The surface elevation of the ice sheet is very sensitive to climate change, so the elevation change of the ice sheet is considered as an important variable to evaluate climate change. The time series of long-term ice sheet surface elevation change has become a fundamental data for understanding climate change. The longest time series of ice sheet surface elevation can be established by combining the observation records of radar satellite altimetry missions. However, the previous methods for correcting the intermission bias still have error residue when cross-calibrating different missions. Therefore，we modify the commonly used plane-fitting least-squares regression model by restricting the correction of intermission bias and the ascending–descending bias at the same time to ensure the self-consistency and coherence of surface elevation time series across different missions. Based on this method, we use Envisat and CryoSat-2 data to construct the time series of Antarctic ice sheet elevation change from 2002 to 2019. The time series is the monthly grid data, and the spatial grid resolution is 5 km×5 km. Using airborne and satellite laser altimetry data to evaluate the results, it is found that compared with the traditional method, this method can improve the accuracy of intermission bias correction by 40%. Using the merged elevation time series, combining with firn densification-modeled volume changes due to surface processes, we find that ice dynamic processes make the ice sheet along the Amundsen Sea sector the largest volume loss of the Antarctic ice sheet. The surface processes dominate the volume changes in Totten Glacier sector, Dronning Maud Land, Princess Elizabeth Land, and the Bellingshausen Sea sector. Overall, accelerated volume loss in the West Antarctic continues to outpace the gains observed in the East Antarctic. The total volume change during 2002–2019 for the AIS was −68.7 ± 8.1 km3/y, with an acceleration of −5.5 ± 0.9 km3/y2.
ZHANG Baojun, WANG Zemin, YANG Quanming, LIU Jingbin, AN Jiachun, LI Fei, GENG Hong
This biophysical permafrost zonation map was produced using a rule-based GIS model that integrated a new permafrost extent, climate conditions, vegetation structure, soil and topographic conditions, as well as a yedoma map. Different from the previous maps, permafrost in this map is classified into five types: climate-driven, climate-driven/ecosystem-modified, climate-driven/ecosystem protected, ecosystem-driven, and ecosystem-protected. Excluding glaciers and lakes, the areas of these five types in the Northern Hemisphere are 3.66×106 km2, 8.06×106 km2, 0.62×106 km2, 5.79×106 km2, and 1.63×106 km2, respectively. 81% of the permafrost regions in the Northern Hemisphere are modified, driven, or protected by ecosystems, indicating the dominant role of ecosystems in permafrost stability in the Northern Hemisphere. Permafrost driven solely by climate occupies 19% of permafrost regions, mainly in High Arctic and high mountains areas, such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
RAN Youhua, M. Torre Jorgenson, LI Xin, JIN Huijun, WU Tonghua, Li Ren, CHENG Guodong
Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the important parameters of the interface between the earth's surface and atmosphere. It is not only the direct reflection of the interaction between the surface and the atmosphere, but also has a complex feedback effect on the earth atmosphere process. Therefore, land surface temperature is not only a sensitive indicator of climate change and an important prerequisite for mastering the law of climate change, but also a direct input parameter of many models, which has been widely used in many fields, such as meteorology, climate, environmental ecology, hydrology and so on. With the deepening and refinement of Geosciences and related fields, there is an urgent need for all weather LST based on satellite remote sensing. The generation principle of this dataset is a satellite thermal infrared remote sensing reanalysis data integration method based on a new land surface temperature time decomposition model. The main input data of the method are Aqua MODIS LST products and GLDAS data, and the auxiliary data include vegetation index and surface albedo provided by satellite remote sensing. The method makes full use of the high-frequency and low-frequency components of land surface temperature and the spatial correlation of land surface temperature provided by satellite thermal infrared remote sensing and reanalysis data, and finally reconstructs a high-quality all-weather land surface temperature data set. The evaluation results show that this data set has good image quality and accuracy, which is not only seamless in space, but also highly consistent with the amplitude and spatial distribution of 1 km daily Aqua MODIS LST products widely used in current academic circles. When MODIS LST is used as reference, the mean deviation (MBE) of the data set is 0.08k to 0.16k, and the standard deviation of deviation (STD) is 1.12k to 1.46k. Compared with the daily 1km AATSR LST product released by ESA, the MBE and STD of the product are -0.21k to 0.25k and 1.27k to 1.36k during the day and night. Based on the measured data of 15 stations in Heihe River Basin, Northeast China, North China and South China, the test results show that the MBE is -0.06k to -1.17k, and the RMSE is 1.52k to 3.71k, and there is no significant difference between clear sky and non clear sky. The time resolution of this data set is twice a day, the spatial resolution is 1km, and the time span is from 2000 to 2020; The spatial scope includes the main areas of China's land (including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, excluding the islands in the South China Sea) and the surrounding areas (72 ° E-135 ° E，19 ° N-55 ° N）。 This dataset is abbreviated as trims LST (thermal and reality integrating modem resolution spatial sealing LST) for users to use. It should be noted that the spatial subset of trims LST, trims lst-tp (1 km daily land surface temperature data set in Western China, trims lst-tp; 2000-2020) V2) has also been released in the national Qinghai Tibet Plateau scientific data center to reduce the workload of data download and processing for relevant users.
ZHANG Xiaodong, ZHOU Ji, TANG Wenbin, DING Lirong, MA Jin, ZHANG Xu
This dataset includes the Antarctica ice sheet mass balance estimated from satellite gravimetry data, April 2002 to December 2019. The satellite measured gravity data mainly come from the joint NASA/DLR mission, Gravity Recovery And Climate Exepriment (GRACE, April 2002 to June 2017), and its successor, GRACE-FO (June 2018 till present). Considering the ~1-year data gap between GRACE and GRACE-FO, we extra include gravity data estimated from GPS tracking data of ESA's Swarm 3-satellite constellation. The GRACE data used in this study are weighted mean of CSR, GFZ, JPL and OSU produced solutions. The post-processing includes: replacing GRACE degree-1, C20 and C30 spherical harmonic coefficients with SLR estimates, destriping filtering, 300-km Gaussian smoothing, GIA correction using ICE6-G_D (VM5a) model, leakage reduction using forward modeling method and ellipsoidal correction.
Yu Zhang, Shum C.K.
Snow pits were observed daily at Altay base station（lon：88.07、lat: 44.73） from November 27, 2015 to March 26, 2016. Parameters include: snow stratification, stratification thickness, density, particle size, temperature. The frequency of observation was daily. The particle size was observed by a microscope with camera, the density was observed by snowfork, snow shovel and Snow Cone, and the temperature was automatically observed by temperature sensor. The observation time was 8:00-10:100 am local time. The snow particle size is observed according to the natural stratification of snow. The snow particles of each layer are collected, and at least 2 photos are taken. The long axis and short axis of at least 10 groups of particles are measured by corresponding software. Unit: mm. The density was observed at equal intervals, snowfork every 5 cm, snow shovel every 10 cm, snow cone to observe the density of the whole snow layer, and the density of each layer was observed three times. The unit is g / cm3. The height of temperature observation is 0cm, 5cm, 10cm, 15cm, 25cm, 35cm, 45cm, 55cm. The recording frequency was once every 1 minute. The unit is OC.
Snow is a significant component of the ecosystem and water resources in high-mountain Asia (HMA). Therefore, accurate, continuous, and long-term snow monitoring is indispensable for the water resources management and economic development. The present study improves the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Terra and Aqua satellites 8 d (“d” denotes “day”) composite snow cover Collection 6 (C6) products, named MOD10A2.006 (Terra) and MYD10A2.006 (Aqua), for HMA with a multistep approach. The primary purpose of this study was to reduce uncertainty in the Terra–Aqua MODIS snow cover products and generate a combined snow cover product. For reducing underestimation mainly caused by cloud cover, we used seasonal, temporal, and spatial filters. For reducing overestimation caused by MODIS sensors, we combined Terra and Aqua MODIS snow cover products, considering snow only if a pixel represents snow in both the products; otherwise it is classified as no snow, unlike some previous studies which consider snow if any of the Terra or Aqua product identifies snow. Our methodology generates a new product which removes a significant amount of uncertainty in Terra and Aqua MODIS 8 d composite C6 products comprising 46 % overestimation and 3.66 % underestimation, mainly caused by sensor limitations and cloud cover, respectively. The results were validated using Landsat 8 data, both for winter and summer at 20 well-distributed sites in the study area. Our validated adopted methodology improved accuracy by 10 % on average, compared to Landsat data. The final product covers the period from 2002 to 2018, comprising a combination of snow and glaciers created by merging Randolph Glacier Inventory version 6.0 (RGI 6.0) separated as debris-covered and debris-free with the final snow product MOYDGL06*. We have processed approximately 746 images of both Terra and Aqua MODIS snow containing approximately 100 000 satellite individual images. Furthermore, this product can serve as a valuable input dataset for hydrological and glaciological modelling to assess the melt contribution of snow-covered areas. The data, which can be used in various climatological and water-related studies, are available for end users at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.901821 (Muhammad and Thapa, 2019).
This data set uses SMMR (1979-1987), SSM / I (1987-2009) and ssmis (2009-2015) daily brightness temperature data, which is generated by double index (TB V, SG) freeze-thaw discrimination algorithm. The classification results include four types: frozen surface, melted surface, desert and water body. The data covers the source area of three rivers, with a spatial resolution of 25.067525 km. It is stored in geotif format in the form of ease grid projection. Pixel values represent the state of freezing and thawing: 1 for freezing, 2 for thawing, 3 for deserts, 4 for water bodies. Because all TIF files in the dataset describe the scope of Sanjiangyuan National Park, the row and column number information of these files is unchanged, and the excerpt is as follows (where the unit of cellsize is m): ncols 52 nrows 28 cellsize 25067.525 nodata_value 0
This dataset is land surface phenology estimated from 16 days composite MODIS NDVI product (MOD13Q1 collection6) in the Three-River-Source National Park from 2001 to 2020. The spatial resolution is 250m. The variables include Start of Season (SOS) and End of Season (EOS). Two phenology estimating methods were used to MOD13Q1, polynomial fitting based threshold method and double logistic function based inflection method. There are 4 folders in the dataset. CJYYQ_phen is data folder for source region of the Yangtze River in the national park. HHYYQ_phen is data folder for source region of Yellow River in the national park. LCJYYQ_phen is data folder for source region of Lancang River in the national park. SJY_phen is data folder for the whole Three-River-Source region. Data format is geotif. Arcmap or Python+GDAL are recommended to open and process the data.
On the basis of RGI6.0, we use remote sensing and geographic information system technology to update the glacier inventory data in Alaska. The updated glacier inventory uses a data source for 2018 Landsat OLI spatial resolution 15m remote sensing image, and the method used is manual interpretation. The results show that the Alaska Glacier inventory includes 27043 glaciers with a total area of 81285km2. The uncertiany of this data is 4.3%. The data will provide important data support for the study of glacier change in Alaska and the regional and global impact of glacier change in the context of global change.
SHANGGUAN Donghui, LI Yaojun
The Qinghai Tibet Plateau is a sensitive region of global climate change. Land surface temperature (LST), as the main parameter of land surface energy balance, characterizes the degree of energy and water exchange between land and atmosphere, and is widely used in the research of meteorology, climate, hydrology, ecology and other fields. In order to study the land atmosphere interaction over the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, it is urgent to develop an all-weather land surface temperature data set with long time series and high spatial-temporal resolution. However, due to the frequent cloud coverage in this region, the use of existing satellite thermal infrared remote sensing land surface temperature data sets is greatly limited. Compared with the previous version released in 2019, Western China Daily 1km spatial resolution all-weather land surface temperature data set (2003-2018) V1, this data set (V2) adopts a new preparation method, namely satellite thermal infrared remote sensing reanalysis data integration method based on new land surface temperature time decomposition model. The main input data of the method are Aqua MODIS LST products and GLDAS data, and the auxiliary data include vegetation index and surface albedo provided by satellite remote sensing. This method makes full use of the high frequency and low frequency components of land surface temperature and the spatial correlation of land surface temperature provided by satellite thermal infrared remote sensing and reanalysis data. The evaluation results show that this data set has good image quality and accuracy, which is not only seamless in space, but also highly consistent with the amplitude and spatial distribution of 1 km daily Aqua MODIS LST products widely used in current academic circles. When MODIS LST was used as the reference value, the mean deviation (MBE) of the data set in daytime and nighttime was -0.28 K and -0.29 K respectively, and the standard deviation (STD) of the deviation was 1.25 K and 1.36 K respectively. The test results based on the measured data of six stations in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and Heihe River Basin show that under clear sky conditions, the data set is highly consistent with the measured LST in daytime / night, and its MBE is -0.42-0.25 K / - 0.35-0.19 K; The root mean square error (RMSE) was 1.03 ~ 2.28 K / 1.05 ~ 2.05 K; Under the condition of non clear sky, the MBE of this data set in daytime / night is -0.55 ~ 1.42 K / - 0.46 ~ 1.27 K; The RMSE was 2.24-3.87 K / 2.03-3.62 K. Compared with the V1 version of the data, the two kinds of all-weather land surface temperature show the characteristics of seamless (i.e. no missing value) in the spatial dimension, and in most areas, the spatial distribution and amplitude of the two kinds of all-weather land surface temperature are highly consistent with MODIS land surface temperature. However, in the region where the brightness temperature of AMSR-E orbital gap is missing, the V1 version of land surface temperature has a significant systematic underestimation. The mass of trims land surface temperature is close to that of V1 version outside AMSR-E orbital gap, while the mass of trims is more reliable inside the orbital gap. Therefore, it is recommended that users use V2 version. The time span of this data set is from 2000 to 2020 and will be updated continuously; The time resolution is twice a day (corresponding to the two transit times of aqua MODIS in the daytime and at night); The spatial resolution is 1 km. In order to facilitate the majority of colleagues to carry out targeted research around the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and its adjacent areas, and reduce the workload of data download and processing, the coverage of this data set is limited to Western China and its surrounding areas (72 ° E-104 ° E，20 ° N-45 ° N）。 Therefore, this dataset is abbreviated as trims lst-tp (thermal and reality integrating modem resolution spatial seamless LST – Tibetan Plateau) for user's convenience.
ZHANG Xiaodong, ZHOU Ji, TANG Wenbin, DING Lirong, MA Jin, ZHANG Xu
The Tibetan Plateau Glacier Data –TPG2017 is a glacial coverage data on the Tibetan Plateau from selected 210 scenes of Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images with 30-m spatial resolution from 2013 to 2018, among of which 90% was in 2017 and 85% in winter. Therefore, 2017 was defined as the reference year for the mosaic image. Glacier outlines were digitized on-screen manually from the 2017 image mosaic, relying on false-colour image composites (RGB by bands 654), which allowed us to distinguish ice/snow from cloud. Debris-free ice was distinguished from the debris and debris-covered ice by its higher reflectance. Debris-covered ice was not delineated in this data. The delineated glacier outlines were compared with band-ratio (e.g. TM3/TM5) results, and validated by overlapping them onto Google Earth imagery, SRTM DEM, topographic maps and corresponding satellite images. For areas with mountain shadows and snow cover, they were verified by different methods using data from different seasons. For glaciers in deep shadow, Google EarthTM imagery from different dates was used as the reference for manual delineation. Steep slopes or headwalls were also excluded in the TPG2017. Areas that appeared in any of these sources to have the characteristics of exposed ground/basement/bed rock were manually delineated as non-glacier, and were also cross-checked with CGI-1 and CGI-2. Steep hanging glaciers were included in TPG2017 if they were identifiable on images in all other three epochs (i.e. TPG1976, TPG2001, and TPG2013). The accuracy of manual digitization was controlled within one half-pixel. All glacier areas were calculated on the WGS84 spheroid in an Albers equal-area map projection centred at (95°E, 30°N) with standard parallels at 15°N and 65°N. Our results showed that the relative deviation of manual interpretation was less than 3.9%.
The dataset was produced based on MODIS data. Parameters and algorithm were revised to be suitable for the land cover type in the Three-River-Source Regions. By using the Markov de-cloud algorithm, SSM/I snow water equivalent data was fused to the result. Finally, high accuracy daily de-cloud snow cover data was produced. The data value is 0(no snow) or 1(snow). The spatial resolution is 500m, the time period is from 2000-2-24 to 2019-12-31. Data format is geotiff, Arcmap or python+GDAL were recommended to open and process the data.
The fraction snow cover (FSC) is the ratio of the snow cover area SCA to the pixel space. The data set covers the Arctic region (35 ° to 90 ° north latitude). Using Google Earth engine platform, the initial data is the global surface reflectance product with a resolution of 1000m with mod09ga, and the data preparation time is from February 24, 2000 to November 18, 2019. The methods are as follows: in the training sample area, the reference data set of FSC is prepared by using Landsat 8 surface reflectance data and snomap algorithm, and the data set is taken as the true value of FSC in the training sample area, so as to establish the linear regression model between FSC in the training sample area and NDSI based on MODIS surface reflectance products. Using this model, MODIS global surface reflectance product is used as input to prepare snow area ratio time series data in the Arctic region. The data set can provide quantitative information of snow distribution for regional climate simulation and hydrological model.
MA Yuan, LI Hongyi
This dataset was derived from long-term daily snow depth in China based on the boundary of the three-river-source area. The snow depth ranges from 0 to 100 cm, and the temporal coverage is from January 1 1980 to December 31 2020. The spatial and temporal resolutions are 0.25o and daily, respectively. Snow depth was produced from satellite passive microwave remote sensing data which came from three different sensors that are SMMR, SSM/I and SSMI/S. Considering the systematic bias among these sensors, the inter-sensor calibrations were performed to obtain temporal consistent passive microwave remote sensing data. And the long-term daily snow depth in China were produced from this consistent data based on the spectral gradient method.For header file information, refer to the data set header.txt.
The permafrost stability map was created based on the classification system proposed by Guodong Cheng (1984), which mainly depended on the inter-annual variation of deep soil temperature. By using the geographical weighted regression method, many auxiliary data was fusion in the map, such as average soil temperature, snow cover days, GLASS LAI, soil texture and organic from SoilGrids250, soil moisture products from CLDAS of CMA, and FY2/EMSIP precipitation products. The permafrost stability data spatial resolution is 1km and represents the status around 2010. The following table is the permafrost stability classification system. The data format is Arcgis Raster.
The near-surface freeze-thaw affects the water and energy exchanges mode and efficiency between the land and atmosphere. The transition of the freeze/thaw state affects the pattern of runoff concentration, which has an important impact on regional and global water cycle. Based on the remote sensing data of AMSR-E/2 passive microwave sensors and MODIS optical sensor, this data set uses the discriminant function algorithm and its downscaling method to produce a global mapping of near-surface freeze-thaw states with higher spatial resolution. This product covers the time period from 2002 to 2018 (daily), and spatial coverage is global scale (spatial resolution of 0.05°). It can be used to analyze the start/end time of global near-surface freeze/thaw states, the duration of freezing/thawing and their changing trends, and provide data support for studying the mechanism of water cycle and energy exchanges in the context of global change.
River lake ice phenology is sensitive to climate change and is an important indicator of climate change. 308 excel file names correspond to Lake numbers. Each excel file contains six columns, including daily ice coverage information of corresponding lakes from July 2002 to June 2018. The attributes of each column are: date, lake water coverage, lake water ice coverage, cloud coverage, lake water coverage and lake ice coverage after cloud treatment. Generally, the ice cover area ratio of 0.1 and 0.9 is used as the basis to distinguish the lake ice phenology. The excel file contained in the data set can further obtain four lake ice phenological parameters: Fus, fue, bus, bue, and 92 lakes. Two parameters, Fus and bue, can be obtained.
There are many lakes in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The glacial phenology and duration of lakes in this region are very sensitive to regional and global climate change, so they are used as the key indicators of climate change research, especially the comparative study of the three polar environmental changes of the earth. However, due to its poor natural environment and sparse population, there is a lack of conventional field measurement of lake ice phenology. The lake ice was monitored with a resolution of 500 meters by using the normalized difference snow index (NDSI) data of MODIS. The traditional snow map algorithm is used to detect the lake daily ice amount and coverage under the condition of sunny days, and the lake daily ice amount and coverage under the condition of cloud cover are re determined through a series of steps based on the spatiotemporal continuity of the lake surface conditions. Through time series analysis, 308 lakes larger than 3km2 are identified as effective records of lake ice range and coverage, forming a daily lake ice range and coverage data set, including 216 lakes.
This data set provides daily snow thickness distribution data of China from October 24, 1978 to December 31, 2012, with a spatial resolution of 25km.The original data used for the inversion of the snow depth data set came from SMMR (1978-1987), SSM/I (1987-2008) and amsr-e (2002-2012) daily passive microwave bright temperature data processed by the national snow and ice data center (NSIDC).As the three sensors are mounted on different platforms, there is a certain system inconsistency in the obtained data.The time consistency of bright temperature data is improved by cross calibration of bright temperature of different sensors.Then, based on Chang algorithm, Dr. Che tao is used to carry out snow depth inversion.Refer to the data description document for specific inversion methods.
CHE Tao, LI Xin, DAI Liyun
The multi-decadal lake number and area changes in China during 1960s–2020 are derived from historical topographic maps and >42151 Landsat satellite images, including lakes as fine as ≥1 km^2 in size for the past 60 years (1960s, 1970s, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, 2020). From the 1960s to 2020, the total number of lakes (≥ 1 km ^ 2) in China increased from 2127 to 2621, and the area expanded from 68537 km ^ 2 to 82302 km ^ 2.