This dataset is the spatial distribution map of the marshes in the source area of the Yellow River near the Zaling Lake-Eling Lake, covering an area of about 21,000 square kilometers. The data set is classified by the Landsat 8 image through an expert decision tree and corrected by manual visual interpretation. The spatial resolution of the image is 30m, using the WGS 1984 UTM projected coordinate system, and the data format is grid format. The image is divided into five types of land, the land type 1 is “water body”, the land type 2 is “high-cover vegetation”, the land type 3 is “naked land”, and the land type 4 is “low-cover vegetation”, and the land type 5 is For "marsh", low-coverage vegetation and high-coverage vegetation are distinguished by vegetation coverage. The threshold is 0.1 to 0.4 for low-cover vegetation and 0.4 to 1 for high-cover vegetation.
The Tibetan Plateau has an average altitude of over 4000 m and is the region with the highest altitude and the largest snow cover in the middle and low latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere regions. Snow cover is the most important underlying surface of the seasonal changes on the Tibetan Plateau and an important composing element of ecological environment. Ice and snow melt water is an important water resource of the plateau and its downstream areas. At the same time, plateau snow, as an important land-surface forcing factor, is closely related to disastrous weather (such as droughts and floods) in East Asia, the South Asian monsoon and in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. It is an important indicator of short-term climate prediction and one of the most sensitive responses to global climate change. The snow depth refers to the vertical depth from the surface of the snow to the ground. It is an important parameter for snow characteristics and one of the conventional meteorological observation elements. It is the key parameter of snow water equivalent estimation, climate effect studies of snow cover, the basin water balance, the simulation and monitoring of snow-melt, and snow disaster evaluation and grading. In this data set, the Tibetan Plateau boundary was determined by adopting the natural topography as the leading factor and by comprehensive consideration of the principles of altitude, plateau and mountain integrity. The main part of the plateau is in the Tibetan Autonomous Region and Qinghai Province, with an area of 2.572 million square kilometers, accounting for 26.8% of the total land area of China. The snow depth observation data are the monthly maximum snow depth data after quality detection and quality control. There are 102 meteorological stations in the study area, most of which were built during the 1950s to 1970s. The data for some months or years for sites existing during this period were missing, and the complete observational records from 1961 to 2013 were adopted. The temporal resolution is daily, the spatial coverage is the Tibetan Plateau, and all the data were quality controlled. Accurate and detailed plateau snow depth data are of great significance for the diagnosis of climate change, the evolution of the Asian monsoon and the management of regional snow-melt water resources.
The 2008 national remote sensing annual average surface temperature and freezing index is a 5 km instantaneous surface temperature data product based on MODIS Aqua/Terra four times a day by Ran Youhua et al. (2015). A new method for estimating the annual average surface temperature and freezing index has been developed. The method uses the average daily mean surface temperature observed by LST in morning and afternoon to obtain the daily mean surface temperature. The core of the method is how to recover the missing data of LST products. The method has two characteristics: (1) Spatial interpolation is carried out on the daily surface temperature variation observed by remote sensing, and the spatial continuous daily surface temperature variation obtained by interpolation is utilized, so that satellite observation data which is only once a day is applied; (2) A new time series filtering method for missing data is used, that is, the penalty least squares regression method based on discrete cosine transform. Verification shows that the accuracy of annual mean surface temperature and freezing index is only related to the accuracy of original MODIS LST, i.e. the accuracy of MODIS LST products is maintained. It can be used for frozen soil mapping and related resources and environment applications.
Overviewing the various frozen soil maps in China, there are great differences in the classification systems, data sources, and mapping methods. These maps represent the stage of understanding of the permafrost distribution of China in the past half century. To reflect the distribution and area of frozen soil in our country more reasonably, we have made a new frozen soil distribution map based on the analysis of the existing frozen soil maps. The map combines several existing maps of permafrost and the simulation results of a permafrost distribution model on the Tibetan Plateau. It unifies the acquisition time of data from various parts of the country and reflects the distribution of permafrost in our country around 2000. In the new frozen soil map, the distributions of various types of frozen soil are determined according to the following principles. 1. The base map uses the Geocryological Regionalization and Classification Map of the Frozen Soil in China (1:10 000 000) (Guoqing Qiu et al., 2000). The distribution of permafrost and instantaneous frozen soil in the high mountains outside the Tibetan Plateau follows the original map; the boundaries of seasonal frozen soil and instantaneous frozen soil, instantaneous frozen soil and nonfrozen soil remain unchanged, too. The distribution of permafrost on the Tibetan Plateau and in the high latitudes of the Northeast is updated with the following results. 2. The distribution of high-altitude permafrost and alpine permafrost in the Tibetan Plateau region is updated using the simulation results of Zhuotong Nan et al. (2002). This model uses the measured average annual ground temperature data of 76 boreholes along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway to perform regression statistical analysis and obtains the relationship between annual mean geothermal data with latitude and elevation. Based on this relationship, combined with the GTOPO30 elevation data (global 1-km digital elevation model data developed under the leadership of the US Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation and Technology Center), the average annual ground temperature distribution over the entire Tibetan Plateau is simulated, the average annual ground temperature is 0.5 C, and it is used as the boundary between permafrost and seasonal frozen soil. 3. The distribution of permafrost at high latitudes in the Northeast is based on the latest results from Jin et al. (2007). Jin et al. (2007) analyze the average annual precipitation and soil moisture in Northeast China over the past few decades and conclude that the relationship between the southern boundary of permafrost in Northeast China and the annual average temperature has not changed substantially in the past few decades. 4. Alpine permafrost distribution in other regions is updated with the Map of the Glaciers, Frozen Ground and Deserts in China (1:4 million) (Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2006). In terms of classification systems, the current existing frozen soil maps use continuous standards for the division of permafrost, but the specific definition of continuity is very different. Many studies have shown that the continuity criterion is a concept closely related to scale, it is not suitable for the classification of permafrost at high altitude (Guodong Cheng, 1984; Cheng et al., 1992), and it cannot be applied to the permafrost distribution model that uses grid as the basic simulation unit. In this paper, we abandon the continuity criteria and take the existence of frozen soil in the mapping unit (grid or region). The new frozen soil map divides China's frozen soil into several categories: (1) High latitude permafrost; (2) High altitude permafrost; (3) Plateau permafrost; (4) Alpine permafrost; (5) Medium-season seasonal frozen soil: the maximum seasonal freezing depth that can be reached is >1 m; (6) Shallow seasonal frozen soil: the maximum seasonal freezing depth that can be achieved is <1 m; (7) Instant frozen soil: less than one month of storage time; and (8) Nonfrozen soil. For a specific description of the data, please refer to the explanatory documents and citations.
Frozen soil refers to a soil or rock mass with a temperature lower than or equal to 0 ° C and containing ice. It is particularly sensitive to temperature and its physical and mechanical properties change significantly with temperature. The frost heaving deformation and melt settlement deformation of frozen soil are the most common frozen soil disasters. Their occurrence is mainly caused by the change of the inherent temperature of frozen soil due to the frozen soil engineering activities. Therefore, the protection of frozen soil is mainly to protect the temperature of frozen soil. , to maintain it in the closest state before the engineering activities. The main method for obtaining the temperature of the frozen land is to embed the temperature measuring cable. Through the data acquisition function of the CR3000, the resistance value of the temperature measuring cable is obtained at different times, and the temperature value is calculated by the correspondence between the calibration coefficient and the resistance value. According to the sensitive characteristics of frozen soil to temperature, the change of ground temperature can reflect the change of climate, and can also analyze the influence mechanism and degree of human activities on the stability of frozen soil in combination with other factors, so as to guide the later engineering activities. Upgrading and upgrading of frozen soil protection measures.
Qinghai Tibet Plateau is the largest permafrost area in the world. At present, some permafrost distribution maps have been compiled. However, due to the limited data sources, unclear standards, insufficient verification and lack of high-quality spatial data sets, there is great uncertainty in drawing Permafrost Distribution Maps on TP. Based on the improved medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS) surface temperature (LSTS) model of 1 km clear sky mod11a2 (Terra MODIS) and myd11a2 (Aqua MODIS) product (reprocessing version 5) in 2003-2012, the data set simulates the distribution of permafrost and generates the permafrost map of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The map was verified by field observation, soil moisture content and bulk density. Permafrost attributes mainly include: seasonally frozen ground, permafrost and unfrozen ground. The data set provides more detailed data of Permafrost Distribution and basic data for the study of permafrost in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
This dataset contains the glacier outlines in Qilian Mountain Area in 2019. The dataset was produced based on classical band ratio criterion and manual editing. Chinese GF series images collected in 2019 were used as basic data for glacier extraction. Google images and Map World images were employed as reference data for manual adjusting. The dataset was stored in SHP format and attached with the attributions of coordinates, glacier ID and glacier area. Consisting of 1 season, the dataset has a spatial resolution of 2 meters. The accuracy is about 1 pixel (±2 meter). The dataset directly reflects the glacier distribution within the Qilian Mountain in 2018, and can be used for quantitative estimation of glacier mass balance and the quantitative assessment of glacier change’s impact on basin runoff.
As the “water tower of Asia”, Tibetan Plateau (TP) are the resource of major rivers in Asia. Black carbon (BC) aerosol emitted from surrounding regions can be transported to the inner TP by atmospheric circulation and consequently deposited in snow, which can significantly influence precipitation and mass balance of glaciers. By drilling and sampling ice cores and snow samples and measuring BC concentration, historical record and spatial distribution can be abtained. It can provide basic dataset to study the effects of BC to the environment and climate over the Tibetan Plateau, as well as the pollutants transport.
The borehole is about 7km away from Jiagedaqi City （50.47°N, 124.23°E), located in a wetland with about 80cm-thick peaty soil. There are three boreholes, and one is 2m away from the pipe center and 20m deep, the second is 16.6m away and 20m deep, and the third is 50m away from the second pipeline and 60 m deep. Based on the temperature borehole with a diameter of 40 mm and depths of 20 to 60 m, the ground temperature along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline was measured using the thermistor sensor, which was assembled by State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering, and calibrated with an accuracy of ±0.05℃. Therefore, the critical characteristic parameters such as ground stratigraphy, temperature of permafrost, surface temperature and active layer thickness were obtained. During the period from October 2014 to October 2017, ground temperatures in the T1 and T2 boreholes were collected manually. The ground temperatures in T3 was collected automatically and continuously since 12 June of 2018. Then the continuous and complete record of ground temperature data uploaded to the specified server (fixed IP address) by the wireless transmission module utilizing cellular networks. From these measured data along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route, the development characteristics and historical evolution of permafrost, and its response to the climate change can be analyzed.
It includes monthly data of precipitation, evaporation, water reserve change and soil water change of Tarim River. Precipitation data comes from ECMWF. Evaporation data is calculated by energy model based on Penman formula, water reserve data is retrieved by grace gravity satellite data, GLDAS data is obtained by land surface process model simulation of Noah in the United States, and NDVI data is from MODIS data products. The resolution of precipitation and evaporation is 0.5 ° * 0.5 °, and the resolution of water storage and soil water change data is 1 ° * 1 °. The data provide reference for water resource management and decision-making. Vegetation data can provide basic data for ecological change assessment.