The data set of light absorbing impurities in snow and ice in and around the Qinghai Tibet Plateau include black carbon and dust concentration data and their mass absorption cross sections from 9 glaciers (Urumqi glacier No.1, Laohugou glacier No.12, xiaodongkemadi glacier, renlongba glacier, Baishui River glacier No.1, and golubin glacier, Abramov glacier, syekzapadniyi glacier and No. 354 glacier in Pamir region) . The black carbon data is obtained by DRI 2015 model thermo-optical carbon analyzer, and the dust data is obtained by weighing method. The sampling and experimental processes are carried out in strict accordance with the requirements. The data can be used for the study of snow ice albedo and climate effect.
Glacier is the supply water source of rivers in the western mountainous area, and it is one of the most basic elements for people to survive and develop industry, agriculture and animal husbandry in the western region. Glaciers are not only valuable fresh water resources, but also the source of serious natural disasters in mountainous areas, such as sudden ice lake outburst flood, glacier debris flow and ice avalanche. Glacier hydrological monitoring is the basis for studying the characteristics of glacier melt water, the replenishment of glacier melt water to rivers, the relationship between glacier surface ablation and runoff, the process of ice runoff and confluence, and the calculation and prediction of floods and debris flows induced by glacier and seasonal snow melt water. Glacial hydrology refers to the water and heat conditions of glacial covered basins (i.e. glacial action areas), that is, the water and heat exchange between glaciers and their surrounding environment, the physical process of water accumulation and flow on the surface, inside and bottom of glaciers, the water balance of glaciers, the replenishment of glacial melt water to rivers, and the impact of water bodies in cold regions on climate change. At present, hydrological monitoring stations are mainly established at the outlet of the river basin to carry out field monitoring《 Glacial water resources of China (1991), hydrology of cold regions of China (2000) and glacial Hydrology (2001) summarize the early studies on glacial hydrology. China has carried out glacier hydrological monitoring on more than 20 glaciers in Tianshan, Karakorum, West Kunlun, Qilian, Tanggula, Nianqing Tanggula, gangrigab, Hengduan and Himalayas. This data set is the monthly runoff data of representative glaciers.
The data include K, Na, CA, Mg, F, Cl, so 4 and no 3 in the glacier runoff of zhuxigou, covering most of the inorganic dissolved components. The detection limit is less than 0.01 mg / L and the error is less than 10%; The data can be used to reflect the contribution of chemical weathering processes such as sulfide oxidation, carbonate dissolution and silicate weathering to river solutes in zhuxigou watershed, and then accurately calculate the weathering rates of carbonate and silicate rocks, so as to provide scientific basis for evaluating the impact of glaciation on chemical weathering of rocks and its carbon sink effect.
The Antarctic ice sheet elevation data were generated from radar altimeter data (Envisat RA-2) and lidar data (ICESat/GLAS). To improve the accuracy of the ICESat/GLAS data, five different quality control indicators were used to process the GLAS data, filtering out 8.36% unqualified data. These five quality control indicators were used to eliminate satellite location error, atmospheric forward scattering, saturation and cloud effects. At the same time, dry and wet tropospheric, correction, solid tide and extreme tide corrections were performed on the Envisat RA-2 data. For the two different elevation data, an elevation relative correction method based on the geometric intersection of Envisat RA-2 and GLAS data spot footprints was proposed, which was used to analyze the point pairs of GLAS footprints and Envisat RA-2 data center points, establish the correlation between the height difference of these intersection points (GLAS-RA-2) and the roughness of the terrain relief, and perform the relative correction of the Envisat RA-2 data to the point pairs with stable correlation. By analyzing the altimetry density in different areas of the Antarctic ice sheet, the final DEM resolution was determined to be 1000 meters. Considering the differences between the Prydz Bay and the inland regions of the Antarctic, the Antarctic ice sheet was divided into 16 sections. The best interpolation model and parameters were determined by semivariogram analysis, and the Antarctic ice sheet elevation data with a resolution of 1000 meters were generated by the Kriging interpolation method. The new Antarctic DEM was verified by two kinds of airborne lidar data and GPS data measured by multiple Antarctic expeditions of China. The results showed that the differences between the new DEM and the measured data ranged from 3.21 to 27.84 meters, and the error distribution was closely related to the slope.
The DEMs of the typical glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau were provided by the bistatic InSAR method. The data were collected on November 21, 2013. It covered Puruogangri and west Qilian Mountains with a spatial resolution of 10 meters, and an elevation accuracy of 0.8 m which met the requirements of national 1:10 000 topographic mapping. Considering the characteristics of the bistatic InSAR in terms of imaging geometry and phase unwrapping, based on the TanDEM-X bistatic InSAR data, and adopting the improved SAR interference processing method, the surface DEMs of the two typical glaciers above were generated with high resolution and precision. The data set was in GeoTIFF format, and each typical glacial DEM was stored in a folder. For details of the data, please refer to the Surface DEMs for typical glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau - Data Description.
This dataset includes the Antarctica ice sheet mass balance estimated from satellite gravimetry data, April 2002 to December 2019. The satellite measured gravity data mainly come from the joint NASA/DLR mission, Gravity Recovery And Climate Exepriment (GRACE, April 2002 to June 2017), and its successor, GRACE-FO (June 2018 till present). Considering the ~1-year data gap between GRACE and GRACE-FO, we extra include gravity data estimated from GPS tracking data of ESA's Swarm 3-satellite constellation. The GRACE data used in this study are weighted mean of CSR, GFZ, JPL and OSU produced solutions. The post-processing includes: replacing GRACE degree-1, C20 and C30 spherical harmonic coefficients with SLR estimates, destriping filtering, 300-km Gaussian smoothing, GIA correction using ICE6-G_D (VM5a) model, leakage reduction using forward modeling method and ellipsoidal correction.
This dataset contains the glacier outlines in Qilian Mountain Area in 2019. The dataset was produced based on classical band ratio criterion and manual editing. Chinese GF series images collected in 2019 were used as basic data for glacier extraction. Google images and Map World images were employed as reference data for manual adjusting. The dataset was stored in SHP format and attached with the attributions of coordinates, glacier ID and glacier area. Consisting of 1 season, the dataset has a spatial resolution of 2 meters. The accuracy is about 1 pixel (±2 meter). The dataset directly reflects the glacier distribution within the Qilian Mountain in 2019, and can be used for quantitative estimation of glacier mass balance and the quantitative assessment of glacier change’s impact on basin runoff.
This dataset contains the glacier outlines in Qilian Mountain Area in 2020. The dataset was produced based on classical band ratio criterion and manual editing. Chinese GF series images collected in 2020 were used as basic data for glacier extraction. Google images and Map World images were employed as reference data for manual adjusting. The dataset was stored in SHP format and attached with the attributions of coordinates, glacier ID and glacier area. Consisting of 1 season, the dataset has a spatial resolution of 2 meters. The accuracy is about 1 pixel (±2 meter). The dataset directly reflects the glacier distribution within the Qilian Mountain in 2020, and can be used for quantitative estimation of glacier mass balance and the quantitative assessment of glacier change’s impact on basin runoff.
Glacial mass balance is one of the most important glaciological parameters to characterize the accumulation and ablation of glaciers. Glacier mass balance is the link between climate and glacier change, and it is the direct reflection of glacier to the regional climate. Climate change leads to the corresponding changes in the material budget of glaciers, which in turn can lead to changes in the movement characteristics and thermal conditions of glaciers, and then lead to changes in the location, area and ice storage of glaciers. The monitoring method is to set a fixed mark flower pole on the glacier surface and regularly monitor the distance between the glacier surface and the top of the flower pole to calculate the amount of ice and snow melting; In the accumulation area, the snow pits or boreholes are excavated regularly to measure the snow density, analyze the characteristics of snow granular snow additional ice layer, and calculate the snow accumulation; Then, the single point monitoring results are drawn on the large-scale glacier topographic map, and the instantaneous, seasonal (such as winter and summer) and annual mass balance components of the whole glacier are calculated according to the net equilibrium contour method or contour zoning method. The data set is the annual mass balance data of different representative glaciers in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and Tianshan Mountains, in millimeter water equivalent.
Glacier surface micrometeorology is to observe the wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity, air pressure, four component radiation, ice temperature and precipitation at a certain height of the glacier surface. Glacier surface micrometeorology monitoring is one of the important contents of glacier monitoring. It is an important basic data for the study of energy mass balance, glacier movement, glacier melt runoff, ice core and other related model simulation, which lays a foundation for exploring the relationship between climate change and glacier change. Automatic monitoring is mainly carried out by setting up Alpine weather stations on the glacier surface, and portable weather stations can also be used for short-term flow monitoring. In recent years, more than 20 glacier surfaces in Tianshan, West Kunlun, Qilian, Qiangtang inland, Tanggula, Nianqing Tanggula, southeastern Tibet, Hengduan and Himalayas have been monitored. The data set is monthly meteorological data of glacier area and glacier end.