WATER: Dataset of setting of the sampling plots and stripes in the Linze grassland foci experimental area

The dataset of setting of the sampling plots and stripes in the Linze grassland foci experimental area from May to Jul. 2008 list as follows: Plots A (reed), B (saline), C (saline), D (alfalfa), E (barley) and H were set according to the spatial resolution of each overpass sensor. 49 points at intervals of 60m were located in each of the first five plots (360m×360m) and numbered such as A01. In order to synchronize with ASAR, PALSAR, ASTER and airborne OMIS and WiDAS, subplots of 120m×120m were arranged in A, B, C, D and E, and the points in these subplots were chosen at intervals of 30m. As for plot H (1.8km×1.8km), there were 64 points at intervals of 250m to synchronize with MODIS. Besides, there were still seven sample lines (200m from one to another), with 25 points at intervals of 100m each (L3-11 indicating No. 11 sample point along L3); and two PR2 plots (3Grid×3Grid) with points numbered like PR11 at intervals of 30m and two PR2 lines (11 points). All coordinates were archived in Excel format.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of canopy structure and biophysical parameter measurements in the Linze grassland foci experimental area

The dataset of canopy structure and biophysical parameter measurements was obtained in the Linze grassland foci experimental area. Detailed information was as follows: {| !Observation item !observation time !plot |- | The leaf angle || 2008-06-24 || E |- | The leaf angle || 2008-06-29 || A E |- | Vegetation biomass || 2008-06-18 || A D E |- | Vegetation biomass || 2008-06-24 || A E |- | Vegetation biomass || 2008-06-29 || A E |- | Plant height || 2008-05-26 || A D E |- | Plant height || 2008-06-14 || B |- | LAI || 2008-05-28 || E |- | LAI || 2008-06-05 || E |- | LAI || 2008-06-06 || A |- | LAI || 2008-06-11 || A |- | LAI || 2008-06-18 || D E |- | Coverage || 2008-5-27 || subplots (30m) in A, D and E |- | Coverage || 2008-5-26、27 || plots (360m) in D and E |- | Coverage || 2008-6-14 || plots (360m) in B |- |} Data were archived in Excel and txt file. See WATER: Dataset of setting of the sampling plots and stripes in the foci experimental area of Linze station for more information.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission in the Biandukou foci experimental area on Mar. 19, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) was obtained in the Biandukou foci experimental area from 11:20 to 12:30BJT on Mar. 19, 2008. Observation items included: (1) the frost depth by the chopstick and the ruler. The soil was considered frozen when it was hard and with ice crystal. The data can be opened by Microsoft Office Word. (2) the surface radiative temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer and the physical temperature by the thermocouple. The data can be opened by Microsoft Office Word. (3) the soil moisture (soil samples from 0-1cm, 1-3cm and 3-5cm) by the microwave drying method. The data can be opened by Microsoft Office Word. (4) photos of each sampling point in .jpg for further reference. Six data files were included, the ground-based K-band microwave radiometer, the ground-based L-band microwave radiometer, the frost depth, soil moisture, the surface temperature and the surface conditions.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of ground-based microwave scatterometer and ground truth observations for soil freeze/thaw cycle in the A'rou foci experimental area

The dataset of ground-based microwave scatterometer and ground truth observations for soil freeze/thaw cycle was obtained in No. 3 quadrate of the A'rou foci experimental area from 22:33 on Mar. 16 to 15:00 on 17, 2008. Observation items included the mean soil temperature from 0-5cm by the probe thermometer, the soil temperature at 5cm and 10cm by the glass geothermometer, the soil temperature, soil volumetric moisture, the loss tangent, soil conductivity, and the real part and the imaginary part of soil complex permittivity by the POGO soil sensor, and soil gravimetric moisture, volumetric moisture, and soil bulk density after drying by the cutting ring (100cm^3). Those provide reliable ground data for retrieval and validation of soil moisture and freeze/thaw status from active remote sensing approaches. Two files were included, the microwave scatterometer and ground truth observations; both were archived in Excel format.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with Envisat ASAR in the A'rou foci experimental area on Jul. 14, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with Envisat ASAR was obtained in No. 1, 2 and 3 quadrates of the A'rou foci experimental area on Jul. 14, 2008. The Envisat ASAR data were in AP mode and VV/VH polarization combinations, and the overpass time was approximately at 11:31 BJT. The quadrates were divided into 4×4 subsites, with each one spanning a 30×30 m2 plot. Those provide reliable ground data for retrieval and validation of soil moisture from active remote sensing approaches. Observation items included: (1) soil moisture by POGO soil sensor in No. 1, 2 and 3 quadrates; 25 corner points of each subsite were chosen for the soil temperature, soil volumetric moisture, the loss tangent, soil conductivity, and the real part and the imaginary part of soil complex permittivity; (2) the soil temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer 3# and 5# from BNU in No. 1 quadrate, 1# and 4# in No. 2 quadrate, and 2# and 6# in No. 3 quadrate; 25 corner points of each subsite were measured twice by two groups, and time, the maximum, the minimum and the mean value, and the land cover types were all recorded. (3) spectrum of the grassland, the bare land and the stellera by the thermal infrared spectrometer, 102F. The dataset includes ASAR images, preprocessed data of the thermal infrared spectrometer, 102F, the surface temperature and soil moisture synchronizing with Envisat ASAR.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with MODIS in the Biandukou foci experimental area on Mar. 12, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with MODIS was obtained in C1, G1 and B2 of the Biandukou foci experimental area on Mar. 12, 2008. Observation items included: (1) the surface temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer in C1, G1 and B2 from 11:30 to 12:15. The underlying surface was the deep plowed land, the rape stubble and the grassland. (2) the gravimetric soil moisture (soil samples from 0-1cm, 1-3cm, 3-5cm, 5-10cm and 10-20cm) by the microwave drying method. (3) the frost depth by the chopstick and the ruler. The soil was considered frozen when it was hard and with ice crystal. The land cover type photos were archived. Four data files were archived, MODIS data, C1 (the land cover type, the surface temperature and the vegetation parameters), G1 ( the surface temperature, the frost depth and the soil moisture) and B2 (the surface temperature, the frost depth and the soil moisture) data.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with ASTER in the Linze grassland foci experimental area on May 28, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with ASTER was obtained in the saline plot B, the alfalfa plot D and the barley plot E of the Linze grassland foci experimental area on May 28, 2008. 49 points at intervals of 60m in each plot (360m×360m) were selected and observation items included: (1) the land surface radiative temperature by the hand-held infrared thermometer from east to west in the saline plot B, the alfalfa plot D and the alfalfa plot E. Each point was numbered, such as D22-23, indicating from No. 22 to 23 in the alfalfa plot D. In the salineplot B, 5 measurements were carried out each 5m; in the alfalfa plot D and the barley plot E, measurements were at random. Calibration information was archived in the hand-held infrared thermometer calibration.xls. (2) soil gravimetric moisture, volumetric moisture, and soil bulk density after drying measured by the cutting ring and the mean soil temperature from 0-5cm measured by the probe thermometer in plot B; the soil temperature, soil moisture, the loss tangent, soil conductivity, the real part and the imaginary part of soil complex permittivity measured by the POGO soil sensor, and the mean soil temperature from 0-5cm measured by the probe thermometer in plot D; soil moisture, soil conductivity, the soil temperature, and the real part of soil complex permittivity were measured by WET, and the mean soil temperature from 0-5cm by the probe thermometer in plot E. Six Excel files on soil moisture and the land surface radiative temperature in plot B, D and E were archived. See WATER: Dataset of setting of the sampling plots and stripes in the foci experimental area of Linze station for more information.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with Landsat TM in the Yingke oasis and Huazhaizi desert steppe foci experimental areas on May 20, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with Landsat TM was obtained in the Yingke oasis and Huazhaizi desert steppe foci experimental areas on May 20, 2008. Observation items included: (1) LAI in Yingke oasis maize field. The maximum leaf length and width of each alfalfa and barley were measured. Data were archived in Excel format. (2) Reflectance spectra in Yingke oasis maize field by ASD FieldSpec (350-2500nm, the vertical canopy observation and the transect observation) from Institute of Remote Sensing Applications (CAS), and in Huazhaizi desert No. 2 plot by ASD FieldSpec (350-1603nm, the vertical observation and the transect observation for reaumuria soongorica and the bare land) from Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences. The grey board and the black and white cloth were also used for calibration spectrum. Raw data were binary files direct from ASD (by ViewSpecPro), and pre-processed data on reflectance were in Excel format. (3) the radiative temperature by 3 handheld radiometers in Yingke oasis maize field (Institute of Remote Sensing Applications, BNU and Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources respectively, the vertical canopy observation and the transect observation), and by 3 handheld infrared thermometers in Huazhaizi desert No. 2 plot (the vertical vegetation and bare land observation). The data included raw data (in Word format), recorded data and the blackbody calibrated data (in Excel format). (4) the radiative temperature of maize, wheat and the bare land of Yingke oasis maize field by ThermaCAM SC2000 (1.2m above the ground, FOV = 24°×18°). The data included raw data (read by ThermaCAM Researcher 2001), recorded data and the blackbody calibrated data (archived in Excel format). (5) Photosynthesis of maize, wheat and the bare land of Yingke oasis maize field by LI6400, carried out according to WATER specifications. Raw data were archived in the user-defined format (by notepat.exe) and processed data were in Excel format. (6) Maize albedo by the shortwave radiometer in Yingke oasis maize field. R =10H (R for FOV radius; H for the probe height). Data were archived in Excel format. (7) Atmospheric parameters in Huazhaizi desert No. 2 plot by CE318 (produced by CIMEL in France). The total optical depth, aerosol optical depth, Rayleigh scattering coefficient, column water vapor in 936 nm, particle size spectrum and phase function were then retrieved from these observations. The optical depth in 1020nm, 936nm, 870nm, 670nm and 440nm were all acquired by CE318. Those data include the raw data in k7 format and can be opened by ASTPWin. ReadMe.txt is attached for detail. Processed data (after retrieval of the raw data) in Excel format are on optical depth, rayleigh scattering, aerosol optical depth, the horizontal visibility, the near surface air temperature, the solar azimuth, zenith, solar distance correlation factors, and air column mass number. (8) Coverage fraction of Reaumuria soongorica by the self-made coverage instrument and the camera (2.5m-3.5m above the ground) in Huazhaizi desert No. 2 plot. Based on the length of the measuring tape and the bamboo pole, the size of the photo can be decided. GPS data was used for the location and the technology LAB was used to retieve the coverage fractionof the green vegetation. Besides, such related information as the surrounding environment was also recorded. Data included the vegetation iamge and coverage (by .exe). (9) The radiative temperature of Reaumuria soongorica canopy and the bare land by 2 fixed automatic thermometers (FOV: 10°; emissivity: 0.95) in Huazhaizi desert No. 2 plot, observing straight downwards at intervals of 1s. Raw data, blackbody calibrated data and processed data were all archived in Excel format.

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WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with ASTER in the Linze station foci experimental area on May 28, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with ASTER was obtained in the Linze station foci experimental area on May 28, 2008. Observation items included: (1) soil moisture (0-5cm) measured once by the cutting ring method at the corner points of the 40 subplots of the west-east desert transit zone strip once by cutting ring method in the corner points of nine subplots of the north-south desert transit zone, once by the cutting ring method and once by ML2X Soil Moisture Tachometer in the center points of nine subplots of the farmland. The preprocessed soil volumetric moisture data were archived as Excel files. (2) surface radiative temperature measured by the handheld infrared thermometer (5# and 6# from Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute which were both calibrated) in 40 subplots of the west-east desert transit zone strip (repeated 14-30 times), and nine subplots of the north-south desert transit zone strip (repeated 12-30 times). Data were archived as Excel files. (3) BRDF of maize and desert scrub measured by ASD Spectroradiometer (350~2 500 nm) from BNU, the 40% reference board , two observation platforms of BNU make and one of Institute of Remote Sensing Applications make in Wulidun farmland quadrates and the desert transit zone strips. Raw spectral data were archived as binary files, which were recorded daily in detail, and pre-processed data on reflectance and transmittivity were archived as text files (.txt). (4) LAI measured by two methods in the the Wulidun farmland quadrates and Linze station quadrates. One is manual method. The LAI, plant height and the spacing of selected samples were measured by the ruler and the number of the sapmles in the quadrate were counted. Then the LAI can be calculated. The other method is LI-3100. Data were archived as Excel files.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of fresh snow properties observations at the temporary sampling plot in Qilian, in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area on Mar. 20, 2008

The dataset of fresh snow properties observations was obtained at the temporary sampling plot in the Qilian county on Mar. 20, 2008. Those provide reliable data for retrieval of snow parameters from remote sensing approaches. Observation items included: (1) Snow parameters such as snow depth, snow grain size by the handheld microscope, and snow density by the snow shovel (2) Fresh snow albedo by the total radiometer (3) Fresh snow spectrum by ASD Two files including raw data and preprocessed data were archived.

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