Yubao
The daily values of air temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation, radiation, water vapor pressure, etc. observed by the comprehensive observation and research station of the west wind belt of mostag.
The variation in the duration of snow on the Tibetan Plateau is relatively great, and the high mountainous areas around the plateau are rich in snow and ice resources. Taking full account of the terrain of the Tibetan Plateau and the snow characteristics in the mountains, the data set adopted AVHRR data to gradually realize generating data products for daily, ten-day, and monthly snow cover areas while maintaining the snow classification accuracy. These data included the daily/10-day/monthly snow cover area data for the Tibetan Plateau from 2007 to 2015, the average accuracy of which is 0.92. It can provide reliable data for snow changes during the historical periods of the Tibetan Plateau.
Wildfires can strongly affect the frozen soil environment by burning surface vegetation and soil organic matter. Vegetation affected by fire can take many years to return to mature pre-fire levels. In this data set, the effects of fires on vegetation regrowth in a frozen-ground tundra environment in the Anaktuvuk River Basin on the North Slope of Alaska were studied by quantifying changes in C-band and L-band SAR backscatter data over 15 years (2002-2017). After the fire, the C- and L-band backscattering coefficients increased by 5.5 and 4.4 dB, respectively, in the severe fire area compared to the unburned area. Five years after the fire, the difference in C-band backscattering between the fire zone and the unburned zone decreased, indicating that the post-fire vegetation level had recovered to the level of the unburned zone. This long recovery time is longer than the 3-year recovery estimated from visible wavelength-based NDVI observations. In addition, after 10 years of vegetation recovery, the backscattering of the L-band in the severe fire zone remains approximately 2 dB higher than that of the unburned zone. This continued difference may be caused by an increase in surface roughness. Our analysis shows that long-term SAR backscattering data sets can quantify vegetation recovery after fire in an Arctic tundra environment and can also be used to supplement visible-wavelength observations. The temporal coverage of the backscattering data is from 2002 to 2017, with a time resolution of one month, and the data cover the Anaktuvuk River area on the North Slope of Alaska. The spatial resolution is 30~100 m, the C- and L-band data are separated, and a GeoTIFF file is stored every month. For details on the data, see SAR Backscattering Data of the Anaktuvuk River Basin on the North Slope of Alaska - Data Description.
From 1000 AD to the present, the concentration of methane in the atmosphere has increased significantly in the ice cores of the Antarctic and Arctic. These data came from the Tasmanian laboratory of Australia, where the high resolution data were obtained by using wet extraction of ice core samples, and the same measurement and calibration procedures were applied to all samples. The results are consistent with the results of internationally renowned ice core greenhouse gas laboratories such as the University of Bern, the University of Copenhagen and the University of Ohio. The physical meaning of each variable: First column: time; second column: methane concentration value
Using the Modis1B data of 11 scenes from 2003 to 2013 (the ice shelf Modis1B data published on the NSIDC website), the surface velocity of the Antarctic Amery Ice Shelf was extracted by the subpixel cross-correlation method, the ice velocity was extracted by the COSI-Corr software, and then the time sequence of annual average velocities for nearly ten years was obtained. Due to the lack of field observations in the study area, the accuracy of the ice flow results was estimated by using the offset value of the stable region, and the ice flow error was approximately ±50 m/year. The ice velocity data date from 2003 to 2013, the temporal resolution is one year, and the data cover the Amery area with a spatial resolution of 500 m. A GeoTIFF file of velocity data is stored every year. For details regarding the data, please refer to the Amery Ice Flow Field - Data Description.