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Data on Glacial Lakes in the Third Pole Region (V1.0) ( (1990, 2000, 2010)
  • 2019-07-19
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There are three types of glacial lakes: supraglacial lakes, lakes attached to the end of the glacier and lakes not attached to the end of the glacier. Based on this classification, the following properties are studied: the variation in the number and area of glacial lakes in different basins in the Third Pole region, the changes in extent in terms of size and area, distance from glaciers, the differences in area changes between lakes with and without the supply of glacial melt water runoff, the characteristics of changes in the glacial lake area with respect to elevation, etc. Data source: Landsat TM/ETM+ 1990, 2000, 2010. The data were visually interpreted, which included checking and editing by comparing the original image with Google Earth images when the area was greater than 0.003 square kilometres. The data were applied to glacial lake changes and glacial lake outburst flood assessments in the Third Pole region. Data type: Vector data. Projected Coordinate System: Albers Conical Equal Area.

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The Second Glacier Inventory Data Set of China (Version 1.0) (2006-2011)
  • 2019-07-18
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China's second glacier inventory uses the high-resolution Landsat TM/ETM+ remote sensing satellite data as the main glacier boundary data source and extracts the data source with the latest global digital elevation model, SRTM V4, as the glacier attribute, using the current international ratio threshold segmentation method to extract the glacier boundary in bare ice areas. The ice ridge extraction algorithm is developed to extract the glacier ice ridge, and it is used for the segmentation of a single glacier. At the same time, the international general algorithm is used to calculate the glacier attributes, so that the vector data and attribute data that contain the glacier information of the main glacier regions in west China are obtained. Compared with some field GPS field measurement data and higher resolution remote sensing images (such as from QuickBird and WorldView), the glacial vector data in the second glacier inventory data set of China have higher positioning accuracy and can meet the requirements for glacial data in national land, water conservancy, transportation, environment and other fields. Glacier inventory attributes: Glc_Name, Drng_Code, FCGI_ID, GLIMS_ID, Mtn_Name, Pref_Name, Glc_Long, Glc_Lati, Glc_Area, Abs_Accu, Rel_Accu, Deb_Area, Deb_A_Accu, Deb_R_Accu, Glc_Vol_A, Glc_Vol_B, Max_Elev, Min_Elev, Mean_Elev, MA_Elev, Mean_Slp, Mean_Asp, Prm_Image, Aux_Image, Rep_Date, Elev_Src, Elev_Date, Compiler, Verifier. For a detailed data description, please refer to the second glacier inventory data description.

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Long-term glacier melt fluctuations over the past 2500 yr in monsoonal High Asia revealed by radiocarbon-dated lacustrine pollen concentrates
  • 2019-06-11
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This data set is collected from the paper: Zhang, J. F. , Xu, B. , Turner, F. , Zhou, L. , Gao, P. , & Lü, Xinmiao, et al. (2017). Long-term glacier melt fluctuations over the past 2500 yr in monsoonal high asia revealed by radiocarbon-dated lacustrine pollen concentrates. Geology, 45(4), 359-362. The data is atracted from the supplement materials: GSA Data Repository 2017103, http://www.geosociety.org/pubs/ft2017.htm. In this paper, the researcher of Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences and CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Baiqing Xu, with his doctoral student, Ji Feng Zhang, and collaborators from Peking University and other institutions, propose that the OPE (“old pollen effect”, the offset between the calibrated 14C ages of pollen in lake sediments and the sediment depositional age) as a new indicator of glacier melt intensity and fluctuations by measuring the radiocarbon ages of the sediments of a small proglacial lake of Qiangyong Glacier on the southern Tibetan Plateau with multi-methods (bulk organic matter, pollen concentrates and plant residues). According to the conceptual model in this research, young ice containing modern pollen is formed in the accumulation area and then flows slowly to the ablation area and becomes a reservoir of old pollen, intensified glacier melt releases more old pollen from the old ice enters proglacial lakes. A 2.5 k.y. record of glacier variability has been reconstructed, which agrees well with the Dasuopu ice core δ18O record and the old glacier fluctuations in the European and the Tibetan Plateau, suggesting that hemispheric-scale temperature variations and/or mid-latitude Westerlies may have controlled the late Holocene glacier variability in monsoonal High Asia. The research also shows that the 20th-century glacier melt intensity exceeded that of two historical warm epochs (the Medieval Warm Period, and the Iron/Roman Age Optimum) and is unprecedented at least for the past 2.5 k.y. This data set contains 1 table: Radiocarbon ages of bulk organic matter, pollen concentrates and PRC, the calculated ∆Age-pollen and the modelled sediment depositional ages of core QYL09-4. QYL09-4 is a 306 cm core retrieved with a piston corer in 2009 from the deepest part of Qiangyong Co at 30 m water depth. See attachments for data details: GSA Data Repository 2017103.pdf, Long-term glacier melt fluctuations over the past 2500 yr in monsoonal High Asia revealed by radiocarbon-dated lacustrine pollen concentrates.pdf.

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Different glacier status with atmospheric circulations in Tibetan Plateau and surroundings (1970s-2000s)
  • 2019-06-05
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This data set is collected from the supplementary information part of the paper: Yao, T. , Thompson, L. , & Yang, W. . (2012). Different glacier status with atmospheric circulations in tibetan plateau and surroundings. Nature Climate Change, 1580, 1-5. This paper report on the glacier status over the past 30 years by investigating the glacial retreat of 82 glaciers, area reductionof 7,090 glaciers and mass-balance change of 15 glaciers. This data set contains 8 tables, the names and content are as follows: Data list: The data name list of the rest tables; t1: Distribution of Glaciers in the TP and surroundings; t2: Data and method for analyzing glacial area reduction in each basin; t3: Glacial area reduction during the past three decades from remote sensing images in the TP and surroundings; t4: Glacial length fluctuationin the TP and surroundings in the past three decades; t5: Detailed information on the glaciers for recent mass balance measurement in the TP and surroundings; t6: Recent annual mass balances in different regions in the TP; t7: Mass balance of Long-time series for the Qiyi, Xiaodongkemadi and Kangwure Glaciers in the TP. See attachments for data details: Supplementary information.pdf, Different glacier status with atmospheric circulations in Tibetan Plateau and surroundings.pdf.

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Bacteria Strain Resource Base of the Tibetan Plateau (version 1.0) (2010-2018)
  • 2019-06-01
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The glacial bacterial resource database of the Tibetan Plateau provides the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of several glaciers, which are seven glaciers of the Tibetan Plateau separated by an experimental group led by Yongqin Liu during 2010 to 2018 (East Rongbuk Glacier of Mt. Qomolangma, Tianshan Glacier No.1, Guliya Glacier, Laohugou Glacier, Muztagh Ata Glacier, Qiyi Glacier and Yuzhufeng Glacier), the Malan Glacier separated by Shurong Xiang and the Puruogangri Glacier separated by Xinfang Zhang. After the glacier samples were collected, they were taken to the Ecological Laboratory of the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing and the National Cryosphere Laboratory in Lanzhou. After applying the spread plate method, the samples were cultured at different temperatures (4-25 °C) for 20 days to 90 days, and single colonies were picked out for purification. After the DNA was extracted from the isolated bacteria, the 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragment was amplified with 27F/1492R primer and sequenced using the Sanger method. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence was compared with the RDP database using the "Classifier" software and identified as level one when the reliability exceeded 80%. These data contain the 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragment sequence and glacier sources of each sequence. Compared with sequences based on high-throughput sequencing, these data have a longer sequence and more accurate classification and can better serve in glacier microbiology research.

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The Tibetan Plateau Glacial Data Product (2013)
  • 2019-06-01
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The Tibetan Plateau Glacial Data Product-TPG2013 is a glacial attribute product of the Tibetan Plateau around 2013. It was generated by remote sensing visual interpretation method adopting Landsat8 OLI and HJ 1A/1B multispectral data. The temporal coverage of the data were from 2012 to 2014. 86% of the remote sensing data were obtained in 2013. They covered the Tibetan Plateau with a spatial resolution of 30 m. Considering the large error of the automatic remote sensing extraction method caused by the impact of clouds, shadows and seasonal snow on glacier areas, the remote sensing inversion method adopted manual visual interpretation. By comparing the results of automatic methods and visual interpretation of glacier boundaries based on experts’ experiences, we know that the manual interpretation based on remote sensing images remains the most accurate method to obtain the glacier vector boundary at present. When selecting remote sensing images, the minimum effects of cloud and seasonal snow were mainly considered. Images of summer and cold season were both selected (different from the principle applied in selecting remote sensing image data source for China's second glacier inventory). At the same time, considering the differences in discriminant standards between different interpreters, the comparison of multiple typical regions showed that the relative deviation of manual visual interpretation was less than 4%. Based on the Arc map software platform, the abovementioned remote sensing images were geometrically corrected, and the final glacier vector boundary data were obtained by visual interpretation. According to the format and requirements of the second glacier inventory in China, the glacier code and area statistics were collected, the elevation attribute data of each glacier were obtained based on the SRTM DEM data, and, finally, the Tibetan Plateau glacial data product-TPG2013 was obtained.

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The Tibetan Plateau Glacial Data Product (2000)
  • 2019-05-31
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The Tibetan Plateau Glacial Data Product - TPG2000 is a glacial attribute product of the Tibetan Plateau around 2000. It was generated by remote sensing visual interpretation method adopting Landsat5 TM/Landsat7 ETM+ multispectral data. The temporal coverage of the data was from 1999 to 2002. 41% of the remote sensing data were obtained in 2001. They covered the Tibetan Plateau with a spatial resolution of 30 m. Considering the large error of the automatic remote sensing extraction method caused by the impact of clouds, shadows and seasonal snow on glacier areas, the remote sensing inversion method adopted manual visual interpretation. By comparing the results of automatic methods and visual interpretation of glacier boundaries based on experts’ experiences, we know that the manual interpretation based on remote sensing images remains the most accurate method to obtain the glacier vector boundary at present. When selecting remote sensing images, the minimum effects of cloud and seasonal snow were mainly considered. Images of summer and cold season were both selected (different from the principle applied in selecting remote sensing image data source for China's second glacier inventory). At the same time, considering the differences in discriminant standards between different interpreters, the comparison of multiple typical regions showed that the relative deviation of manual visual interpretation was less than 4%. Based on the Arc map software platform, the abovementioned remote sensing images were geometrically corrected, and the final glacier vector boundary data were obtained by visual interpretation. According to the format and requirements of the second glacier inventory in China, the glacier code and area statistics were collected, and the elevation attribute data of each glacier was obtained based on the SRTM DEM data, and finally the Tibetan Plateau glacial data product - TPG2000 was obtained.

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The Tibetan Plateau Glacial Data Product (1976)
  • 2019-05-31
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The Tibetan Plateau Glacial Data Product-TPG1976 is a glacial attribute product of the Tibetan Plateau around 1976. It was generated by remote sensing visual interpretation method adopting Landsat MSS multispectral data. The temporal coverage of the data were from 1972 to 1979. 61% of the remote sensing data were from 1976 to 1977. The data covered the Tibetan Plateau with a spatial resolution of approximately 60 m. Considering the large error of automatic remote sensing extraction method caused by the impact of cloud, shadow and seasonal snow on glacier area, the remote sensing inversion method adopted manual visual interpretation. By comparing the results of automatic methods and visual interpretation of glacier boundaries based on experts’ experiences, we know that the manual interpretation based on remote sensing images is still the most accurate method to obtain the glacier vector boundary at present. When selecting remote sensing images, the minimum effects of cloud and seasonal snow were mainly considered. Images of summer and cold season were both selected (different from the principle applied in selecting remote sensing image data source for China's second glacier inventory). At the same time, considering the differences in discriminant standards between different interpreters, the comparison of multiple typical regions showed that the relative deviation of manual visual interpretation was less than 4%. Based on the Arc map software platform, the abovementioned remote sensing images were geometrically corrected, and the final glacier vector boundary data were obtained by visual interpretation. According to the format and requirements of the second glacier inventory in China, the glacier code and area statistics were collected, and the elevation attribute data of each glacier was obtained based on the SRTM DEM data, and finally the 1976 glacial data product of the Tibetan Plateau was obtained.

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The dataset of global glacier monitoring mass balance (Version 1.0) (1950-2016)
  • 2019-05-30
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Glacier monitoring mass balance data are the most direct and reliable data for glaciers responding to climate change. The data set of global glacier monitoring mass balance collects information on 76 glaciers and their glacier mass balance data, both with continuous (uninterrupted) observation time series and by collecting and arranging globally accessible mass balance data with a time resolution of one year from 1950 to 2016.

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Ice elevation changes for typical glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau (Version 1.0) (2000-2013)
  • 2019-05-28
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The continuous advancement of SAR interferometry technology makes it possible to obtain multitemporal DEMs with high precision in the glacial area. In particular, in 2000, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) led by NASA provided DEM data covering the area from 56ºS to 60ºN; the TanDEM-X bistatic SAR interferometry system of DLR could provide the global DEM data with high resolution and precision. These high-quality, large-coverage SAR interferometry data, as well as published DEM data products, provided valuable information for using the multitemporal DEMs to detect changes in ice thickness. The temporal coverage of the ice thickness variation data of typical glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau was from 2000 to 2013, covering Puruogangri and the west Qilian Mountains with a spatial resolution of 30 meters. Using TanDEM-X bistatic InSAR data and a C-band SRTM DEM, the differential radar interferometry method was first used to generate a TanDEM-X DEM with high precision. Then, based on the precise registration of DEM, the DEM data obtained in different periods were compared. Lastly, the ice thickness changes were estimated. The format of the data set was GeoTIFF, and each typical glacier ice thickness change was stored in a folder. For details of the data, please refer to the Ice elevation changes for typical glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau - Data Description.

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