The data set of light absorbing impurities in snow and ice in and around the Qinghai Tibet Plateau include black carbon and dust concentration data and their mass absorption cross sections from 9 glaciers (Urumqi glacier No.1, Laohugou glacier No.12, xiaodongkemadi glacier, renlongba glacier, Baishui River glacier No.1, and golubin glacier, Abramov glacier, syekzapadniyi glacier and No. 354 glacier in Pamir region) . The black carbon data is obtained by DRI 2015 model thermo-optical carbon analyzer, and the dust data is obtained by weighing method. The sampling and experimental processes are carried out in strict accordance with the requirements. The data can be used for the study of snow ice albedo and climate effect.
Glacier is the supply water source of rivers in the western mountainous area, and it is one of the most basic elements for people to survive and develop industry, agriculture and animal husbandry in the western region. Glaciers are not only valuable fresh water resources, but also the source of serious natural disasters in mountainous areas, such as sudden ice lake outburst flood, glacier debris flow and ice avalanche. Glacier hydrological monitoring is the basis for studying the characteristics of glacier melt water, the replenishment of glacier melt water to rivers, the relationship between glacier surface ablation and runoff, the process of ice runoff and confluence, and the calculation and prediction of floods and debris flows induced by glacier and seasonal snow melt water. Glacial hydrology refers to the water and heat conditions of glacial covered basins (i.e. glacial action areas), that is, the water and heat exchange between glaciers and their surrounding environment, the physical process of water accumulation and flow on the surface, inside and bottom of glaciers, the water balance of glaciers, the replenishment of glacial melt water to rivers, and the impact of water bodies in cold regions on climate change. At present, hydrological monitoring stations are mainly established at the outlet of the river basin to carry out field monitoring《 Glacial water resources of China (1991), hydrology of cold regions of China (2000) and glacial Hydrology (2001) summarize the early studies on glacial hydrology. China has carried out glacier hydrological monitoring on more than 20 glaciers in Tianshan, Karakorum, West Kunlun, Qilian, Tanggula, Nianqing Tanggula, gangrigab, Hengduan and Himalayas. This data set is the monthly runoff data of representative glaciers.
The data include K, Na, CA, Mg, F, Cl, so 4 and no 3 in the glacier runoff of zhuxigou, covering most of the inorganic dissolved components. The detection limit is less than 0.01 mg / L and the error is less than 10%; The data can be used to reflect the contribution of chemical weathering processes such as sulfide oxidation, carbonate dissolution and silicate weathering to river solutes in zhuxigou watershed, and then accurately calculate the weathering rates of carbonate and silicate rocks, so as to provide scientific basis for evaluating the impact of glaciation on chemical weathering of rocks and its carbon sink effect.
This data is mainly the temperature data of the meteorological station set up by the Southeast Tibet station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in April 2014, located in a ri village, Ranwu Town, Basu County, Changdu City, by the lake in Ranwu, with a geographical location of 96.7699e, 29.4364n and 3920m The model of the instrument probe is hmp155a, the probe is 2m away from the surface, and the underlying surface is alpine meadow. Some original data are missing. It is obtained by correction and interpolation through the flux station also located in the area, the nearby sidaoban meteorological station and the Ranwu station of the Meteorological Bureau. This data is a rare shared data in the region, which can be used as the background basic data of regional climate, rivers, lakes, glaciers, ecology, etc. When using data, the article should reflect the Southeast Tibet station of Chinese Academy of Sciences, and higher precision data can be contacted with the data author.
The Antarctic ice sheet elevation data were generated from radar altimeter data (Envisat RA-2) and lidar data (ICESat/GLAS). To improve the accuracy of the ICESat/GLAS data, five different quality control indicators were used to process the GLAS data, filtering out 8.36% unqualified data. These five quality control indicators were used to eliminate satellite location error, atmospheric forward scattering, saturation and cloud effects. At the same time, dry and wet tropospheric, correction, solid tide and extreme tide corrections were performed on the Envisat RA-2 data. For the two different elevation data, an elevation relative correction method based on the geometric intersection of Envisat RA-2 and GLAS data spot footprints was proposed, which was used to analyze the point pairs of GLAS footprints and Envisat RA-2 data center points, establish the correlation between the height difference of these intersection points (GLAS-RA-2) and the roughness of the terrain relief, and perform the relative correction of the Envisat RA-2 data to the point pairs with stable correlation. By analyzing the altimetry density in different areas of the Antarctic ice sheet, the final DEM resolution was determined to be 1000 meters. Considering the differences between the Prydz Bay and the inland regions of the Antarctic, the Antarctic ice sheet was divided into 16 sections. The best interpolation model and parameters were determined by semivariogram analysis, and the Antarctic ice sheet elevation data with a resolution of 1000 meters were generated by the Kriging interpolation method. The new Antarctic DEM was verified by two kinds of airborne lidar data and GPS data measured by multiple Antarctic expeditions of China. The results showed that the differences between the new DEM and the measured data ranged from 3.21 to 27.84 meters, and the error distribution was closely related to the slope.
The DEMs of the typical glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau were provided by the bistatic InSAR method. The data were collected on November 21, 2013. It covered Puruogangri and west Qilian Mountains with a spatial resolution of 10 meters, and an elevation accuracy of 0.8 m which met the requirements of national 1:10 000 topographic mapping. Considering the characteristics of the bistatic InSAR in terms of imaging geometry and phase unwrapping, based on the TanDEM-X bistatic InSAR data, and adopting the improved SAR interference processing method, the surface DEMs of the two typical glaciers above were generated with high resolution and precision. The data set was in GeoTIFF format, and each typical glacial DEM was stored in a folder. For details of the data, please refer to the Surface DEMs for typical glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau - Data Description.
Under the funding of the first project (Development of Multi-scale Observation and Data Products of Key Cryosphere Parameters) of the National Key Research and Development Program of China-"The Observation and Inversion of Key Parameters of Cryosphere and Polar Environmental Changes", the research group of Zhang, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, developed the snow depth downscaling product in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The snow depth downscaling data set for the Tibetan Plateau is derived from the fusion of snow cover probability dataset and Long-term snow depth dataset in China. The sub-pixel spatio-temporal downscaling algorithm is developed to downscale the original 0.25° snow depth dataset, and the 0.05° daily snow depth product is obtained. By comparing the accuracy evaluation of the snow depth product before and after downscaling, it is found that the root mean square error of the snow depth downscaling product is 0.61 cm less than the original product. The details of the product information of the Downscaling of Snow Depth Dataset for the Tibetan Plateau (2000-2018) are as follows. The projection is longitude and latitude, the spatial resolution is 0.05° (about 5km), and the time is from September 1, 2000 to September 1, 2018. It is a TIF format file. The naming rule is SD_yyyyddd.tif, where yyyy represents year and DDD represents Julian day (001-365). Snow depth (SD), unit: centimeter (cm). The spatial resolution is 0.05°. The time resolution is day by day.
Based on a recently developed inventory of permafrost presence or absence from 1475 in situ observations, we developed and trained a statistical model and used it to compile a high‐resolution (30 arc‐ seconds) permafrost zonation index (PZI) map. The PZI model captures the high spatial variability of permafrost distribution over the QTP because it considers multi- ple controlling variables, including near‐surface air temperature downscaled from re‐ analysis, snow cover days and vegetation cover derived from remote sensing. Our results showed the new PZI map achieved the best performance compared to avail- able existing PZI and traditional categorical maps. Based on more than 1000 in situ measurements, the Cohen's kappa coefficient and overall classification accuracy were 0.62 and 82.5%, respectively. Excluding glaciers and lakes, the area of permafrost regions over the QTP is approximately 1.54 (1.35–1.66) ×106 km2, or 60.7 (54.5– 65.2)% of the exposed land, while area underlain by permafrost is about 1.17 (0.95–1.35) ×106 km2, or 46 (37.3–53.0)%.
This dataset provides the in-situ lake water parameters of 124 closed lakes with a total lake area of 24,570 km2, occupying 53% of the total lake area of the TP.These in-situ water quality parameters include water temperature, salinity, pH,chlorophyll-a concentration, blue-green algae (BGA) concentration, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM), and water clarity of Secchi Depth (SD).
This dataset includes the Antarctica ice sheet mass balance estimated from satellite gravimetry data, April 2002 to December 2019. The satellite measured gravity data mainly come from the joint NASA/DLR mission, Gravity Recovery And Climate Exepriment (GRACE, April 2002 to June 2017), and its successor, GRACE-FO (June 2018 till present). Considering the ~1-year data gap between GRACE and GRACE-FO, we extra include gravity data estimated from GPS tracking data of ESA's Swarm 3-satellite constellation. The GRACE data used in this study are weighted mean of CSR, GFZ, JPL and OSU produced solutions. The post-processing includes: replacing GRACE degree-1, C20 and C30 spherical harmonic coefficients with SLR estimates, destriping filtering, 300-km Gaussian smoothing, GIA correction using ICE6-G_D (VM5a) model, leakage reduction using forward modeling method and ellipsoidal correction.