WATER: Dataset of CMA operational meteorological stations observations in the Heihe River Basin
  • 2019-09-15
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The dataset of CMA operational meteorological stations observations in the Heihe river basin were provided by Gansu Meteorological Administration and Qinghai Meteorological Administration. It included: (1) Diurnal precipitation, sunshine, evaporation, the wind speed, the air temperature and air humidity (2, 8, 14 and 20 o'clock) in Mazongshan, Yumen touwnship, Dingxin, Jinta, Jiuquan, Gaotai, Linze, Sunan, Zhangye, Mingle, Shandan and Yongchang in Gansu province (2) the wind direction and speed, the temperature and the dew-point spread (8 and 20 o'clock; 850, 700, 600, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100 and 50hpa) in Jiuquan, Zhangye and Mingqin in Gansu province and Golmud, Doulan and Xining in Qinghai province (3) the surface temperature, the dew point, the air pressure, the voltage transformation (3 hours and 24 hours), the weather phenomena (the present and the past), variable temperatures, visibility, cloudage, the wind direction and speed, precipitation within six hours and unusual weather in Jiuquan, Sunan, Jinta, Dingxin, Mingle, Zhangye, Gaotai, Shandan, Linze, Yongchang and Mingqin in Gansu province and Tuole, Yeniugao, Qilian, Menyuan, Xining, Gangcha and Huangyuan in Qinhai province.

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HiWATER: Dataset of flux observation matrix (automatic meteorological station of No.17) of the MUlti-Scale Observation EXperiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces 2012 (MUSOEXE-12)
  • 2019-09-15
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This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from site No.17 in the flux observation matrix from 12 May to 17 September, 2012. The site (100.36972° E, 38.84510° N) was located in an orchard in Daman irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1559.63 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (HMP45C; 5 m, towards north), air pressure (PTB110; 2 m), rain gauge (52203; 10 m), wind speed and direction (034B; 10 m, towards north), a four-component radiometer (CNR1; 6 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, vertically downward), soil temperature profile (109; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), and soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates with one below the vegetation and the other between plants, 0.06 m). One of the infrared temperature sensors (IRT_2) was adjusted to a zenith angle of 50° after 6 August. The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and RH_5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), air pressure (press, hpa), precipitation (rain, mm), wind speed (Ws_10 m, m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m, °), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, below the vegetation; Gs_2 and Gs_3, W/m^2), soil temperature profile (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, and Ts_100 cm, ℃), and soil moisture profile (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, and Ms_100 cm, %). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

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HiWATER: Dataset of flux observation matrix (automatic meteorological station of No.8) of the MUlti-Scale Observation EXperiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces 2012 (MUSOEXE-12)
  • 2019-09-15
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This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from site No.8 in the flux observation matrix from 14 May to 21 September, 2012. The site (100.37649° E, 38.87254° N) was located in a cropland (maize surface) in Yingke irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1550.06 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (HMP45AC; 5 m, towards north), air pressure (CS100; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), wind speed and direction (010C/020C; 10 m, towards north), a four-component radiometer (CNR4; 6 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, vertically downward), soil temperature profile (109ss-L; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), and soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates with one below the vegetation and the other between plants, 0.06 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and RH_5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), air pressure (press, hpa), precipitation (rain, mm), wind speed (Ws_10 m, m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m, °), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, below the vegetation; Gs_2 and Gs_3, W/m^2), soil temperature profile (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, and Ts_100 cm, ℃), and soil moisture profile (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, and Ms_100 cm, %). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

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HiWATER: Dataset of flux observation matrix (automatic meteorological station of No.1) of the MUlti-Scale Observation EXperiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces 2012 (MUSOEXE-12)
  • 2019-09-15
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This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from site No.1 in the flux observation matrix from 10 June to 17 September, 2012. The site (100.3582° E, 38.8932° N) was located in a cropland (vegetable surface) in the Yingke irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1552.75 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (HMP155; 5 m, towards north), air pressure (PTB110; 2 m), rain gauge (TR525M; 10 m), wind speed and direction (03002; 10 m, towards north), a four-component radiometer (CNR4; 6 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, vertically downward), soil temperature profile (109ss-L; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), soil moisture profile (SM300; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), and soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates with one below the vegetation and the other between plants, 0.06 m). One of the infrared temperature sensors (IRT_2) was adjusted to a zenith angle of 50° after 6 August. The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and RH_5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), air pressure (press, hpa), precipitation (rain, mm), wind speed (Ws_10 m, m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m, °), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, below the vegetation; Gs_2 and Gs_3, W/m^2), soil temperature profile (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, and Ts_100 cm, ℃), and soil moisture profile (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, and Ms_100 cm, %). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

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HiWATER: Dataset of flux observation matrix (automatic meteorological station of No.10) of the MUlti-Scale Observation EXperiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces 2012 (MUSOEXE-12)
  • 2019-09-15
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This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from site No.10 in the flux observation matrix from 1 June to 17 September, 2012. The site (100.39572° E, 38.87567° N) was located in a cropland (maize surface) in Yingke irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1534.73 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (HMP155; 5 m, towards north), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), wind speed (03001; 10 m, towards north), a four-component radiometer (CNR1; 6 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, vertically downward), soil temperature profile (109ss-L; 0, -0.02, and -0.04 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; 0.02, 0.04 m), and soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates with one below the vegetation and the other between plants, 0.06 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and RH_5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), precipitation (rain, mm), wind speed (Ws_10 m, m/s), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, below the vegetation; Gs_2 and Gs_3, W/m^2), soil temperature profile (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, and Ts_4 cm, ℃), and soil moisture profile (Ms_2 cm and Ms_4 cm, %). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

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HiWATER: Dataset of flux observation matrix (automatic meteorological station of No.16) of the MUlti-Scale Observation EXperiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces 2012 (MUSOEXE-12)
  • 2019-09-15
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This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from site No.16 in the flux observation matrix from 1 Jun to 17 September, 2012. The site (100.36411° E, 38.84931° N) was located in a cropland (maize surface) in Daman irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1564.31 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (HMP155; 5 m, towards north), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), wind speed (03001; 10 m, towards north), a radiometer (Q7; 6 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, vertically downward), soil temperature profile (AV-10T; 0, -0.02, and -0.04 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; 0.02, 0.04 m), and soil heat flux (HFT3; 3 duplicates with one below the vegetation and the other between plants, 0.06 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and RH_5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), precipitation (rain, mm), wind speed (Ws_10 m, m/s), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, below the vegetation; Gs_2 and Gs_3, W/m^2), soil temperature profile (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, and Ts_4 cm, ℃), and soil moisture profile (Ms_2 cm and Ms_4 cm, %). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

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HiWATER: The multi-scale observation experiment on evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces (MUSOEXE-12)-dataset of flux observation matrix(automatic meteorological station of No.6) from May to Sep, 2012
  • 2019-09-15
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This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from site No.6 in the flux observation matrix from 9 May to 21 September, 2012. The site (100.35970° E, 38.87116° N) was located in a cropland (maize surface) in Yingke irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1562.97 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (HMP45AC; 5 m and 10 m, towards north), air pressure (CS100; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), wind speed (010C; 5 m and 10 m, towards north), wind direction (020C; 10 m, towards north), a four-component radiometer (CNR4; 6 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, vertically downward), soil temperature profile (109ss-L; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), and soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates with one below the vegetation and the other between plants, 0.06 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and Ta_10 m, RH_5 m and RH_10 m) (℃ and %, respectively), air pressure (press, hpa), precipitation (rain, mm), wind speed (Ws_5 m and Ws_10 m, m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m, °), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, below the vegetation; Gs_2 and Gs_3, W/m^2), soil temperature profile (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, and Ts_100 cm, ℃), and soil moisture profile (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, and Ms_100 cm, %). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

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HiWATER: Dataset of GPS radiosonde sounding observations in the middle and upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin in 2012
  • 2019-09-15
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The dataset generated from the radiosonde observations in middle basin of Heihe River during 2012. The instrument type are RS92-SGP (Vaisala inc., Finland) or CF-06-A (Changfeng Micro-Electroinics, CHINA). Radiosondes were released during aerospace experiment, such as CASI/SAI, TASI, WIDAS sensors. Atmospheric parameters: pressure, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction are measured or calculated at different altitude. This atmospheric parameter profiles can back up atmospheric correction in remote sensing. It can support meteorology research. Observation Site: 1. Wuxing Village: Latitude: 38°51′11.9″N,Longitude: 100°21′48.8″E,Altitude: 1563 m 2. Gaoya Hydrological Station Latitude: 39°8′7.2″N,Longitude: 100°23′59.0″E,Altitude: 1418 m 3. A’Rou Super Station Latitude: 38°03′17.9″N,Longitude: 100°27′28.1″E,Altitude: 2991 m Observation Instrument Type: RS92-SGP manufacture by Vaisala inc., Finland CF-06-A manufacture by Beijing Changfeng Micro-Electronics Technology Co., LTD, CHINA. Observation Time: Simultaneous observation time from 29 June, 2012 to 29 July, 2012 (UTC+8). Accessory data: Pressure, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction profiles data.

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HiWATER: Dataset of flux observation matrix (automatic meteorological station of No.14) of the MUlti-Scale Observation EXperiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces 2012 (MUSOEXE-12)
  • 2019-09-15
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This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from site No.14 in the flux observation matrix from 6 May to 21 September, 2012. The site (100.35310° E, 38.85867° N) was located in a cropland (maize surface) in Yingke irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1570.23 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (HMP45D; 5 m, towards north), air pressure (CS100; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), wind speed and direction (034B; 10 m, towards north), a four-component radiometer (CNR4; 6 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (IRTC3; 6 m, vertically downward), soil temperature profile (AV-10T; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), soil moisture profile (ECh2o-5; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), and soil heat flux (HFT3; 3 duplicates with one below the vegetation and the other between plants, 0.06 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and RH_5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), air pressure (press, hpa), precipitation (rain, mm), wind speed (Ws_10 m, m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m, °), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, below the vegetation; Gs_2 and Gs_3, W/m^2), soil temperature profile (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, and Ts_100 cm, ℃), and soil moisture profile (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, and Ms_100 cm, %). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

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Meteorological observation data from the integrated observation and research station of the western environment in Muztagh Ata (2003-2016)
  • 2019-09-15
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This data set includes daily values of temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation, radiation, water vapour pressure and other elements obtained from the Integrated Observation and Research Station of the Westerly Environment in Muztagh Ata from 18 May 2003 to 31 December 2016. The data are obtained by an automatic meteorological station (Vaisala) that recorded one measurement every 30 minutes. The data set was processed as a continuous time series after the original data were quality controlled. This data set satisfies the accuracy requirements of the meteorological observations of the National Weather Service and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and the systematic errors caused by the tracking data and sensor failure have been eliminated. The data set has mainly been applied in the fields of glaciology, climatology, environmental change research, cold zone hydrological process research and frozen soil science. Furthermore, this data set is mainly used by professionals engaged in scientific research and training in atmospheric physics, atmospheric environment, climate, glaciers, frozen soil and other disciplines.

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